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SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Big business

Big business involves large-scale corporate-controlled financial or business activities. As a term, it describes activities that run from "huge transactions" to the more general "doing big things"; the concept first rose in a symbolic sense after 1880 in connection with the combination movement that began in American business at that time. United States corporations that fall into the category of "big business" as of 2015 include ExxonMobil, Google, Apple, General Electric, General Motors, Goldman Sachs, JPMorgan Chase; the largest German corporations as of 2012 included Daimler AG, Deutsche Telekom and Deutsche Bank. Among the largest companies in the United Kingdom as of 2012 are HSBC, Barclays, WPP plc, BP; the latter half of the 19th century saw more technological advances and corporate growth in additional sectors, such as petroleum, machinery and electrical equipment. Services... The automotive industry began modestly in the late-19th century, but grew following the development of large-scale gasoline production in the early 20th century.

The stable period of rebuilding after World War II led to new technologies and new businesses. The new technology of computers spread worldwide in the post war years. Businesses built around computer technology include: IBM, Apple Inc. Samsung, Intel. Miniaturization and integrated circuits, together with an expansion of radio and television technologies, provided fertile ground for business development. Electronics businesses include JVC, Texas Instruments, while the companies in the computer-section above can be considered electronics. Nuclear power was added to fossil fuel as the main sources of energy; the social consequences of the concentration of economic power in the hands of those persons controlling "big business" has been a constant concern both of economists and of politicians since the end of the 19th century. Various attempts have been made to investigate the effects of "bigness" upon labor and investors, as well as upon prices and competition. "Big business" has been accused of a wide variety of misdeeds that range from the exploitation of the working class to the corruption of politicians and the fomenting of war.

Corporate concentration can lead to influence over government in areas such as tax policy, trade policy, environmental policy, foreign policy, labor policy through lobbying. In 2005, the majority of Americans believed that big business has "too much power in Washington." This article is based on material from Dictionary of American History by James Truslow Adams, New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1940

Marketing strategy

Marketing strategy is a long-term, forward-looking approach to planning with the fundamental goal of achieving a sustainable competitive advantage. Scholars continue to debate the precise meaning of marketing strategy; the literature offers many different definitions. On close examination, these definitions appear to centre around the notion that strategy refers to a broad statement of what is to be achieved. Strategic planning involves an analysis of the company's strategic initial situation prior to the formulation and selection of market-oriented competitive position that contributes to the company's goals and marketing objectives. Strategic marketing, as a distinct field of study emerged in the 1971s, built on strategic management that preceded it. Marketing strategy highlights the role of marketing as a link between the organization and its customers. "The marketing strategy lays out target markets and the value proposition that will be offered based on an analysis of the best market opportunities."

“An over-riding directional concept that sets out the planned path.” "Essentially a formula for how a business is going to compete, what its goals should be and what policies will be needed to carry out these goals.""The pattern of major objectives and goals and essential policies and plans for achieving those goals, stated in such a way as to define what business the company is in or is to be in."An explicit guide to future Behaviour.” Strategy is "reserved for actions aimed directly at altering the strengths of the enterprise relative to that of its competitors... Perfect strategies are not called for. What counts is... performance relative to competitors.” Strategy formulation is built on "the match between organisational resources and skills and environmental opportunities and risks it faces and the purposes it wishes to accomplish." The marketing mix is a crucial tool to help understand what the product or service can offer and how to plan for a successful product offering. The marketing mix is most executed through the 4 P's of marketing: Price, Product and Place.

Considering the marketing mix will enable a business to understand how it can differentiate its product or service and thus build a marketing strategy to drive sales. The distinction between “strategic” and “managerial” marketing is used to distinguish "two phases having different goals and based on different conceptual tools. Strategic marketing concerns the choice of policies aiming at improving the competitive position of the firm, taking account of challenges and opportunities proposed by the competitive environment. On the other hand, managerial marketing is focused on the implementation of specific targets." Marketing strategy is about "lofty visions translated into less lofty and practical goals is where we start to get our hands dirty and make plans for things to happen." Marketing strategy is sometimes called higher order planning because it sets out the broad direction and provides guidance and structure for the marketing program. Marketing scholars have suggested that strategic marketing arose in the late 1970s and its origins can be understood in terms of a distinct evolutionary path: Budgeting Control Date: From late 19th century Key Thinkers: Frederick Winslow Taylor and Lillian Gilbreth, Henry L. Gantt, Harrington Emerson Key Ideas: Emphasis on quantification and scientific modelling, reduce work to smallest possible units and assign work to specialists, exercise control through rigid managerial hierarchies, standardise inputs to reduce variation and control costs, use quantitative forecasting methods to predict any changes.

Long Range Planning Date: From 1950s Key Thinkers: Herbert A. Simon Key Ideas: Managerial focus was to anticipate growth and manage operations in an complex business world. Strategic Planning Date: From the 1960s Key Thinkers: Michael Porter Key Ideas: Organisations must find the right fit within an industry structure. Strategic Marketing Management Date: from late 1970s Key thinkers: R. Buzzell and B. Gale Key Ideas: Each business is unique and that there can be no formula for achieving competitive advantage. Resource Based View Date: From mid 1990s Key Thinkers: Jay B. Barney, George S. Day, Gary Hamel, Shelby D. Hunt, G. Hooley and C. K. Prahalad Key Ideas: The firm's resources are financial, human, organisational and relational. Marketing strategy involves mapping out the company's direction for the forthcoming planning period, whether

Lisa Lutz

Lisa Lutz is an American author. She began her career writing screenplays for Hollywood. One of her rejected screenplays became the basis for a popular series of novels about a family of private investigators, the Spellmans. Lutz was born in Southern California in 1970, she attended UC Santa Cruz, UC Irvine, University of Leeds in England and San Francisco State University, all without attaining a degree. During the 1990s she had many low-paying jobs, including work in a private investigation firm, spent a lot of time writing and re-writing a Mob comedy called Plan B, her screenplay was optioned in 1997, was made into a movie in 2000. Variety Magazine described the movie as "torturously unfunny." She subsequently produced several other tentative screenplays. Her final effort, tentatively titled "The Spellman Files", was rejected. At that point, Lutz realized that "the story needed more space to be told properly," and decided to write it as a novel, she began the novel while still living in California in 2004 decided to move into a relative's family vacation home in upstate New York to work on it full-time.

She returned to Seattle to write her second Spellman novel moved to San Francisco, where she lived until 2012. She presently lives in a remote area of upstate New York, her novel series describes the Spellmans, a family of private investigators, while close knit, are intensely suspicious and spend much time investigating each other. The first book in the series, The Spellman Files, becomes suspenseful when 14-year-old Rae Spellman is kidnapped. In 2008, The Spellman Files was nominated for three awards for best first novel, the Anthony Award, Macavity Award, Barry award; as of 2016, this film has not been made. Her second novel, Curse of the Spellmans, was nominated for a 2009 Edgar Award by the Mystery Writers of America for best mystery novel. Lutz went on to write four more entries in the Spellman series: Revenge of the Spellmans, The Spellmans Strike Again, Trail of the Spellmans, The Last Word released as The Next Generation. In addition to the six Spellman novels, Lutz wrote Isabel Spellman's Guide to Etiquette: What is Wrong with You People, a short tongue-in-cheek self-help guide purportedly written by Lutz's series protagonist, How to Negotiate Everything, a children's book purportedly written by Lutz's series character David Spellman, with illustrations by artist Jaime Temairik.

In 2011, Simon & Schuster published Heads You Lose, a stand-alone comic crime novel written by Lutz with her friend and former romantic partner David Hayward. Lutz's second stand-alone, How to Start a Fire, was published in 2015 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. A thriller, The Passenger, was published in 2016 by Schuster. Plan B The Spellman Files Curse of the Spellmans Revenge of the Spellmans The Spellmans Strike Again Heads You Lose Trail of the Spellmans The Last Word published as "Spellman Six: The Next Generation" How to Start a Fire The Swalllows "How To Negotiate Everything" by David Spellman and Lisa Lutz, with illustrations by Jaime Temairik Please Stop Talking I have to use the Bathroom Confessions of a Hollywood sellout Rule 1: Ignore Rules Ask Lutz How to write a Fan Letter Without Getting a Restraining Order " Isabel Spellman's Guide to Etiquette: What is Wrong with You People by Isabel Spellman and Lisa Lutz, e-book only Official website Interview with Lisa Lutz in BookPage Heads You Lose official website Simon & Schuster official author page

Lester Rawlins

Lester Rawlins was an American stage and television actor. He graduated from the Carnegie Mellon College of Drama in 1950 with a BFA. Born in Sharon, Rawlins appeared in off-Broadway productions of Hamlet, Macbeth and Juliet, Richard III, Winterset, In the Bar of a Tokyo Hotel, Nightride, for which he won the Drama Desk Award for Outstanding Performance, his Broadway credits included A Man for All Seasons and Da, for which he won the Tony Award for Best Performance by a Featured Actor in a Play and was nominated for the Drama Desk Award for Outstanding Featured Actor in a Play. Rawlins won Obie Awards for his performance in the 1964 off-Broadway production of the play The Old Glory by the poet Robert Lowell and for his performances in off-Broadway productions of Brendan Behan's The Quare Fellow and Henrik Ibsen's Hedda Gabler. On television, Rawlins had recurring roles on The Defenders, The Secret Storm and Ryan's Hope, his feature films included Diary of a Mad Housewife and They Might Be Giants.

Rawlins was a regular on the CBS soap opera, The Edge of Night for several years, where he played the role of wealthy Orin Hillyer. He could be heard on television and radio commercials, was most notably the voice-over for the Dunkin' Donuts TV and radio advertising campaign created by the New York advertising agency Ally & Gargano. Rawlins died of cardiac arrest in New York City in 1988. Lester Rawlins at the Internet Broadway Database Lester Rawlins on IMDb Lester Rawlins at the Lucille Lortel Archives New York Times obituary, March 29, 1988

Juice vesicles

The juice vesicles, aka citrus kernels, of a citrus fruit are the membranous content of the fruit's endocarp. All fruits from the Citranae subtribe, subfamily Aurantioideae, family Rutaceae have juice vesicles; the vesicles appear shiny and baglike. Vesicles come in two shapes: the superior and inferior, these are distinct. Citrus fruit with more vesicles weighs more than those with fewer vesicles. Fruits with many segments, such as the grapefruit or pomelo, have more vesicles per segment than fruits with fewer segments, such as the kumquat and mandarin; each vesicle in a segment in citrus fruits has the same shape and weight. About 5% of the weight of an average orange is made up of the membranes of the juice vesicles. Juice vesicles of the endocarp contain the components that provide the aroma associated with citrus fruit; these components are found in the flavedo oil sacs. The vesicles and their inner juices contain many vitamins and minerals as well as the taste and sweet acid fragrance. Pulp cells have thin membranes, they are less regular in shape than other plant cells.

They are very large and protect the seeds of the fruit. The color of the pulp is variable, depending on the ripening stage, it has the color of the outer peel. Juice vesicles hold a lot of juice; the pulp is removed from the juice by filtering it out. The juiciness of the pulp depends on the species, variety and the tree on which it grew. Close to 90% of the citrus fruit juice solids are recovered with extractors. Pectic enzymes can sometimes be added to lessen the thickness of these solids; the juice along with these solids can be combined to increase primary juice yields or sold as bases for fruit beverages. The juice solids become opaque from the pulp washing process, resulting in a less expensive source of fruit solids for food labeling in comparison to regular juice; the juice solids can be pasteurized and sold, but appear dark brown in color if they have not been washed properly before drying. The solids can be stored frozen or sold to beverage manufacturers, they provide fruit beverages that are sold with a higher appeal to a consumer and improved texture in the juice.

These opaque juice solids are known as cloud. Drum drying or freezing are two processes for preserving juice solids; when product enzymes are deactivated through heat stabilization, they are frozen. Light and air are used for drum-drying, but this process decreases the flavor and color of the solids. One of the main uses for juice vesicles is for added substance to animal feed. Residue from juice vesicle extraction, once dried, can be added to cattle feed. Cattle feed contains citrus pulp; this pulp helps in the long term to preserve nutrition, improve color, create a more pleasant odor to the feed. Adding juice pulp provides cattle with a richer source of vitamins and minerals in addition to a more palatable taste; the green fodder used for cattle can be supplemented with this feed containing juice vesicles. The other common use for juice vesicles is for enhancing beverages or creating inexpensive beverage bases. Jams and jellies, pulp in juice-based drinks, whole juices, yogurt products contain extracted juice vesicle residue, dried.

Some juices, juice concentrates, drinks containing juice contain previously-frozen juice vesicles. The cloud resulting from the vesicles have sugar solids containing vitamin C; this cloud from vesicles is a popular alternative to brominated vegetable oil or glycerol ester of wood rosin, which are other clouding agents. The citrus in the vesicles is more used for cloud for shipping products overseas. In Japan, many yogurts and beverages include added enlarged citrus juice vesicles; these vesicles combined with enzymes are removed from fruit. This results from the heat of the enzymes; when eaten, teeth break the vesicles and provide a fresh squirt of citrus juice to the beverage or yogurt which can create a pleasurable drinking or eating experience

The Crimson Circle (1960 film)

The Crimson Circle is a 1960 West German/Danish black and white crime film directed by Jürgen Roland and starring Renate Ewert, Klausjürgen Wussow and Karl-Georg Saebisch. It was an adaptation of the 1922 novel The Crimson Circle by the British writer Edgar Wallace. Scotland Yard detectives pursue a ruthless league of blackmailers known as The Crimson Circle. Renate Ewert as Thalia Drummond Klausjürgen Wussow as Derrick Yale Karl-Georg Saebisch as Inspector Parr Thomas Alder as Jack Beardmore Ernst Fritz Fürbringer as Sir Archibald Morton Erica Beer as Mrs. Carlyle Fritz Rasp as Froyant Eddi Arent as Sergeant Haggett Edith Mill as Lady Doringham Ulrich Beiger as Osborne Richard Lauffen as Marles Heinz Klevenow as Brabazon Alfred Schlageter as Mr Beardmore Panos Papadopulos as Sailor Selby Albert Watson as Sergeant Johnson Richard Grupe as James Karl-Heinz Peters as Executioner Friedrich Schütter as Henry Charles Lightman Alf Marholm as Prison warden Günter Hauer as Conductor Jürgen Roland as Policeman A previous German/British adaptation of the novel The Crimson Circle by Edgar Wallace was made in 1929.

Other versions were produced in the UK in 1922 and in 1936. For this version, the second film in the Wallace series produced by Rialto, the novel was adopted for the screen by Egon Eis under his nom de plume "Trygve Larsen". Wolfgang Menge, a friend of the director, made some changes to the script. Director Jürgen Roland had not directed a feature film, but had made a name for himself by directing the TV-series Stahlnetz. Cinematography took place in November and December 1959; the studio for interiors was Palladium Atelier at Kopenhagen. Exteriors were shot at Kopenhagen. Stock footage from London shot during production of the previous film Der Frosch mit der Maske was used; the FSK gave the film a rating of 16 years and up, unsuitable for screening on public holidays. It premiered on 2 March 1960 at the Unversum at Stuttgart; the film's success encouraged the producers to meet with Penelope Wallace and secure the film rights for all available Wallace novels. The Crimson Circle on IMDb