SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Bigatus

In the currency of ancient Rome, the bigatus is a type of denarius stamped on the reverse with a biga, a two-horse chariot. It began to appear in the first decade of the 2nd century BC as an alternative to the victoriatus, most numismatists believe that it was not used before 190 BC. A denarius with a four-horse chariot had been in use for some time; the first bigatus depicted Luna in her two-horse chariot. It continued in use along with the Dioscuri quadrigatus until 170 BC, when the denarius was temporarily suppressed, it was revived around 157 BC with the Dioscuri type and a new bigatus depicting Victory in her biga to commemorate Rome's dominance following the Battle of Pydna. Tacitus and Plutarch mention a statue of Victory in a biga; the date at which the bigatus began to be issued is complicated by the uncertain usage of the word bigati by the Augustan historian Livy. In writing about the events of 216 BC, before bigati are known to have come into circulation, Livy uses the word to refer to silver money taken as spoils in Cisalpine Gaul or Hispania, displayed at triumphs between 197 and 190 BC.

Bigati may be used loosely for denarii, not the specific type. It has been conjectured that bigatus had become a slang term for denarii in a broader sense of "two-horsed," which might apply to the image of the Dioscuri as horsemen. None of these explanations has been universally satisfying. In his ethnography Germania, Tacitus notes that while most Germanic peoples in his day still relied on barter, those along the borders of the Empire engaged in commerce and used currency, but trusted only the value of "old and well-known" coins such as bigati and serrati, the latter being those with serrated edges. Since plated coins had begun to circulate during the time of Julius Caesar and after, they had cause to be wary. Rudi Thomsen, Early Roman Coinage

Rondo (grape)

Rondo is a dark-skinned grape variety, used for making red wine. It is a hybrid inter-specific crossing, it was created in 1964 by Professor Vilém Kraus in then-Czechoslovakia by crossing the varieties Zarya Severa and St. Laurent, he offered it to Dr. Helmut Becker of the Geisenheim Grape Breeding Institute who conducted further work on it, which explains why the grape is known under a Geisenheim designation; the variety has been protected since 1997, when it was first planted commercially by Thomas Walk Vineyard in Ireland under the name Amurensis Walk. This early maturing variety possesses high resistance against winter frost and downy mildew from its Asiatic Vitis amurensis parent; however annual treatments against powdery mildew may still be necessary in the vineyards. Rondo produces a ruby-red wine, used for blending. Rondo is cultivated in many locations in northern Europe where dark-skinned Vitis vinifera varieties are difficult to ripen properly, as it tends to yield good colour and aroma in those locations.

Rondo is cultivated in Rheinhessen and in many locations in northern Europe including Denmark, Ireland, Wales the Netherlands and Sweden. In 2011 the British winery Denbies picked up a gold prize in the International Wine Challenge for their 2010 vintage Chalk Ridge Rose, a wine made from Rondo grapes. Geisenheim 6494-5

Joe Frans (politician)

Joe Frans is a Swedish politician of Ghanaian descent, social activist, board professional and former member of parliament. Joe Frans came to Sweden to attend university. During his studies he became involved with politics. Frans has been the producer of the TV-show Sweden Today, he has been CEO of Sweden Now AB and Skandinavisk Video Teknik AB, companies trading TV-broadcast rights. For many years he worked as a Senior Political Advisor to the Deputy Mayor of Stockholm and as Press Secretary to the Mayor of Stockholm, he stepped into national political arena and served as a member of the Swedish Parliament 2002-2006. In the Parliament he served on Committee on European Union Committee; when the Social Democratic Party lost power in 2006, Frans lost his seat in Parliament. Today has several public appointments, he is a member of the Swedish National Police Board. Joe Frans is the Chairperson of Forumsyd, the Social Democratic party in Vällingby district, Broderskapdistriktet and Rinkeby folketshus.

Frans is the founder and CEO of Next Generation Africa and NGA Novum AB. He has served as an Independent Expert for the United Nations Human Rights Council, Working Group of Experts on People of African Descent. Frans initiated the Swedish Martin Luther King award in 2005