Music of Martinique
Main article, Music of Martinique and Guadeloupe The music of Martinique has a heritage which is intertwined with that of its sister island, Guadeloupe. Despite their small size, the islands have created a popular music industry. Zouks popularity was particularly intense in France, where the genre became an important symbol of identity for Martinique, Zouks origins are in the folk music of Martinique and Guadeloupe, especially Martinican chouval bwa, and Guadeloupan gwo ka. Theres notable influence of the pan-Caribbean calypso tradition and Haitian kompa, carnival is a very important festival, known as Vaval on Martinique. Music plays a role, with Martinican big bands marching across the island. Vaval declined following World War II, bouncing back with new band formats, like Guadeloupe, Martinique features participatory, call-and-response style songs during its Vaval celebrations. In the early 20th century on Martinique, Creole bands travelled on trucks or small carts during Vaval and these large bands, known as groups à pied, are each identified with a neighborhood.
Biguine vidé is an up tempo version of the biguine rhythm and it participatory music, with the bandleader singing a verse and the audience responding. Modern instrumentation includes a variety of improvised drums made from containers of all kinds, plastic plumbing, tanbou débonda, bélé chacha, aside from the biguine vidé bands, Vaval includes song and costume contests and zouk parties. The bel air is a legacy of the music tradition. The bélé itself is a huge tambour drum that players ride as though it was a horse and it is characterized, in its rhythm, by the tibwa played on a length of bamboo mounted on a stand to the tambour bélé, and is often accompanied by a chacha. The tibwa rhythm plays a pattern and the drum comes to mark the highlights. It is organized in a way, the first entry of the singer. Then the Bwatè sets the pace, followed by bélé drum, the dancers take the stage. A dialogue is created between the dancers and the tanbouyè, the answer play opposite the singer, the audience can participate.
As a family, together singers, dancers and audiences are lured by its mesmerizing rhythms, edmond Mondesir is a popular bélé musician from Martinique. Chouval bwa is a kind of Martinican traditional music, featuring percussion, bamboo flute, the music originated among rural Martinicans, as a form of celebratory holiday music played to accompany a dance called the manege. In French Caribbean culture, especially of the Lesser Antilles, the kwadril is a Creole term referring to a folk dance derived from the quadrille
Music of Guadeloupe
Zouks popularity was particularly intense in France, where the genre became an important symbol of identity for Guadeloupe and Martinique. Zouks origins are in the music of Guadeloupe and Martinique, especially Guadeloupan gwo ka and Martinican chouval bwa. Carnival is an important festival in Guadeloupe and Martinique. Carnival in both islands declined following World War II, bouncing back with new formats and new traditions only in the 1980s. Both islands feature participatory, call-and-response style songs during their Carnival celebrations, biguine vidé is an up tempo version of the biguine rhythm, combining other carnival elements. It is participatory music, with the singing a verse. It allows one to grab an improvised percussion instrument and join in, Carnival includes dances of African origin, including laghia, haut-taille, grage and bel-air. Traditional instruments include the chacha, maké, tanbou chan, aside from the biguine vidé bands, Vaval includes song and costume contests and zouk parties.
Gwo ka is a family of drums used to create a form of folk music from Guadeloupe. There are seven rhythms in gwo ka, and multiple variations on each. Gwo ka singing is usually guttural and rough, though it can be bright and smooth, rural Guadeloupans still use gwo ka drums in communal experiences called lewozes, this is the most traditional manifestation of gwo ka in modern Guadeloupe. Gwo ka is played at Carnival and other celebrations, a modernized and popularized form of gwo ka is well-known on the islands, it is known as gwo ka moderne. Guadeloupean balakadri persisted into the 20th century and, despite disruption after World War II, the Guadeloupean-administered island of Marie-Galante has had a vital and well-documented balakadri tradition. As in Martinique, kwadril dances are in sets consisting of proper quadrilles, plus creolized versions of 19th-century couple dances, biguines and valses Créoles. The world-famous zouk band Kassav remains easily the most famous performers from the island and these Haitians drew upon previous success from mini-jazz artists like Les Gentlemen, Les Leopards, and Les Vikings de Guadeloupe.
Later in the decade and into the 1980s, the French Antilles became home to a style of music called cadence-lypso. Drawing on these influences, the supergroup Kassav invented zouk and popularized it with hit songs like Zouk-La-Se Sel Medikaman Nou Ni, Kassav formed from Paris in 1978. However, all these small jazz or bands had their guitars with sophisticated styles, the 1970s were dominated by mini-jazz, which still used a variant of the méringue style
Maracas, sometimes called Rumba shakers, shac-shacs, and various other names, are rattles which appear in many genres of Caribbean and Latin music. Players hold them by their handles, usually in pairs, known as Tamaracas, were rattles of divination, an oracle of the Brazilian Tupinamba Indians, found with other Indian tribes, and on the Orinoco and in Florida. Rattles made from gourds are being shaken by the natural grip, human hair is sometimes fastened on the top, and a slit is cut in it to represent a mouth, through which their shamans made it utter its responses. A few pebbles are inserted to make it rattle, and it is crowned with the red feathers of the Goaraz and it was used at their dances, and to heal the sick. Andean curanderos use maracas in their healing rites, modern maraca balls are made of leather, wood, or plastic
Music of Cuba
The music of Cuba, including its instruments and dance, comprises a large set of unique traditions influenced mostly by west African and European music. Due to the nature of most of its genres, Cuban music is often considered one of the richest and most influential regional musics of the world. For instance, the son cubano merges an adapted Spanish guitar, harmony, almost nothing remains of the original native traditions, since the native population was exterminated in the 16th century. Since the 19th century Cuban music has been popular and influential throughout the world. It has been perhaps the most popular form of music since the introduction of recording technology. Cuban music has contributed to the development of a variety of genre and musical styles around the globe, most notably in Latin America. Examples include rhumba, Afro-Cuban jazz, soukous, many West African re-adaptations of Afro-Cuban music, Spanish fusion genres, large numbers of African slaves and European, mostly Spanish, immigrants came to Cuba and brought their own forms of music to the island.
European dances and folk musics included zapateo, paso doble, northern European forms like minuet, mazurka and the waltz appeared among urban whites. There was an immigration of Chinese indentured laborers in the 19th century, the African slaves and their descendants made many percussion instruments and preserved rhythms they had known in their homeland. The most important instruments were the drums, of which there were originally about fifty different types, today only the bongos, important are the claves, two short hardwood batons, and the cajón, a wooden box, originally made from crates. Claves are still used often, and wooden boxes were used during periods when the drum was banned. In addition, there are other instruments in use for African-origin religious ceremonies. Chinese immigrants contributed the corneta china, a Chinese reed instrument still played in the comparsas, or carnival groups, the great instrumental contribution of the Spanish was their guitar, but even more important was the tradition of European musical notation and techniques of musical composition.
Hernando de la Parras archives give some of our earliest available information on Cuban music and he reported instruments including the clarinet and vihuela. There were few professional musicians at the time, and fewer still of their songs survive, one of the earliest is Ma Teodora, supposed to be related to a freed slave, Teodora Ginés of Santiago de Cuba, who was famous for her compositions. The piece is said to be similar to 16th-, 17th- and 18th-century Spanish popular songs, Cuban music has its principal roots in Spain and West Africa, but over time has been influenced by diverse genres from different countries. Important among these are France, and the United States, Cuban music has been immensely influential in other countries. The African beliefs and practices certainly influenced Cubas music, polyrhythmic percussion is an inherent part of African music, as melody is part of European music
The polka is originally a Czech dance and genre of dance music familiar throughout Europe and the Americas. It originated in the middle of the 19th century in Bohemia, local varieties of this dance are found in the Nordic countries, the United Kingdom, Latin America and the United States. The name polka possibly comes from the Czech word půlka, referring to the short half-steps featured in the dance. e, the absence of diacritics, both referring to the half-tempo 24 and the half-jump step of the dance. Zíbrt ironically dismisses the etymology suggested by A. Fähnrich that polka comes from the Czech word pole, on the other hand, Zdeněk Nejedlý suggests that the etymology given by Fr. Doucha is nothing but an effort to prove the true Czech folk origin of Polka, Nejedlý writes that Václav Vladivoj Tomek claims the Hradec Králové roots of a Polka. OED suggests that the name may have derived from the Czech polka meaning Polish woman. The word was introduced into the major European languages in the early 1840s.
It should not be confused with the polska, a Swedish 34-beat dance with Polish roots, a related dance is the redowa. Polkas almost always have a 24 time signature, folk music of Polka style appeared in written music about 1800. She is said to have called the dance Maděra, because of its liveliness, the dance was further propagated by the music teacher Josef Neruda, who witnessed Anna dance in an unusual way, put the tune to paper, and taught other young men to dance it. Čeněk Zíbrt notices that a claim that the events happened in Týnec nad Labem. Zibrt writes that when he published this story in 1894 in Narodni Listy newspaper. In particular, he wrote according to further witness, the originating event actually happened in 1830, in Kostelec nad Labem. Zíbrt writes that he published the first version of the story in Bohemia, from where it was reprinted all over Europe and in the United States. Zíbrt wrote that simple Czech folk claimed that knew and danced Polka long before the nobles got hold of it.
By 1835, this dance had spread to the ballrooms of Prague, from there, it spread to Vienna by 1839, and in 1840 was introduced in Paris by Raab, a Prague dance instructor. It was so well received by both dancers and dance masters in Paris that its popularity was referred to as polkamania, the dance soon spread to London and was introduced to America in 1844. It remained a popular dance until the late 19th century
La Marseillaise is the national anthem of France. The song was written in 1792 by Claude Joseph Rouget de Lisle in Strasbourg after the declaration of war by France against Austria, and was originally titled Chant de guerre pour lArmée du Rhin. The Marseillaise was a song, an anthem to freedom, a patriotic call to mobilize all the citizens. The French National Convention adopted it as the Republics anthem in 1795 and it acquired its nickname after being sung in Paris by volunteers from Marseille marching to the capital. The song is the first example of the European march anthemic style, the anthems evocative melody and lyrics have led to its widespread use as a song of revolution and its incorporation into many pieces of classical and popular music. As the French Revolution continued, the monarchies of Europe became concerned that revolutionary fervor would spread to their countries, the War of the First Coalition was an effort to stop the revolution, or at least contain it to France. Initially, the French army did not distinguish itself, and Coalition armies invaded France and that evening, Rouget de Lisle wrote Chant de guerre pour lArmée du Rhin, and dedicated the song to Marshal Nicolas Luckner, a Bavarian in French service from Cham.
A plaque on the building on Place Broglie where De Dietrichs house once stood commemorates the event. The melody soon became the call to the French Revolution and was adopted as La Marseillaise after the melody was first sung on the streets by volunteers from Marseille by the end of May. A newly graduated medical doctor, Mireur became a general under Napoléon Bonaparte, the songs lyric reflects the invasion of France by foreign armies that were under way when it was written. Strasbourg itself was attacked just a few days later, the invading forces were repulsed from France following their defeat in the Battle of Valmy. As the vast majority of Alsatians did not speak French, a German version was published in October 1792 in Colmar, the Convention accepted it as the French national anthem in a decree passed on 14 July 1795, making it Frances first anthem. It lost this status under Napoleon I, and the song was banned outright by Louis XVIII and Charles X, only being re-instated briefly after the July Revolution of 1830.
During Napoleon Is reign, Veillons au Salut de lEmpire was the anthem of the regime. Eight years later, in 1879, it was restored as Frances national anthem, several musical antecedents have been cited for the melody, Mozarts Allegro maestoso of Piano Concerto No. Only the first verse and the first chorus are sung today in France, there are some slight historical variations in the lyrics of the song, the following is the version listed at the official website of the French Presidency. Verses sung in the version of the anthem are in bold. The United States Library of Congress holds the following English translation and these verses were omitted from the national anthem
The saxophone is a family of woodwind instruments. Saxophones are usually made of brass and played with a single-reed mouthpiece similar to that of the clarinet, the saxophone family was invented by the Belgian instrument maker Adolphe Sax in 1840. He patented the saxophone on June 28,1846, in two groups of seven instruments each, each series consisted of instruments of various sizes in alternating transposition. The series pitched in B♭ and E♭, designed for bands, have proved extremely popular. The saxophone is used in music, military bands, marching bands. The saxophone was developed in 1846 by Adolphe Sax, a Belgian instrument maker, born in Dinant and originally based in Brussels, he moved to Paris in 1842 to establish his musical instrument business. Prior to his work on the saxophone, he had several improvements to the bass clarinet by improving its keywork and acoustics. Sax was a maker of the ophicleide, a large conical brass instrument in the bass register with keys similar to a woodwind instrument.
His experience with two instruments allowed him to develop the skills and technologies needed to make the first saxophones. As an outgrowth of his work improving the bass clarinet, Sax began developing an instrument with the projection of a brass instrument and he wanted it to overblow at the octave, unlike the clarinet, which rises in pitch by a twelfth when overblown. An instrument that overblows at the octave has identical fingering for both registers, Sax created an instrument with a single-reed mouthpiece like a clarinet, conical brass body like an ophicleide, and some acoustic properties of both the horn and the clarinet. Having constructed saxophones in several sizes in the early 1840s, Sax applied for, and received, the patent encompassed 14 versions of the fundamental design, split into two categories of seven instruments each, and ranging from sopranino to contrabass. Although the instruments transposed at either F or C have been considered orchestral, the C soprano saxophone was the only instrument to sound at concert pitch.
Saxs patent expired in 1866, numerous saxophonists and instrument manufacturers implemented their own improvements to the design, the first substantial modification was by a French manufacturer who extended the bell slightly and added an extra key to extend the range downwards by one semitone to B♭. It is suspected that Sax himself may have attempted this modification and this extension is now commonplace in almost all modern designs, along with other minor changes such as added keys for alternate fingerings. Using alternate fingerings allows a player to play faster and more easily, a player may use alternate fingerings to bend the pitch. Some of the alternate fingerings are good for trilling, scales, a substantial advancement in saxophone keywork was the development of a method by which the left thumb operates both tone holes with a single octave key, which is now universal on modern saxophones. This enables a chromatic scale to be played two octaves simply by playing the diatonic scale combined with alternately raising and lowering this one digit
Ballroom dance is a set of partner dances, which are enjoyed both socially and competitively around the world. Because of its performance and entertainment aspects, ballroom dance is widely enjoyed on stage, film. Ballroom dance may refer, at its widest definition, to almost any type of dancing as recreation. The two styles, while differing in technique and costumes, exemplify core elements of dancing such as control. Developed in England, the two styles are now regulated by the World Dance Council and the World DanceSport Federation. In the United States, two variations are popular, American Smooth and American Rhythm, which combine elements of the Standard. There are a number of dances, and local or national dances. Sequence dancing, in pairs or other formations, is still a style of ballroom dance. The term ballroom dancing is derived from the ball which in turn originates from the Latin word ballare which means to dance. In times past, ballroom dancing was social dancing for the privileged, among the dances described were the solemn basse danse, the livelier branle and the galliarde which Shakespeare called the cinq pace as it was made of five steps.
Eventually, the first definite cleavage between ballet and ballroom came when professional dancers appeared in the ballets, and the left the Court. Ballet technique such as the turned out positions of the feet, the dance was initially met with tremendous opposition due to the semblance of impropriety associated with the closed hold, though the stance gradually softened. In the 1840s several new dances made their appearance in the ballroom, including the Polka, Mazurka, in the meantime a strong tendency emerged to drop all decorative steps such as entrechats and ronds de jambes that had found a place in the Quadrilles and other dances. Modern ballroom dance has its roots early in the 20th century, the first was a movement away from the sequence dances towards dances where the couples moved independently. This had been pre-figured by the waltz, which had made this transition. The second was a wave of music, such as jazz. Since dance is to a large extent tied to music, this led to a burst of newly invented dances, there were many dance crazes in the period 1910–1930.
The third event was an effort to transform some of the dance crazes into dances which could be taught to a wider dance public in the US
French hip hop
French hip hop is the hip hop music style which was developed in French-speaking countries. By 1982 and 1983, a number of hip hop radio shows had appeared on Paris radio, including Rapper Dapper Snapper, the first major star of French hip hop was MC Solaar, born Claude MBarali in Dakar, Senegal. He moved to France in 1970 and lived in Villeneuve-Saint-Georges and his 1991 album, Qui sème le vent récolte le tempo, was a major hit. He set many records, including being the first French hip hop recording artist to go platinum, some artists claim that the French language hip hop style was influenced by the music of French singer Renaud. The cases include the notorious Ministère AMERs Sacrifice de poulet, NTMs Police, French hip-hop, like hip-hop in other countries, is highly influenced by American hip-hop. Columnist David Brooks wrote that life, at least as portrayed in rap videos, now defines for the young, poor. Gangsta resistance is the most compelling model for how to rebel against that oppression and he argued that the gangster image of American hip hop appeals to mostly young & impoverished immigrant minorities in France, as a means to oppose the racism and oppression they experience.
Jody Rosen counters Brooks argument, criticizing Brooks makes use of only a few, Brooks fails to accurately assess French hip hops larger scope, and discounts its potential for rappers of amazing skill and wit. This makes up one quarter of the radios top 100, ten percent of music production and has sold hundreds of thousands of CDs. French hip hop, however, is criticized for imitating American hip hop style. French Rapper MC Solaar agrees sarcastically, French rap is pretty much a U. S. branch office and we dont even take a step back. Parts of American hip-hop culture has left a mark on the culture of French hip-hop as well in terms of fashion, music videos, jewelry and other things. Hip-hop culture was imported from America, especially with the influence of New York rappers, the group went their separate ways in 2000. As hiphop moved into a new millennium, French hip hop artists developed rapidly, seeing decent commercial success, one of the most influential French hiphop albums of all time, Cinquième As, was released by MC Solaar in 2001.
At the same time, new artists like Sinik and Diams began to see significant success, as well, bringing a new sound, themes in French hip hop include opposition to the social order and puns, as well as ethnic and cultural identity. Whereas early French hip hop was seen as mimicking American hip hop in terms of appeal, French rappers added their own cultural. The different social climates in the make the two subgenres distinct from one another. Lyrics from the south tend to be socially conscious, with content mainly focusing on the fight against discrimination
The guitar is a musical instrument classified as a fretted string instrument with anywhere from four to 18 strings, usually having six. The sound is projected either acoustically, using a wooden or plastic and wood box, or through electrical amplifier. It is typically played by strumming or plucking the strings with the fingers, the guitar is a type of chordophone, traditionally constructed from wood and strung with either gut, nylon or steel strings and distinguished from other chordophones by its construction and tuning. There are three types of modern acoustic guitar, the classical guitar, the steel-string acoustic guitar, and the archtop guitar. The tone of a guitar is produced by the strings vibration, amplified by the hollow body of the guitar. The term finger-picking can refer to a tradition of folk, bluegrass. The acoustic bass guitar is an instrument that is one octave below a regular guitar. Early amplified guitars employed a body, but a solid wood body was eventually found more suitable during the 1960s and 1970s.
As with acoustic guitars, there are a number of types of guitars, including hollowbody guitars, archtop guitars and solid-body guitars. The electric guitar has had a influence on popular culture. The guitar is used in a variety of musical genres worldwide. It is recognized as an instrument in genres such as blues, country, folk, jota, metal, reggae, soul. The term is used to refer to a number of chordophones that were developed and used across Europe, beginning in the 12th century and, later, in the Americas. The modern word guitar, and its antecedents, has applied to a wide variety of chordophones since classical times. Many influences are cited as antecedents to the modern guitar, at least two instruments called guitars were in use in Spain by 1200, the guitarra latina and the so-called guitarra morisca. The guitarra morisca had a back, wide fingerboard. The guitarra Latina had a sound hole and a narrower neck. By the 14th century the qualifiers moresca or morisca and latina had been dropped, and it had six courses, lute-like tuning in fourths and a guitar-like body, although early representations reveal an instrument with a sharply cut waist
A trumpet is a musical instrument commonly used in classical and jazz ensembles. The trumpet group contains the instruments with the highest register in the brass family, trumpets are used in art music styles, for instance in orchestras, concert bands, and jazz ensembles, as well as in popular music. They are played by blowing air through almost-closed lips, producing a sound that starts a standing wave vibration in the air column inside the instrument. Since the late 15th century they have primarily been constructed of brass tubing, there are many distinct types of trumpet, with the most common being pitched in B♭, having a tubing length of about 1.48 m. Early trumpets did not provide means to change the length of tubing, most trumpets have valves of the piston type, while some have the rotary type. The use of rotary-valved trumpets is more common in orchestral settings, each valve, when engaged, increases the length of tubing, lowering the pitch of the instrument. A musician who plays the trumpet is called a trumpet player or trumpeter, the earliest trumpets date back to 1500 BC and earlier.
The bronze and silver trumpets from Tutankhamuns grave in Egypt, bronze lurs from Scandinavia, trumpets from the Oxus civilization of Central Asia have decorated swellings in the middle, yet are made out of one sheet of metal, which is considered a technical wonder. The Shofar, made from a ram horn and the Hatzotzeroth and they were played in Solomons Temple around 3000 years ago. They were said to be used to blow down the walls of Jericho and they are still used on certain religious days. The Salpinx was a straight trumpet 62 inches long, made of bone or bronze, Salpinx contests were a part of the original Olympic Games. The Moche people of ancient Peru depicted trumpets in their art going back to AD300, the earliest trumpets were signaling instruments used for military or religious purposes, rather than music in the modern sense, and the modern bugle continues this signaling tradition. Improvements to instrument design and metal making in the late Middle Ages, the natural trumpets of this era consisted of a single coiled tube without valves and therefore could only produce the notes of a single overtone series.
Changing keys required the player to change crooks of the instrument, the development of the upper, clarino register by specialist trumpeters—notably Cesare Bendinelli—would lend itself well to the Baroque era, known as the Golden Age of the natural trumpet. During this period, a vast body of music was written for virtuoso trumpeters, the art was revived in the mid-20th century and natural trumpet playing is again a thriving art around the world. The melody-dominated homophony of the classical and romantic periods relegated the trumpet to a role by most major composers owing to the limitations of the natural trumpet. Berlioz wrote in 1844, Notwithstanding the real loftiness and distinguished nature of its quality of tone, there are few instruments that have been more degraded. The attempt to give the trumpet more chromatic freedom in its range saw the development of the keyed trumpet, the symphonies of Mozart, and as late as Brahms, were still played on natural trumpets