Bozcaada is a municipality and district governorate in Çanakkale Province, Turkey. It is situated on an Aegean island with the same name. Bozcaada district covers a total of 17 islets around the main island; the total area of the district is 36.7 square kilometres. The highest point of the district is Göztepe with an altitude of 192 metres; the district center is situated on the east side of the island at about 39°50′N 26°04′E. It is situated 22 km. south of Dardanelles Strait Its distance to Geyikli the nearest sea port on the main land is 7.5 km. The distance from Geyikli to Çanakkale is about 40 kilometres. Up until Bozcaada was unique in Turkey as being a district with no rural population, its population is 2465 as of 2012. In 2010 it was 2354. In the antiquity the island was known as Leukophrys and in Greek mythology it was Tenedos, it was mentioned in Homer's Iliad. In the medieval age it was a Byzantine possession. Towards the end of the medieval age it was left to Republic of Venice by the emperor John V Palaiologos as a ransom.
In 1381 however, following Venetian Genoese War it was evacuated by the Venetians according to the Peace of Turin. In 1455 it was annexed by the Ottoman Empire during the reign of Mehmet II. Although the Venetians tried to regain the island, in 1464 the Ottoman control was secured by Mahmut Pasha; as a result of the former evacuation, the island was uninhabited during the early years of Ottoman administration and the Ottoman Empire populated the present Bozcaada district by using tax exemption. Ottoman Empire restored the castle, demolished during the Venetian-Genoese war. Turks called the island Bozcaada meaning grayish island and the famous cartographer Piri Reis of the 16th century used this name in his maps. In 1923 when the Turkish Republic was proclaimed, the island was declared a district and the only settlement in Bozcaada became the municipality and district center of Çanakkale Province; the major economic activities of Bozcaada are wineries and fishing industry. Sponge fishing, once an important economic sector, has since declined.
Tourism and agriculture are emerging sectors. The ferry service, which began in 1996, is believed to boost tourism. There is a passenger boat service from Çanakkale about 40 km away. Total tourist beds amount to about 2500. According to municipality of Bozcaada the important buildings are the following Bozcaada castle, reconstructed by the Ottoman sultan Mehmet II in the 15th century, repaired by the Ottoman sultan Mahmut II in 1815 is the most important touristic attraction of Bozcaada, it is in the district center facing east. Thus visitors to Bozcaada can observe the castle during their voyage. Another castle is a casemate, popularly called Yenikale. Despite its name it is in ruins, it was constructed in 1827 by the governor of Bozcaada. It is situated on a hill to the west of Bozacaada district center Alaybey mosque was built in 1700 by Ahmet Ağa, the governor of Bozcaada, it is in ruins. Yalı camii is a mosque, built on the foundations of a medieval Venetian building in 1655, it was commissioned by Köprülü Mehmet Pasha in 1655.
It is now under restoration. Namazgah fountain was built in 1703. Kimisis Teodoku church was built in 1869; the monastery of Aya Paraskevi Valu lui Traian, Romania Gols, Austria For images
Eceabat Maydos, is a town and district of Çanakkale Province in the Marmara region of Turkey, located on the eastern shore of the Gelibolu Peninsula, on the Dardanelles Strait. According to the 2010 census, population of the district is 9,154 of which 5,380 live in the town of Eceabat; the district covers an area of 468 km2, the town lies at an elevation of 0 m. Eceabat has been used as a departure point for people swimming the Hellespont to Çanakkale on the other side of the Dardanelles Strait. Eceabat is the nearest town to the World War I Gallipoli Campaign battlefields of 1915, cemeteries and memorials to the more than 120,000 soldiers fallen from Turkey, the United Kingdom, France and New Zealand; the name Eceabat could be originated from the Arabic military word "Hijabat" which means the most forward command point from the battlefield. On 1914, there were many attacks from Turks, against Greek citizens of Madytos. Many of the attacks were lethal. On the 17th April, 1915, the town was evacuated in the space of five hours.
Turks plunder organized the property of the Greek population, despite the promise of Essad Pasha to the Greek Metropolitan that the Christian properties would be respected. The Greeks deprived of everything they had, sojourning four days in the mountains and were embarked and dispatched to the diocese of Cyzicus. Many of them died from the hardship; these measures were part of the ongoing persecution of Greeks in the Ottoman Empire at the time. On 1916, a Greek woman of Madytos was raped by eighteen Turkish soldiers. Falling Rain Genomics, Inc. "Geographical information on Eceabat, Turkey". Retrieved 2009-04-19. Media related to Eceabat at Wikimedia Commons District governor's official website Road map of Eceabat and environs Various images of Eceabat, Çanakkale Eceabat
Sister cities or twin towns are a form of legal or social agreement between towns, counties, prefectures, regions and countries in geographically and politically distinct areas to promote cultural and commercial ties. The modern concept of town twinning, conceived after the Second World War in 1947, was intended to foster friendship and understanding among different cultures and between former foes as an act of peace and reconciliation, to encourage trade and tourism. By the 2000s, town twinning became used to form strategic international business links among member cities. In the United Kingdom, the term "twin towns" is most used. In mainland Europe, the most used terms are "twin towns", "partnership towns", "partner towns", "friendship towns"; the European Commission uses the term "twinned towns" and refers to the process as "town twinning". Spain uses the term "ciudades hermanadas", which means "sister cities". Germany and the Czech Republic use Partnerstadt / miasto partnerskie / partnerské město, which translate as "partner town or city".
France uses ville jumelée, Italy has gemellaggio and comune gemellato. In the Netherlands, the term is stedenband. In Greece, the word αδελφοποίηση has been adopted. In Iceland, the terms vinabæir and vinaborgir are used. In the former Soviet Bloc, "twin towns" and "twin cities" are used, along with города-побратимы; the Americas, South Asia, Australasia use the term "sister cities" or "twin cities". In China, the term is 友好城市. Sometimes, other government bodies enter into a twinning relationship, such as the agreement between the provinces of Hainan in China and Jeju-do in South Korea; the douzelage is a town twinning association with one town from each of the member states of the European Union. Despite the term being used interchangeably, with the term "friendship city", this may mean a relationship with a more limited scope in comparison to a sister city relationship, friendship city relationships are mayor-to-mayor agreements. In recent years, the term "city diplomacy" has gained increased usage and acceptance as a strand of paradiplomacy and public diplomacy.
It is formally used in the workings of the United Cities and Local Governments and the C40 Cities Climate Leadership Group and recognised by the USC Center on Public Diplomacy. A March 2014 debate in the British House of Lords acknowledged the evolution of town twinning into city diplomacy around trade and tourism, but in culture and post-conflict reconciliation; the importance of cities developing "their own foreign economic policies on trade, foreign investment and attracting foreign talent" has been highlighted by the World Economic Forum. The earliest known town twinning in Europe was between Paderborn, Le Mans, France, in 836. Starting in 1905, Keighley in West Yorkshire, had a twinning arrangement with French communities Suresnes and Puteaux; the first recorded modern twinning agreement was between Keighley and Poix-du-Nord in Nord, France, in 1920 following the end of the First World War. This was referred to as an adoption of the French town; the practice was continued after the Second World War as a way to promote mutual understanding and cross-border projects of mutual benefit.
For example, Coventry twinned with Stalingrad and with Dresden as an act of peace and reconciliation, all three cities having been bombed during the war. The City of Bath formed an "Alkmaar Adoption committee" in March 1945, when the Dutch city was still occupied by the German Army in the final months of the war, children from each city took part in exchanges in 1945 and 1946. In 1947, Bristol Corporation sent five'leading citizens' on a goodwill mission to Hanover. Reading in 1947 was the first British town to form links with a former "enemy" city – Düsseldorf; the link still exists. Since 9 April 1956 Rome and Paris have been and reciprocally twinned with each other, following the motto: "Only Paris is worthy of Rome; the support scheme was established in 1989. In 2003 an annual budget of about €12 million was allocated to about 1,300 projects; the Council of European Municipalities and Regions works with the Commission to promote modern, high quality twinning initiatives and exchanges that involve all sections of the community.
It has launched a website dedicated to town twinning. As of 1995, the European Union had more than 7,000 bilateral relationships involving 10,000 European municipalities French and German. Public art has been used to celebrate twin town links, for instance in the form of seven mural paintings in the centre of the town of Sutton, Greater London; the five main paintings show a number of the main features of the London Borough of Sutton and its four twin towns, along with the heraldic shield of each above the other images. Each painting features a plant as a visual representation of its town's environmental awareness. In the case of Sutton this is in a separate smaller painting showing a beech tree, intended as a symbol of prosperity and from whi
Justice and Development Party (Turkey)
The Justice and Development Party, abbreviated AK Parti in Turkish, is a conservative political party in Turkey. Developed from the conservative tradition of Turkey's Ottoman past and its Islamic identity, the party is the largest in Turkey. Founded in 2001 by members of a number of existing conservative parties, the party has won pluralities in the six most recent legislative elections, those of 2002, 2007, 2011, June 2015, November 2015, 2018; the party held a majority of seats for 13 years, but lost it in June 2015, only to regain it in the snap election of November 2015 but lose it again in 2018. Its electoral success has been mirrored in the three local elections held since the party's establishment, coming first in 2004, 2009 and 2014 respectively; the current party leader is the incumbent President of Turkey. Shortly after formation, the AKP portrayed itself as a pro-Western and pro-American party in the Turkish political spectrum that advocated a liberal market economy including Turkish membership in the European Union.
The party had for a long time been supported by the Cemaat Movement of exiled Islamic cleric Fethullah Gülen, whose influence in the judiciary has helped to weaken the opposition against the AKP. The party was an observer in the center-right European People's Party between 2005 and 2013 and a member of the eurosceptic Alliance of Conservatives and Reformists in Europe from 2013 to 2018. Controversies over whether the party remains committed to secular principles enshrined in the Turkish constitution despite their Islamist origins have dominated Turkish politics since 2002 and has resulted in numerous unsuccessful closure cases. Nationwide protests broke out against the alleged authoritarianism of the AKP in 2013, with the party's heavy-handed response receiving international condemnation and stalling the party's once championed EU accession negotiations. Since the party has brought about tighter regulations on internet use and alcohol consumption, having temporarily blocked access to Twitter and YouTube in March 2014.
After the government corruption scandal involving several AKP ministers in 2013, the party has been accused of crony capitalism. The AKP favours a strong centralized leadership, having long advocated a presidential system of government and reduced the number of elected local government positions in 2013; the AKP was established by a wide range of politicians of various political parties and a number of new politicians. The core of the party was formed from the reformist faction of the Islamist Virtue Party, including people such as Abdullah Gül, Bülent Arınç. A second founding group consisted of members of the social conservative Motherland Party, close to Turgut Özal, such as Cemil Çiçek and Abdülkadir Aksu; some members of the True Path Party, such as Hüseyin Çelik and Köksal Toptan, joined the AKP. Some members, such as Kürşad Tüzmen had nationalist or Ertuğrul Günay, had center-left backgrounds while representatives of the nascent'Muslim left' current were excluded. In addition a large number of people joined a political party for the first time, such as Ali Babacan, Selma Aliye Kavaf, Egemen Bağış and Mevlüt Çavuşoğlu.
All of these people joined Recep Tayyip Erdoğan to found the new party. Although the party is described as an Islamist party in some media, party officials reject those claims. According to former minister Hüseyin Çelik, "In the Western press, when the AKP administration – the ruling party of the Turkish Republic – is being named most of the time'Islamic,"Islamist,"mildly Islamist,"Islamic-oriented,"Islamic-based' or'with an Islamic agenda,' and similar language is being used; these characterizations do not reflect the truth, they sadden us." Çelik added, "The AKP is a conservative democratic party. The AKP's conservatism is limited to moral and social issues." In a separate speech made in 2005, Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğan stated, "We are not an Islamic party, we refuse labels such as Muslim-democrat." Erdoğan went on to say that the AKP's agenda is limited to "conservative democracy". The party's foreign policy has been described as Neo-Ottomanist, an ideology that promotes renewed Turkish political engagement in the former territories of its predecessor state, the Ottoman Empire.
However, the party's leadership has rejected this label. In 2005, the party was granted observer membership in the European People's Party. In November 2013, the party left the EPP to join the Alliance of European Conservatives and Reformists instead; this move was attributed to the AKP's disappointment not to be granted full membership in the EPP, while it was admitted as a full member of the AECR. It drew criticism in both national and European discourses, as the driving force of Turkey's aspirations to become a member of the European Union decided to join a eurosceptic alliance, abandoning the more influential pro-European EPP, feeding suspicions that AKP wants to join a watered down, not a integrated EU; the Justice and Development Party has faced two closure cases in its history. Just 10 days before the national elections of 2002, Turkey's chief prosecutor, Sabih Kanadoğlu, asked the Turkish constitutional court to close the Justice and Development Party, leading in the polls at that time.
The chief prosecutor charged the Development Party with abusing the law and justice. He based his case on the fact that the party's leader had been banned from political life for reading an Islamist poem, thus the party had no standing in elections; the European Commission had criticised Turkey for banning the party's leader
The Ottoman Empire known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire or Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries. It was founded at the end of the 13th century in northwestern Anatolia in the town of Söğüt by the Oghuz Turkish tribal leader Osman I. After 1354, the Ottomans crossed into Europe, with the conquest of the Balkans, the Ottoman beylik was transformed into a transcontinental empire; the Ottomans ended the Byzantine Empire with the 1453 conquest of Constantinople by Mehmed the Conqueror. During the 16th and 17th centuries, at the height of its power under the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent, the Ottoman Empire was a multinational, multilingual empire controlling most of Southeast Europe, parts of Central Europe, Western Asia, parts of Eastern Europe and the Caucasus, North Africa and the Horn of Africa. At the beginning of the 17th century, the empire contained numerous vassal states; some of these were absorbed into the Ottoman Empire, while others were granted various types of autonomy during the course of centuries.
With Constantinople as its capital and control of lands around the Mediterranean basin, the Ottoman Empire was at the centre of interactions between the Eastern and Western worlds for six centuries. While the empire was once thought to have entered a period of decline following the death of Suleiman the Magnificent, this view is no longer supported by the majority of academic historians; the empire continued to maintain a flexible and strong economy and military throughout the 17th and much of the 18th century. However, during a long period of peace from 1740 to 1768, the Ottoman military system fell behind that of their European rivals, the Habsburg and Russian empires; the Ottomans suffered severe military defeats in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, which prompted them to initiate a comprehensive process of reform and modernisation known as the Tanzimat. Thus, over the course of the 19th century, the Ottoman state became vastly more powerful and organised, despite suffering further territorial losses in the Balkans, where a number of new states emerged.
The empire allied with Germany in the early 20th century, hoping to escape from the diplomatic isolation which had contributed to its recent territorial losses, thus joined World War I on the side of the Central Powers. While the Empire was able to hold its own during the conflict, it was struggling with internal dissent with the Arab Revolt in its Arabian holdings. During this time, atrocities were committed by the Young Turk government against the Armenians and Pontic Greeks; the Empire's defeat and the occupation of part of its territory by the Allied Powers in the aftermath of World War I resulted in its partitioning and the loss of its Middle Eastern territories, which were divided between the United Kingdom and France. The successful Turkish War of Independence against the occupying Allies led to the emergence of the Republic of Turkey in the Anatolian heartland and the abolition of the Ottoman monarchy; the word Ottoman is a historical anglicisation of the name of Osman I, the founder of the Empire and of the ruling House of Osman.
Osman's name in turn was the Turkish form of the Arabic name ʿUthmān. In Ottoman Turkish, the empire was referred to as Devlet-i ʿAlīye-yi ʿOsmānīye, or alternatively ʿOsmānlı Devleti. In Modern Turkish, it is known as Osmanlı Devleti; the Turkish word for "Ottoman" referred to the tribal followers of Osman in the fourteenth century, subsequently came to be used to refer to the empire's military-administrative elite. In contrast, the term "Turk" was used to refer to the Anatolian peasant and tribal population, was seen as a disparaging term when applied to urban, educated individuals. In the early modern period, an educated urban-dwelling Turkish-speaker, not a member of the military-administrative class would refer to himself neither as an Osmanlı nor as a Türk, but rather as a Rūmī, or "Roman", meaning an inhabitant of the territory of the former Byzantine Empire in the Balkans and Anatolia; the term Rūmī was used to refer to Turkish-speakers by the other Muslim peoples of the empire and beyond.
In Western Europe, the two names "Ottoman Empire" and "Turkey" were used interchangeably, with "Turkey" being favoured both in formal and informal situations. This dichotomy was ended in 1920–23, when the newly established Ankara-based Turkish government chose Turkey as the sole official name. Most scholarly historians avoid the terms "Turkey", "Turks", "Turkish" when referring to the Ottomans, due to the empire's multinational character; as the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum declined in the 13th century, Anatolia was divided into a patchwork of independent Turkish principalities known as the Anatolian Beyliks. One of these beyliks, in the region of Bithynia on the frontier of the Byzantine Empire, was led by the Turkish tribal leader Osman I, a figure of obscure origins from whom the name Ottoman is derived. Osman's early followers consisted both of Turkish tribal groups and Byzantine renegades, many but not all converts to Islam. Osman extended the control of his principality by conquering Byzantine towns along the Sakarya River.
It is not well understood how the early Ottomans came to dominate their
Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University
Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University is a Turkish public research university located in Çanakkale province and its surrounding towns. It is a member of the Balkan Universities Network, The European University Association, International Association of Universities and hosted the World Universities Congress 2010; the ÇOMÜ is listed among the world's top 1,000 best universities in the 2012 annual Scimago Institutions Rankings World Reports and one of the top innovative universities in Turkey The University was named as one of the top innovative Turkish universities in 2013 by the Turkish Ministry of Science and Technology.ÇOMÜ is a member of the European University Association, the International Association of the Universities and the Thrace Universities Union. Some of the COMU colleges were part of the Trakya University before 1992; the Faculty of Education is rooted in the 1950s. The Çanakkale Vocational School was part of the Thrace University; the ÇOMÜ was founded in 1992 based upon the Faculty of Education on the Anafartalar Campus by the Turkish Parliament law.
Before this the facilities had housed a teacher training institute, a branch of Trakya University. The first rector of the University was Prof. Dr. Mete Tuncoku. With its new status and intake from Turkey's large youth population, the university developed in terms of the number of students and facilities, spurring the opening of new faculties and colleges; the university has expanded over the last few years and in the 2005–2006 academic year there were over 19,000 students participating in a wide variety of programs taught by 960 academic staff in two graduate schools, nine faculties, two polytechnic colleges and 11 vocational colleges. There are several campuses in Chanakkale itself, some of the academic units are located in other towns of the province; the number of academicians in the COMU is over 1.506 and the student number is over 37.500 in 2013. As of 2012, ÇOMÜ has 33,500 students, of which 22,000 are enrolled in undergraduate programs, 9,500 in 2-years programs, 2,200 in MA and PhD programs.
In 2013 the number of MA and PhD students reached 3,400. Each academic year, the ÇOMÜ hosts over 375 regular international students from 44 different countries; as of 2013, the university employs 1506. The number of the alumni exceeds 60,000; the language of instruction at ÇOMÜ is Turkish and English. Biga Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences Faculty of Agriculture Faculty of Education Faculty of Engineering Faculty of Fine Arts Faculty of Marine Sciences and Technologies Faculty of Medicine Faculty of Sciences and Arts Faculty of Theology Faculty of Communication Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences in Chanakkale Faculty of Architecture and Design The Biga Faculty of Economics and Managements Studies is located in Biga, a town 70 kilometers from the Canakkale city center, it offers courses at postgraduate levels. The faculty publishes a quarterly journal: Journal of Administrative Sciences; the departments are International Relations, Business Studies, Labor economics & Industrial Relations, Public Finance, Public Management.
Dean: Prof. Dr. Hamit Palabıyık Deputy Dean: Prof. Dr. Yucel Acer Department of International Relations: Prof. Dr. Mete Tunçoku, Prof. Dr. Sedat Laçiner, Prof. Dr. Yucel Acer. Prof. Dr. Mehmet HASGULER, Assist. Prof. Dr. Bulent Uludağ, Assoc. Prof. Dr. Soner Karagül, Asst. Prof. Dr. Bestami Sadi Bilgiç, Assist. Prof. Dr. Dr. Gurol BABA, Assist. Prof. Dr. Ruhi Güler. Department of Administrative Studies: Prof. Dr. Hamit Palabıyık, Prof. Dr. Ibrahim Kaya, Assist. Prof. Kutay Üstün, Assist. Prof. Dr. Assiye Aka, Assist. Prof. Dr. Hikmet Yavaş. Department of Labour Studies: Asst. Prof. Dr. Mahir Gümüş Web: http://biibf.comu.edu.tr/english.htm The Faculty of Agriculture is located on the main Terzioglu Campus in Canakkale and has practical training facilities at its farm in the village of Saricaali and on the Dardanos Campus. The departments are Agricultural Economics, Agricultural Construction and Irrigation, Agricultural Mechanisation, Animal Science, Field Crops, Landscaping, Plant Protection, Soil Science.
This is the largest faculty of the university, with 4,500 students, is on the Anafartalar Campus in the centre of Çanakkale. Departments are Computer and Educational Technology Teaching, Education Studies, Fine Arts Teaching, Foreign Language Teaching, Physical Education and Sports Teaching, Primary School Teaching, Secondary Education Social Subjects Teaching, Turkish Language Teaching; the Faculty of Engineering and Architecture is temporarily located in the Faculty of Sciences and Arts building on the Terzioglu Campus, until its own building is complete. Departments are Geomatics Engineering, Computer Engineering, Food Engineering, Geological Engineering, Geophysical Engineering and Environmental Engineering; the Faculty of Fine Arts is housed in the buildings of Faculty of Agriculture, Faculty of Theology, Canakkale Vocational College. Nedime Hanim Friendship House is the nest for the departments of Textile and Visual Arts and Cinema and Television. Departments are Ceramics and Television, Performing and Visual Arts, Painting, Sculpture, Traditional Handicrafts.
The Faculty of Marine Science and Technologies was temporarily housed in the Faculty of Scienc
Turkey the Republic of Turkey, is a transcontinental country located in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan Peninsula in Southeast Europe. East Thrace, located in Europe, is separated from Anatolia by the Sea of Marmara, the Bosphorous strait and the Dardanelles. Turkey is bordered by Bulgaria to its northwest. Istanbul is the largest city. 70 to 80 per cent of the country's citizens identify as Turkish. Kurds are the largest minority. At various points in its history, the region has been inhabited by diverse civilizations including the Assyrians, Thracians, Phrygians and Armenians. Hellenization continued into the Byzantine era; the Seljuk Turks began migrating into the area in the 11th century, their victory over the Byzantines at the Battle of Manzikert in 1071 symbolizes the start and foundation of Turkey. The Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm ruled Anatolia until the Mongol invasion in 1243, when it disintegrated into small Turkish principalities. Beginning in the late 13th-century, the Ottomans started uniting these Turkish principalities.
After Mehmed II conquered Constantinople in 1453, Ottoman expansion continued under Selim I. During the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent the Ottoman Empire encompassed much of Southeast Europe, West Asia and North Africa and became a world power. In the following centuries the state entered a period of decline with a gradual loss of territories and wars. In an effort to consolidate the weakening social and political foundations of the empire, Mahmut II started a period of modernisation in the early 19th century, bringing reforms in all areas of the state including the military and bureaucracy along with the emancipation of all citizens. In 1913, a coup d'état put the country under the control of the Three Pashas. During World War I, the Ottoman government committed genocides against its Armenian and Pontic Greek subjects. Following the war, the conglomeration of territories and peoples that comprised the Ottoman Empire was partitioned into several new states; the Turkish War of Independence, initiated by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk and his colleagues against occupying Allied Powers, resulted in the abolition of monarchy in 1922 and the establishment of the Republic of Turkey in 1923, with Atatürk as its first president.
Atatürk enacted numerous reforms, many of which incorporated various aspects of Western thought and customs into the new form of Turkish government. The Kurdish–Turkish conflict, an armed conflict between the Republic of Turkey and Kurdish insurgents, has been active since 1984 in the southeast of the country. Various Kurdish groups demand separation from Turkey to create an independent Kurdistan or to have autonomy and greater political and cultural rights for Kurds in Turkey. Turkey is a charter member of the UN, an early member of NATO, the IMF and the World Bank, a founding member of the OECD, OSCE, BSEC, OIC and G-20. After becoming one of the first members of the Council of Europe in 1949, Turkey became an associate member of the EEC in 1963, joined the EU Customs Union in 1995 and started accession negotiations with the European Union in 2005 which have been stopped by the EU in 2017 due to "Turkey's path toward autocratic rule". Turkey's economy and diplomatic initiatives led to its recognition as a regional power while its location has given it geopolitical and strategic importance throughout history.
Turkey is a secular, unitary parliamentary republic which adopted a presidential system with a referendum in 2017. Turkey's current administration headed by president Recep Tayyip Erdoğan of the AKP has enacted measures to increase the influence of Islam, undermine Kemalist policies and freedom of the press; the English name of Turkey means "land of the Turks". Middle English usage of Turkye is evidenced in an early work by Chaucer called The Book of the Duchess; the phrase land of Torke is used in the 15th-century Digby Mysteries. Usages can be found in the Dunbar poems, the 16th century Manipulus Vocabulorum and Francis Bacon's Sylva Sylvarum; the modern spelling "Turkey" dates back to at least 1719. The Turkish name Türkiye was adopted in 1923 under the influence of European usage; the Anatolian peninsula, comprising most of modern Turkey, is one of the oldest permanently settled regions in the world. Various ancient Anatolian populations have lived in Anatolia, from at least the Neolithic period until the Hellenistic period.
Many of these peoples spoke the Anatolian languages, a branch of the larger Indo-European language family. In fact, given the antiquity of the Indo-European Hittite and Luwian languages, some scholars have proposed Anatolia as the hypothetical centre from which the Indo-European languages radiated; the European part of Turkey, called Eastern Thrace, has been inhabited since at least forty thousand years ago, is known to have been in the Neolithic era by about 6000 BC. Göbekli Tepe is the site of the oldest known man-made religious structure, a temple dating to circa 10,000 BC, while Çatalhöyük is a large Neolithic and Chalcolithic settlement in southern Anatolia, which existed from approximately