Climbing is the activity of using one's hands, feet, or any other part of the body to ascend a steep object. It is done for locomotion and competition, in trades that rely on it, in emergency rescue and military operations, it is done indoors and out, on man-made structures. Guides, such as professional mountain guides, have been an essential element of pursuing the sport in the natural environment, remain so today. Climbing activities include: Bouldering: Ascending boulders or small outcrops with climbing shoes and a chalk bag or bucket. Instead of using a safety rope from above, injury is avoided using a crash pad and a human spotter Buildering: Ascending the exterior skeletons of buildings without protective equipment. Canyoneering: Climbing along canyons for sport or recreation. Chalk climbing: Ascending chalk cliffs uses some of the same techniques as ice climbing. Competition climbing: A formal, competitive sport of recent origins practiced on artificial walls that resemble natural formations.
The International Federation of Sport Climbing is the official organization governing competition rock climbing worldwide and is recognized by the IOC and GAISF and is a member of the International World Games Association. The UIAA is the official organization governing competition ice climbing worldwide. Competition climbing has three major disciplines: Lead and Speed. Free Climbing: a form of rock climbing in which the climber uses climbing equipment such as ropes and other means of climbing protection, but only to protect against injury during falls and not to assist progress. Ice climbing: Ascending ice or hard snow formations using special equipment ice axes and crampons. Techniques of protecting the climber are similar to those of rock climbing, with protective devices adapted to frozen conditions. Indoor climbing: Top roping, lead climbing, bouldering artificial walls with bolted holds in a climbing gym. Ladder climbing: Climbing ladders for exercise; this may involve climbing up and down the underside of a ladder, or along a horizontally aligned ladder or'monkey bars'.
The ladder may be climbed going backwards, or sideways. Lumberjack tree-trimming and competitive tree-trunk or pole climbing for speed using spikes and belts. Mallakhamba: A traditional Indian sport which combines climbing a pole or rope with the performance of aerial Yoga and gymnastics. Mountaineering: Ascending mountains for sport or recreation, it involves rock and/or ice climbing. Pole climbing: Climbing poles and masts without equipment. Rock climbing: Ascending rock formations using climbing shoes and a chalk bag. Equipment such as ropes, nuts and camming devices are employed, either as a safeguard or for artificial aid. Rope access: Industrial climbing abseiling, as an alternative to scaffolding for short works on exposed structures. Rope climbing: Climbing a short, thick rope for speed. Not to be confused with roped climbing, as in rock or ice climbing. Scrambling which includes easy rock climbing, is considered part of hillwalking. Sport climbing is a form of rock climbing that relies on permanent anchors fixed to the rock, bolts, for protection.
Top roping: Ascending a rock climbing route protected by a rope anchored at the top and protected by a belayer below Traditional climbing is a form of climbing without fixed anchors and bolts. Climbers place removable protection such as camming devices and other passive and active protection that holds the rope to the rock in the event of a fall and/or when weighted by a climber. Solo climbing: Solo climbing or soloing is a style of climbing in which the climber climbs alone, without somebody belaying them; when free soloing, an error is fatal as no belay systems are being used. Soloing can be self-belayed, hence minimizing the risks. Tree climbing: Recreationally ascending trees using ropes and other protective equipment. A tower climber is a professional who climbs broadcasting or telecommunication towers or masts for maintenance or repair. Rock and tree climbing all utilize ropes for safety or aid. Pole climbing and rope climbing were among the first exercises to be included in the origins of modern gymnastics in the late 18th century and early 19th century.
Aid climbing Clean climbing Climbing clubs Climbing wall Climbing equipment Climbing organisations Fall factor List of climbers – notable rock and ice climbers List of climbing topics Glossary of climbing terms Glossary of knots common in climbing Outdoor education Outdoor activity Rock climbing Running belay Parkour Scrambling Solo climbing Speed climbing Climbing at Curlie
Turk's head knot
A Turk's head knot, more known as a Sailor's knot, is a decorative knot with a variable number of interwoven strands, forming a closed loop. The name is used to describe the general family of all such knots rather than one individual knot. While seen made around a cylinder, the knot can be deformed into a flat, mat-like shape; some variants can be arranged into a spherical shape, akin to a monkey's fist knot. The knot is used for decoration and as anti-chafing protection. A notable practical use for the Turk's head is to mark the "king spoke" of a ship's wheel; the knot takes its name from a notional resemblance to a turban, though a turban is wound rather than interwoven. The Turk's head knot is used as a woggle by Scout Leaders who completed their training course and were thus awarded with the Wood Badge insignia; each type of Turk's head knot is classified according to the number of leads and bights and method of construction. The number of bights is the number of crossings it makes as it goes around the circumference of the cylinder.
The number of leads is the number of strands around the circumference of the cylinder, before doubling, etc. Depending on the number of leads and bights, a Turk's head may be tied using a single strand or multiple strands. Mathematically, the number of strands is the greatest common divisor of the number of leads and the number of bights. For example, 3 lead 5 lead × 7 bight. There are three groupings of Turk's head knots. Narrow, where the number of leads is two or more less than the number of bights, Long or wide where the number of leads is two or more greater than the number of bights, Square, where there is a difference of one between leads and bights; the number of bights determines the shape found at the center. Three bights create a triangular shape. A two lead, 3 bight Turk's head is a double overhand knot. A two lead, three bight Turk's head is a trefoil knot if the ends are joined together. Alternating torus knots are Turk's head knots; the World Organization of scouting uses a variation of the Turk's head knot called a woggle to affix their neckerchiefs and as a fire starting tool.
It is an official part of the uniform. List of knots Grog. "Turk's head knot". Animated Knots. Retrieved 1 April 2013. Shurdington Turks head Knot So-You-Want to Make a Rope Rug Eh
The half hitch is a simple overhand knot, where the working end of a line is brought over and under the standing part. Insecure on its own, it is a valuable component of a wide variety of useful and reliable hitches and knots. Two successive half hitches tied around an object makes up the common clove hitch. Two successive half hitches tied around the standing part of a rope is known as two half-hitches or double half hitch. One instance where a half hitch stands on its own without additional embellishment is when added to a timber hitch to help stabilize a load in the direction of pull. A timber hitch is tied on the far end of the load to bind it securely and a half hitch made at the forward end to serve as a guide for the rope. In this instance, the half hitch combined with a timber hitch is known as a killick hitch or kelleg hitch; the knot is attractive to the eye and so is used decoratively for French whipping, known as half hitch whipping. List of knots Buntline hitch
A braid is a complex structure or pattern formed by interlacing three or more strands of flexible material such as textile yarns, wire, or hair. The materials used have depended on the indigenous plants and animals available in the local area They have been made for thousands of years, in many different cultures around the world, for a variety of uses; the most simple and common version is a flat, three-stranded structure. More complex patterns can be constructed from an arbitrary number of strands to create a wider range of stuctures; the structure is long and narrow with each component strand functionally equivalent in zigzagging forward through the overlapping mass of the others. It can be compared with the process of weaving, which involves two separate perpendicular groups of strands; when the Industrial Revolution arrived, mechanized braiding equipment was invented to increase production. The braiding technique was used to make ropes with both natural and synthetic fibers as well as coaxial cables for radios using copper wire.
In more recent times it has been used to create a covering for fuel pipes in jet ships. Hoses for domestic plumbing are covered with stainless steel braid; the oldest known reproduction of hair braiding may go back about 30,000 years: the Venus of Willendorf, now known in academia as the Woman of Willendorf, is a female figurine estimated to have been made between about 28,000 and 25,000 BCE. It has been disputed whether or not she wears braided hair or some sort of a woven basket on her head; the Venus of Brassempouy is estimated to be about 25,000 years old and shows, ostensibly, a braided hairstyle. Another sample of a different origin was traced back to a burial site called Saqqara located on the Nile River, during the first dynasty of Pharaoh Menes. During the Bronze Age and Iron Age many peoples in the Near East, Asia Minor, East Mediterranean and North Africa such as the Sumerians, Ancient Egyptians, Ancient Greeks, Assyrians, Hittites, Mitanni, Hurrians, Eblaites, Phrygians, Persians, Parthians, Armenians, Georgians and Canaanites/Phoenicians/Carthaginians are depicted in art with braided or platted hair and beards.
In some regions, a braid was a means of communication. At a glance, one individual could distinguish a wealth of information about another, whether they were married, mourning, or of age for courtship by observing their hairstyle. Braids were a means of social stratification. Certain hairstyles were distinctive to particular nations. Other styles informed others of an individual's status in society. African people such as the Himba people of Namibia have been braiding their hair for centuries. In many African tribes hairstyles are used to identify each tribe. Braid patterns or hairstyles can be an indication of a person's community, marital status, power, social position, religion. Braiding is traditionally a social art; because of the time it takes to braid hair, people have taken time to socialize while braiding and having their hair braided. It begins with the elders making simple braids for younger children. Older children watch and learn from them, start practicing on younger children, learn the traditional designs.
This carries on a tradition of bonding between the new generation. Early braids had many uses, such as costume decoration, animal regalia, sword decoration and hats, weapons. Materials that are used in braids can vary depending on local materials. For instance, South Americans used the fine fibers from the wool of alpaca and llama, while North American people made use of bison fibers. Throughout the world, vegetable fibers such as grass and hemp have been used to create braids. In China and Japan silk still remains the main material used. In the Americas, the braiding of leather is common. For the nomadic peoples of Africa, India and South America, the Middle East, braiding was a practical means of producing useful and decorative textiles. In other areas, such as the Pacific islands, for many hill tribes, braids are made using minimal equipment, it was only when braiding became a popular occupation in the home or school, as it is in China and Japan, when the Industrial Revolution came about, that specific tools were developed to increase production and make it easier to produce more complicated patterns of braids.
Braids are very good for making rope, decorative objects, hairstyles. Complex braids have been used to create hanging fibre artworks. Braiding is used to prepare horses' manes and tails for showing such as in polo and polocrosse. Plaiting with kangaroo leather has been a practiced tradition in rural Australia since pioneering times, it is used in the production of fine leather belts, bridles, dog leads, stockwhips, etc. Other leathers are used for the plaiting of heavier products suitable for everyday use. Gold braids and silver braids are components or trims of many kinds of formal dress, including military uniform. Braiding creates a composite rope, thicker and stronger than the non-interlaced strands of yarn. Braided ropes are preferred by arborists, rock climbers
Shoelaces called shoestrings or bootlaces, are a system used to secure shoes and other footwear. They consist of a pair of strings or cords, one for each shoe, finished off at both ends with stiff sections, known as aglets; each shoelace passes through a series of holes, loops or hooks on either side of the shoe. Loosening the lacing allows the shoe to open wide enough for the foot to be inserted or removed. Tightening the lacing and tying off the ends secures the foot within the shoe. Traditional shoelaces were made of leather, jute, hemp, or other materials used in the manufacture of rope. Modern shoelaces incorporate various synthetic fibers, which are more slippery and thus more prone to coming undone than those made from traditional fibers. On the other hand, smooth synthetic shoelaces have a less rough appearance, suffer less wear from friction, are less susceptible to rotting from moisture. Specialized fibers like flame resistant nomex are applied in safety boots for firefighters. There are various elasticized shoelaces: Traditional "elastic" laces look identical to normal laces, can be tied and untied as normal.
They may come with a permanent clip so they can be fastened invisibly. "Knotty" laces have a series of "fat" sections. These can be used to adjust tension throughout the lacing area; these laces can be tied or the ends can be left loose. "Twirly" laces are like a tight elastic helix, which can be pulled tight without requiring a knot. Elastic laces both make the lacing more comfortable, as well as allowing the shoe to be slipped on and off without tying or untying, which makes them a popular choice for children, the elderly and athletes; the stiff section at each end of the shoelace, which both keeps the twine from unraveling and makes it easier to hold the lace and feed it through the eyelets, is called an aglet spelled aiglet. Shoelaces with a flat cross-section are easier to hold and stay tied more securely than those with a round cross-section due to the increased surface area for friction. Wide flat laces are called "fat laces". Leather shoelaces with a square cross-section, which are common on boat shoes, are notoriously prone to coming undone.
Shoelaces can be coated, either in the factory or with aftermarket products, to increase friction and help them stay tied. When a shoelace is secured with a knot, the lace is squashed; this is what stops the lace from coming undone. In effect, the lace is narrower inside the knot than it is on the loose end, the loose end cannot make itself smaller and slide though the knot. A flat tubular lace will stay tied more than a round lace with a core because the flat lace can be more crimped within the knot. Most laces, are round and have core of cotton yarn boot laces. For these to stay tied securely, the core on the inside of the lace must be compressible. A secondary factor of laces coming undone is the knot itself slipping; this is due to a lack of friction. Cotton laces will make a more reliable knot compared to polyester. In addition, a lace can be smooth or have a coarse surface, which will affect performance. Finishing processes are available, including waxing and silicone treatments, which enhance friction and stop knot slippage.
These are important design factors in the manufacture of hiking-boot laces. Shoelaces are tied off at the top of the shoe using a simple bow knot. Besides securing the shoe, this takes up the length of shoelace exposed after tightening; the common bow consists of two half-knots tied one on top of the other, with the second half-knot looped in order to allow quick untying. When required, the knot can be loosened by pulling one or both of the loose ends; when tying the half-knots, a right-over-left half-knot followed by a left-over-right half-knot forms a square or reef knot, a effective knot for the purpose of tying shoelaces. However, tying two consecutive right-over-left half-knots forms the infamous granny knot, much less secure. Most people who use it will find themselves retying their shoelaces. If the loops lie across the shoe, the knot is a square knot. If they lie along the shoe, the knot is a granny knot. There are several more secure alternatives to the common shoelace bow, with names such as Turquoise Turtle Shoelace Knot, or Shoemaker's Knot, Better Bow Shoelace Knot, Surgeon's Shoelace Knot, Ian's Secure Shoelace Knot, or double slip knot.
One such knot has been patented in 1999 under the title "Shoelace tying system". These are all variations of the same concept of looping the top part of the knot twice instead of once, which results in a finished bow of identical appearance but with the laces wrapped twice around the middle; this double-wrap holds the shoelaces more securely tied while still allowing them to be untied with a pull on the loose end. The proper length of a shoelace, fitting it to a shoe, varies according to the type of lacing used, as well as the type of lace. However, at a rough reference the following guide can be used; this is the process of running the shoelaces through the holes, loops, or hooks to hold together the sides of the shoe with many common lacing methods. There are, in fact two trillion ways to lace a shoe with six pairs of eyelets. Straight-bar lacing appears parallel when viewed from the exterior. Formal shoes demand straight-bar lacing to preserve their clean, nea
A slippery hitch is a knot used to attach a line to a rod or bar. It does not provide great strength compared to some other knots, but it can be tied quickly and released easily; these characteristics mean that it is used on square-rigged ships for securing the gaskets that bind stowed sails to the yards. The slippery hitch is a clove hitch finished with a slipped loop. To tie one, begin as for a clove hitch, but instead of passing the end of the line through the loop in the final step, pass a bight instead, leaving the end on the original side. Pulling on this end will release the hitch. If tied in a gasket, this will release the sail. List of knots
The sheet bend is a bend. It is practical for joining lines of different rigidity, it is quick and easy to tie, is considered so essential it is the first knot given in the Ashley Book of Knots. Additionally, it is one of the six knots given in the International Guild of Knot Tyers' Six Knot Challenge, along with the clove hitch, reef knot, round turn and two half-hitches, sheepshank; the sheet bend is related in structure to the bowline. For increased security, it is sometimes recommended that one add another turn in the smaller end, making a double sheet bend; as a bend, its advantages lie in its non-jamming properties. The term "sheet bend" derives from its use bending ropes to sails, it is mentioned in David Steel's 1794 book Elements and Practice of Rigging and Seamanship but was used by Neolithic peoples for tying the meshes of fishing nets. The name "weaver's knot" comes from its historic use in textile mills. In modern operations, weavers are taught to use this particular knot when correcting broken threads in the warp.
The sheet bend may be tied by various methods: the basic "rabbit through the hole" method of forming a half hitch in the bight of the larger rope, by a more expedient method shown in Ashley as ABoK #1431 or by a trick method, involving upsetting a noose knot over a short end of the "larger" rope. Lines of equal size may be joined with a sheet bend, but when one is larger, it plays the simpler role of the "eye", rather than the half-hitch One type of weaver's knot is topologically equivalent to a sheet bend, but is tied with a different approach. Sheet bends are used for netting. Notice that, to have any strength, the two free ends should end up on the same side of the knot. Under moderate load, a left-hand sheet bend will slip and release completely; when lines are of unequal diameter or rigidity it is necessary for security to "double" the sheet bend by making an additional round turn below the first and again bringing the working end back under itself. The free ends should end up on the same side of the knot for maximum strength.
A study of 8 different bends using climbing rope of equal diameter said. In one test, it pulled apart with less than half the pressure; the authors recommend "2 half hitches on the bend back line and overhand knot on turn thru line." With these, it was always a bottom performer and the double sheet bend did little better. However, the butterfly bend did the best. After performing security testing, Ashley wrote with regard to the Sheet Bend: "Some readers may be surprised to find the Sheet Bend with so low a rating, but these tests were made in exceptionally slippery material; the Sheet Bend is the most practical of bends and quite secure enough for ordinary purposes." List of bend knots List of knots