Hindi, or Modern Standard Hindi is a standardised and Sanskritised register of the Hindustani language. Hindi, written in the Devanagari script, is one of the official languages of India, along with the English language, it is one of the 22 scheduled languages of the Republic of India. However, it is not the national language of India because no language was given such a status in the Indian constitution. Hindi is the lingua franca of the Hindi belt, to a lesser extent other parts of India. Outside India, several other languages are recognized as "Hindi" but do not refer to the Standard Hindi language described here and instead descend from other dialects of Hindustani, such as Awadhi and Bhojpuri; such languages include Fiji Hindi, official in Fiji, Caribbean Hindustani, a recognized language in Trinidad and Tobago and Suriname. Apart from specialized vocabulary, spoken Hindi is mutually intelligible with Urdu, another recognized register of Hindustani; as a linguistic variety, Hindi is the fourth most-spoken first language in the world, after Mandarin and English.
Alongside Urdu as Hindustani, it is the third most-spoken language in the world, after Mandarin and English. The term Hindī was used to refer to inhabitants of the region east of the Indus, it was borrowed from Classical Persian Hindī, meaning "Indian", from the proper noun Hind "India". The name Hindavī was used by Amir Khusrow in his poetry. Like other Indo-Aryan languages, Hindi is a direct descendant of an early form of Vedic Sanskrit, through Sauraseni Prakrit and Śauraseni Apabhraṃśa, which emerged in the 7th century A. D. Modern Standard Hindi is based on the Khariboli dialect, the vernacular of Delhi and the surrounding region, which came to replace earlier prestige dialects such as Awadhi and Braj. Urdu – another form of Hindustani – acquired linguistic prestige in the Mughal period, underwent significant Persian influence. Modern Hindi and its literary tradition evolved towards the end of the 18th century. However, modern Hindi's earlier literary stages before standardization can be traced to the 16th century.
In the late 19th century, a movement to further develop Hindi as a standardised form of Hindustani separate from Urdu took form. In 1881, Bihar accepted Hindi as its sole official language, replacing Urdu, thus became the first state of India to adopt Hindi. Modern Standard Hindi is one of the youngest Indian languages in this regard. After independence, the government of India instituted the following conventions: standardisation of grammar: In 1954, the Government of India set up a committee to prepare a grammar of Hindi. Standardisation of the orthography, using the Devanagari script, by the Central Hindi Directorate of the Ministry of Education and Culture to bring about uniformity in writing, to improve the shape of some Devanagari characters, introducing diacritics to express sounds from other languages. On 14 September 1949, the Constituent Assembly of India adopted Hindi written in the Devanagari script as the official language of the Republic of India replacing Urdu's previous usage in British India.
To this end, several stalwarts rallied and lobbied pan-India in favor of Hindi, most notably Beohar Rajendra Simha along with Hazari Prasad Dwivedi, Kaka Kalelkar, Maithili Sharan Gupt and Seth Govind Das who debated in Parliament on this issue. As such, on the 50th birthday of Beohar Rajendra Simha on 14 September 1949, the efforts came to fruition following the adoption of Hindi as the official language. Now, it is celebrated as Hindi Day. In Northeast India a pidgin known as Haflong Hindi has developed as a lingua franca for various tribes in Assam that speak other languages natively. In Arunachal Pradesh, Hindi emerged as a lingua franca among locals who speak over 50 dialects natively. Part XVII of the Indian Constitution deals with the official language of the Indian Commonwealth. Under Article 343, the official languages of the Union has been prescribed, which includes Hindi in Devanagari script and English: The official language of the Union shall be Hindi in Devanagari script; the form of numerals to be used for the official purposes of the Union shall be the international form of Indian numerals.
Notwithstanding anything in clause, for a period of fifteen years from the commencement of this Constitution, the English language shall continue to be used for all the official purposes of the Union for which it was being used before such commencement: Provided that the President may, during the said period, by order authorize the use of the Hindi language in addition to the English language and of the Devanagari form of numerals in addition to the international form of Indian numerals for any of the official purposes of the Union. Article 351 of the Indian constitution states It shall be the duty of the Union to promote the spread of the Hindi language, to develop it so that it may serve as a medium of expression for all the elements of the composite culture of India and to secure its enrichment by assimilating without interfering with its genius, the forms and expressions used in Hindustani and in the other languages of India specified in the Eighth Schedule, by drawing, wherever necessary or desirable, for its vocabulary on Sanskrit and secondarily on other languages.
It was envisioned that Hindi would become the sole working language of the Union Government by 1965 (per directi
Tirhuta or Mithilakshar is the script used for the Maithili language originating in the Mithila region of Bihar and the eastern Terai region of Nepal. The oldest reference to Tirhuta script is Sahodara Temple of Narkatiyaganj, dated 950 CE The script has a rich history spanning a thousand years, believed to be originated in the 10th century CE, but years of neglect by Nepal and the Bihar government have taken their toll on the use of Tirhuta, it is similar to Assamese script and Bengali script. Most speakers of Maithili have switched to using the Devanagari script, used to write neighboring Central Indic languages such as Nepali and Hindi; as a result, the number of people with a working knowledge of Tirhuta has dropped in recent years. Before 14th CE, Tirhuta was used to write Sanskrit Maithili was written in this script. Despite the near universal switch from Tirhuta to the Devanagari script for writing Maithili, some traditional pundits still use the script for sending one another ceremonial letters related to some important function such as marriage.
Metal type for this script was first produced in the 1920s, digital fonts in the 1990s. The 2003 inclusion of Maithili in the VIIIth Schedule of the Indian Constitution, having accorded official recognition to it as a language independent of Hindi, there is a possibility that this might lead to efforts to re-implement Tirhuta on a wider basis, in accord with similar trends in India reinforcing separate identities; however only Maithili in the Devanagari script is recognized. Tirhuta script uses its own signs for the positional decimal numeral system; the first two images shown below are samples illustrating the history of Tirhuta. The first is the sacred sign of Ganesha, called āñjī, used for millennia by students before beginning Tirhuta studies. Displayed further below are images of tables comparing the Devanagari scripts. Tirhuta script was added to the Unicode Standard in June 2014 with the release of version 7.0. The Unicode block for Tirhuta is U+11480–U+114DF: free Download Tirhuta Fonts Tirhuta Lipi: Native Script of Maithili Mithila Online Learn Mithilakshara by Gajendra Thakur
Madhya Pradesh is a state in central India. Its capital is Bhopal, the largest city is Indore, with Jabalpur, Gwalior and Sagar being the other major cities. Nicknamed the "Heart of India" due to its geographical location, Madhya Pradesh is the second largest Indian state by area and the fifth largest state by population with over 75 million residents, it borders the states of Uttar Pradesh to the northeast, Chhattisgarh to the southeast, Maharashtra to the south, Gujarat to the west, Rajasthan to the northwest. Its total area is 308,252 km2. Before 2000, when Chhattisgarh was a part of Madhya Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh was the largest state in India and the distance between the two furthest points inside the state and Konta, was 1500 km. Konta is presently in Sukma district of Chhattisgarh state; the area covered by the present-day Madhya Pradesh includes the area of the ancient Avanti Mahajanapada, whose capital Ujjain arose as a major city during the second wave of Indian urbanisation in the sixth century BCE.
Subsequently, the region was ruled by the major dynasties of India. By the early 18th century, the region was divided into several small kingdoms which were captured by the British and incorporated into Central Provinces and Berar and the Central India Agency. After India's independence, Madhya Pradesh state was created with Nagpur as its capital: this state included the southern parts of the present-day Madhya Pradesh and northeastern portion of today's Maharashtra. In 1956, this state was reorganised and its parts were combined with the states of Madhya Bharat, Vindhya Pradesh and Bhopal to form the new Madhya Pradesh state, the Marathi-speaking Vidarbha region was removed and merged with the Bombay State; this state was the largest in India by area until 2000, when its southeastern Chhattisgarh region was made as a separate state. Rich in mineral resources, MP has the largest reserves of copper in India. More than 30% of its area is under forest cover, its tourism industry has seen considerable growth, with the state topping the National Tourism Awards in 2010–11.
In recent years, the state's GDP growth has been above the national average. Isolated remains of Homo erectus found in Hathnora in the Narmada Valley indicate that Madhya Pradesh might have been inhabited in the Middle Pleistocene era. Painted pottery dated to the mesolithic period has been found in the Bhimbetka rock shelters. Chalcolithic sites belonging to Kayatha culture and Malwa culture have been discovered in the western part of the state; the city of Ujjain arose as a major centre in the region, during the second wave of Indian urbanisation in the sixth century BCE. It served as the capital of the Avanti kingdom Tejas. Other kingdoms mentioned in ancient epics—Malava, Karusha and Nishada—have been identified with parts of Madhya Pradesh. Chandragupta Maurya united northern India around 320 BCE, establishing the tejas Mauryan Empire, which included all of modern-day Madhya Pradesh. Ashoka the greatest of Mauryan rulers brought the region under firmer control. After the decline of the Maurya empire, the region was contested among the Sakas, the Kushanas, the Satavahanas, several local dynasties during the 1st to 3rd centuries CE.
Heliodorus, the Greek Ambassador to the court of the Shunga king Bhagabhadra erected the Heliodorus pillar near Vidisha. Ujjain emerged as the predominant commercial centre of western India from the first century BCE, located on the trade routes between the Ganges plain and India's Arabian Sea ports; the Satavahana dynasty of the northern Deccan and the Saka dynasty of the Western Satraps fought for the control of Madhya Pradesh during the 1st to 3rd centuries CE. The Satavahana king Gautamiputra Satakarni inflicted a crushing defeat upon the Saka rulers and conquered parts of Malwa and Gujarat in the 2nd century CE. Subsequently, the region came under the control of the Gupta empire in the 4th and 5th centuries, their southern neighbours, the Vakataka's; the rock-cut temples at Bagh Caves in the Kukshi tehsil of the Dhar district attest to the presence of the Gupta dynasty in the region, supported by the testimony of a Badwani inscription dated to the year of 487 CE. The attacks of the Hephthalites or White Huns brought about the collapse of the Gupta empire, which broke up into smaller states.
The king Yasodharman of Malwa defeated the Huns in 528. Harsha ruled the northern parts of the state. Malwa was ruled by the south Indian Rashtrakuta Dynasty from the late 8th century to the 10th century; when the south Indian Emperor Govinda III of the Rashtrakuta dynasty annexed Malwa, he set up the family of one of his subordinates there, who took the name of Paramara. The Medieval period saw the rise of the Rajput clans, including the Paramaras of Malwa and the Chandelas of Bundelkhand; the Chandellas built the majestic Hindu-Jain temples at Khajuraho, which represent the culmination of Hindu temple architecture in Central India. The Gurjara-Pratihara dynasty held sway in northern and western Madhya Pradesh at this time, it left some monuments of architectural value in Gwalior. Southern parts of Madhya Pradesh like Malwa were several times invaded by the south Indian Western Chalukya Empire which imposed its rule on the Paramara kingdom of Malwa; the Paramara king Bhoja was a renowned polymath.
The small Gond kingdoms emerged in the Mahakoshal regions of the state. Northern Madhya Pradesh was conquered by the Turkic Delhi Sultanate in the 13th century. After the collapse of the Delhi Sultanate at the end of the 14th century, independent regional kingdoms re-emerged, including the Tomara kingdom of Gwalior and the Muslim
Kaithi called "Kayathi" or "Kayasthi", is a historical script used in parts of North India in the former Awadh and Bihar. It was used for writing legal and private records; this script is similar to Devanagari. Kaithi script derives its name from the word Kayastha, a social group of India that traditionally consists of administrators and accountants; the Kayastha community was associated with the princely courts and colonial governments of North India, were employed by them to write and maintain records of revenue transactions, legal documents, title deeds. The script used by them acquired the name Kaithi. Documents in Kaithi are traceable to at least the 16th century; the script was used during the Mughal period. In the 1880s, during the British Raj, the script was recognized as the official script of the law courts of Bihar. Kaithi was the most used script of North India west of Bengal. In 1854, 77,368 school primers were in Kaithi script, as compared to 25,151 in Devanagari and 24,302 in Mahajani.
Among the three scripts used in the Hindi Belt, Kaithi was perceived to be neutral, as it was used by both Hindus and Muslims alike for day-to-day correspondence and administrative activities, while Devanagari was used by Hindus and Persian script by Muslims for religious literature and education. This made Kaithi unfavorable to the more conservative and religiously inclined members of society who insisted on Devanagari-based and Persian-based transcription of Hindi dialects; as a result of their influence and due to the wide availability of Devanagari type as opposed to the large variability of Kaithi, Devanagari was promoted in the Northwest Provinces, which covers present-day Uttar Pradesh. Kaithi was nicknamed "Shikasta Nagari" due to its relationship with Devanagari being akin to the relationship between the used dot-less Shikasta Nastaliq of the time and the more formal and expressive printed Nastaliq scripts. All Kaithi consonants have an inherent a vowel: Kaithi vowels have independent and dependent forms: Several diacritics are employed to change the meaning of letters: Kaithi has several script-specific punctuation marks: General punctuation is used with Kaithi: + plus sign can be used to mark phrase boundaries ‐ hyphen and - hyphen-minus can be used for hyphenation ⸱ word separator middle dot can be used as a word boundary Kaithi uses stylistic variants of Devangari digits.
It uses common Indic number signs for fractions and unit marks. Kaithi script was added to the Unicode Standard in October 2009 with the release of version 5.2. The Unicode block for Kaithi is U+11080–U+110CF
Chhattisgarh is one of the 29 states of India, located in the centre-east of the country. It is the tenth-largest state in India, with an area of 135,191 km2. With a 2011 population of 25.5 million, Chhattisgarh is the 16th-most populated state in the country. A resource-rich state, it is a source of electricity and steel for the country, accounting for 15% of the total steel produced. Chhattisgarh is one of the fastest-developing states in India; the state was formed on 1 November 2000 by partitioning 10 Chhattisgarhi and 6 Gondi speaking southeastern districts of Madhya Pradesh. The capital city is Raipur. Chhattisgarh borders the states of Madhya Pradesh in the northwest, Uttar Pradesh in the north, Jharkhand in northeast, Maharashtra in the southwest, Telangana in the south, Odisha in the southeast; the state comprises 27 districts. The Gross State Domestic Product of Chhattisgarh is ₹3.63 lakh crore and the per capita GSDP ₹102,762 There are several opinions as to the origin of the name Chhattisgarh, which in ancient times was known as Dakshina Kosala.
"Chhattisgarh" was popularised during the time of the Maratha Empire and was first used in an official document in 1795. It is claimed; the old state had 36 demesnes: Ratanpur, Kharound, Kautgarh, Sondhi, Padarbhatta, Champa, Chhuri, Matin, Pendra, Kurkuti-kandri, Patan, Singarpur, Omera, Saradha, Menhadi, Sirpur, Rajim, Suvarmar and Akaltara. However, experts do not agree with this explanation, as 36 forts cannot be archaeologically identified in this region. Another view, more popular with experts and historians, is that Chhattisgarh is the corrupted form of Chedisgarh meaning Raj or "Empire of the Chedis". In ancient times, Chhattisgarh region had been part of the Chedi dynasty of Kalinga, in modern Odisha. In the medieval period up to 1803, a major portion of present eastern Chhattisgarh was part of the Sambalpur Kingdom of Odisha; the northern and southern parts of the state are hilly. The highest point in the state is the Gaurlata. Deciduous forests of the Eastern Highlands Forests cover 44% of the state.
The state animal is wild Asian buffalo. The state bird is hill myna; the state tree is the Sal found in Bastar division. In the north lies the edge of the great Indo-Gangetic plain; the Rihand River, a tributary of the Ganges, drains this area. The eastern end of the Satpura Range and the western edge of the Chota Nagpur Plateau form an east-west belt of hills that divide the Mahanadi River basin from the Indo-Gangetic plain; the outline of Chhattisgarh is like a sea horse. The central part of the state lies in the fertile upper basin of the Mahanadi river and its tributaries; this area has extensive rice cultivation. The upper Mahanadi basin is separated from the upper Narmada basin to the west by the Maikal Hills and from the plains of Odisha to the east by ranges of hills; the southern part of the state lies on the Deccan plateau, in the watershed of the Godavari River and its tributary, the Indravati River. The Mahanadi is the chief river of the state; the other main rivers are Hasdo, Indravati, Jonk and Shivnath.
It is situated in the east of Madhya Pradesh. The natural environment of Koriya in Chhattisgarh includes forests, mountains and waterfalls. Koriya was a princely state during the British rule in India. Koriya is known for its mineral deposits. Coal is found in this part of the country; the dense forests are rich in wildlife. The Amrit Dhara Waterfall, Koriya's main attraction, is a natural waterfall which originates from the Hasdeo River; the fall is situated seven kilometres from Koriya on the Manendragarh-Baikunthpur road. The Amrit Dhara Waterfall falls from a height of 27 m, it is 3–4.5 m wide. Chirimiri is one of the more popular places, known for its natural environment and climate, in Chhattisgarh; the climate of Chhattisgarh is tropical. It is hot and humid because of its proximity to the Tropic of Cancer and its dependence on the monsoons for rains. Summer temperatures in Chhattisgarh can reach 45 °C; the monsoon season is a welcome respite from the heat. Chhattisgarh receives an average of 1,292 millimetres of rain.
Winter is from November to January and it is a good time to visit Chhattisgarh. Winters are pleasant with less humidity. Chhattisgarh has coverage of two-lane or one-lane roads which provides connectivity to major cities. Eleven national highways passing through the state which are together 3078.40 km in length. However, most national highways are in poor condition and provide only two lanes for slow moving traffic. Many national highways are on paper and not converted into four-lane highway; this includes 130A New, 130B New, 130C New, 130D New, 149B New, 163A New, 343 New, 930New.. Other national highway includes NH 6, NH 16, NH 43, NH 12A, NH 78, NH 111, NH 200, NH 202, NH 216, NH 217, NH 221, NH30NH 930 NEW; the state highways and major district roads constitute another network of 8,031 km. Chhattisgarh has one of the lowest densities of National Highway in Central and South India, similar to the North Eastern state of Assam; the entire railway network spread over the state comes under the geographical jurisdiction of the South East
The term Madheshi people is defined in two different ways: Anthropologists use it for people of Indian ancestry residing in the Terai of Nepal and comprising various cultural groups such as Hindu caste groups, muslims and indigenous people of the Terai. Many of these groups share cultural traditions and marital ties with people living south of the international border in Bihar, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal. In recent times, some politicians and journalists have used the term for all Nepali citizens of the Terai. Migrants to the Terai from the hills in Nepal and Tharu people do not consider themselves to be Madheshi. Madheshi people comprise caste groups like Brahmin and Dalit as well as ethnic groups such as Maithils, Bhojpuri and Bajjika speaking people. Indian immigrants settled foremost in present-day eastern Nepal Terai since the late 18th century, when the rulers of Nepal encouraged deforestation and agricultural development of this region; the word madhesh is thought to be derived from the Sanskrit मध्य देश "madhya desh" meaning "middle country", which refers to "the central region, the country lying between the Himalayas and the Vindhya mountains".
Since the late 18th century, the Shah rulers of Nepal encouraged Indian people to settle in the eastern Terai through a series of subsidies granted to new settlers. A severe flood of the Koshi River followed by a drought caused famine-stricken Bihari farmers in the 1770s to 1780s to migrate to the Nepal Terai, where they converted forest to agricultural land. Immigration of people from neighbouring India increased between 1846 and 1950, they settled foremost in the eastern Nepal Terai together with native Terai peoples. In the mid 19th century, Muslim people from the Awadh region were invited to settle in the far-western Nepal Terai, where they received large forested areas for conversion to agriculture. Since the late 1940s, the term'Madhes' was used by politicians in the Nepal Terai to differentiate between interests of the people of the Terai and of the hills. In the 1950s, the regional political party Nepal Terai Congress advocated more autonomy for the Terai, recognition of Hindi as a national language and increasing employment opportunities for Madheshi people.
During 1961 to 1990, the Panchayat government enforced a policy of assimilating diverse cultural groups into a pan-Nepali identity. Legal directives made it an offence to address discrimination of ethnic groups. After the Panchayat regime was abolished following the People's Movement in spring 1990, disadvanted groups demanded a more equitable share of political resources such as admittance to civil service; the Nepal Sadbhawana Party started lobbying for socio-cultural and political rights of Madheshi people. The discussions on rights and demands of Madheshi people increased after the end of the Nepalese Civil War, in particular among Madheshi intellectuals and political elites; the political parties Janatantrik Terai Mukti Morcha and Madheshi Jana Adhikar Forum advocated the idea of an autonomous Madhes province stretching all over the Terai and organised violent demonstrations in 2007 to enforce their demands. The United Democratic Madheshi Front formed by Madheshi organizations pressured the government to accept this concept of autonomy under the motto "One Madhes One Pradesh".
Several ethnic and religious groups in the Terai opposed and resisted this policy under the leadership of Madheshi parties, foremost Tharu and Muslim people. Conflicts remain between Madheshi people and ethnic groups indigenous to the Terai, between Madheshis and muslims, between high caste and low caste Madheshis. In October 2017, the Alliance for Independent Madhesh became a member of the Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization; the Nepal Terai totals about 23.1 % of Nepal's land area. As of 2001, about 48.5% of Nepal's population lived in the Terai, which had the highest density in the country with 330.78 people per sq km. As of June 2011, the Nepal Terai's human population totalled 13,318,705 people comprising more than 120 different ethnic groups and castes. In 1952, a Nepal Citizenship Act was passed that entitled all those immigrants to obtain Nepali citizenship who had stayed in the country for at least five years; the Citizenship Act of 1963 entitled immigrants to receive Nepali citizenship if they were engaged in business and could read and write Nepali.
In 2006, the Nepal Citizenship Act was amended to the effect that people born before 1990 and residing permanently in the country obtained the right to Nepalese citizenship. About 2.3 million people received citizenship certificates. The Constitution of Nepal 2015 contains provisions for a Nepali citizenship by naturalisation, which can be acquired by: foreign women who are married to a Nepali man; the culture of Madeshi people is diverse. The Muslim and indigenous peoples speak their own languages and have distinct cultural traditions that differ from the Hindu caste groups. Latter comprise at least 43 distinct groups. Many Muslim Madheshis claim origins in India, Afghanistan and Persia, they are influenced by the hierarchy of the Hindu caste system, with the difference that it is not based on the principle of pollution and purity, but on occupation. The National Population and Housing Census of 2011 knows of 123 languages spoken in all of Nepal and lists: 3,092,530 Maithili speaking people, of which 3,004,245 lived in the Terai.
Muslim Madheshis speak Urdu b