The papaya, papaw or pawpaw is the plant Carica papaya, one of the 22 accepted species in the genus Carica of the family Caricaceae. Its origin is in the tropics of the Americas from southern Mexico and neighboring Central America; the papaya is a small, sparsely branched tree with a single stem growing from 5 to 10 m tall, with spirally arranged leaves confined to the top of the trunk. The lower trunk is conspicuously scarred; the leaves are large, 50–70 cm in diameter palmately lobed, with seven lobes. All parts of the plant contain latex in articulated laticifers. Papayas are dioecious; the flowers are 5-parted and dimorphic, the male flowers with the stamens fused to the petals. The female flowers have five contorted petals loosely connected at the base. Male and female flowers are borne in the leaf axils, the males in multiflowered dichasia, the female flowers is few-flowered dichasia; the flowers open at night and are moth-pollinated. The fruit is a large berry about 15 -- 10 -- 30 cm in diameter.
It is ripe when it feels soft and its skin has attained an amber to orange hue. Native to Mexico and northern South America, papaya has become naturalized throughout the Caribbean Islands, Texas, California and other tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Papaya plants grow in three sexes: male and hermaphrodite; the male produces only pollen, never fruit. The female produces inedible fruits unless pollinated; the hermaphrodite can self-pollinate since its flowers contain female ovaries. All commercial papaya orchards contain only hermaphrodites. From southern Mexico, Central America, northern South America, the papaya is now cultivated in most tropical countries. In cultivation, it grows fruiting within 3 years, it is, however frost-sensitive, limiting its production to tropical climates. Temperatures below −2 °C are harmful if not fatal. In Florida and Texas, growth is limited to southern parts of the states, it prefers well-drained soil, as standing water will kill the plant within 24 hours.
Two kinds of papayas are grown. One has sweet, red or orange flesh, the other has yellow flesh. Either kind, picked green, is called a "green papaya"; the large-fruited, red-fleshed'Maradol','Sunrise', and'Caribbean Red' papayas sold in U. S. markets are grown in Mexico and Belize. In 2011, Philippine researchers reported that by hybridizing papaya with Vasconcellea quercifolia, they had developed conventionally bred, nongenetically engineered papaya resistant to papaya ringspot virus. Carica papaya was the first transgenic fruit tree. In response to the papaya ringspot virus outbreak in Hawaii, in 1998, genetically altered papaya were approved and brought to market Varieties resistant to PRV have some DNA of this virus incorporated into the DNA of the plant; as of 2010, 80% of Hawaiian papaya plants were genetically modified. The modifications were made by University of Hawaii scientists, who made the modified seeds available to farmers without charge. Papaya ringspot virus is a well-known virus within plants in Florida.
The first signs of the virus are yellowing and vein-clearing of younger leaves, as well as mottling yellow leaves. Infected leaves may obtain blisters, roughen or narrow, with blades sticking upwards from the middle of the leaves; the petioles and stems may develop dark green greasy streaks and in time become shorter. The ringspots are C-shaped markings that are darker green than the fruit itself. In the stages of the virus, the markings may become gray and crusty. Viral infections impact growth and reduce the fruit's quality. One of the biggest effects that viral infections have on papaya is the taste; as of 2010, the only way to protect papaya from this virus is genetic modification. The papaya mosaic virus destroys the plant; the virus affects both the leaves of the fruit. Leaves show thin, dark-green lines around the borders and clear areas around the veins; the more affected leaves are irregular and linear in shape. The virus can infect the fruit at any stage of its maturity. Fruits as young as 2 weeks old have been spotted with dark-green ringspots about 1 inch in diameter.
Rings on the fruit are most seen on either the stem end or the blossom end. In the early stages of the ringspots, the rings tend to be many closed circles, but as the disease develops, the rings will increase in diameter consisting of one large ring; the difference between the ringspot and the mosaic viruses is the ripe fruit in the ringspot has mottling of colors and mosaic does not. The fungus anthracnose is known to attack papaya the mature fruits; the disease starts out small with few signs, such as water-soaked spots on ripening fruits. The spots become sunken, turn brown or black, may get bigger. In some of the older spots, the fungus may produce pink spores; the fruit ends up having an off flavor because the fungus grows into the fruit. The fungus powdery mildew occurs as a superficial white presence on the surface of the leaf in which it is recognized. Tiny, light yellow spots begin on the lower surfaces of the leaf as the disease starts to make its way; the spots enlarge and white powdery growth appears on the leaves.
The infection u
Fish are gill-bearing aquatic craniate animals that lack limbs with digits. They form a sister group to the tunicates. Included in this definition are the living hagfish and cartilaginous and bony fish as well as various extinct related groups. Tetrapods emerged within lobe-finned fishes, so cladistically they are fish as well. However, traditionally fish are rendered paraphyletic by excluding the tetrapods; because in this manner the term "fish" is defined negatively as a paraphyletic group, it is not considered a formal taxonomic grouping in systematic biology, unless it is used in the cladistic sense, including tetrapods. The traditional term pisces is considered a typological, but not a phylogenetic classification; the earliest organisms that can be classified as fish were soft-bodied chordates that first appeared during the Cambrian period. Although they lacked a true spine, they possessed notochords which allowed them to be more agile than their invertebrate counterparts. Fish would continue to evolve through the Paleozoic era.
Many fish of the Paleozoic developed external armor. The first fish with jaws appeared in the Silurian period, after which many became formidable marine predators rather than just the prey of arthropods. Most fish are ectothermic, allowing their body temperatures to vary as ambient temperatures change, though some of the large active swimmers like white shark and tuna can hold a higher core temperature. Fish can communicate in their underwater environments through the use of acoustic communication. Acoustic communication in fish involves the transmission of acoustic signals from one individual of a species to another; the production of sounds as a means of communication among fish is most used in the context of feeding, aggression or courtship behaviour. The sounds emitted by fish can vary depending on the stimulus involved, they can produce either stridulatory sounds by moving components of the skeletal system, or can produce non-stridulatory sounds by manipulating specialized organs such as the swimbladder.
Fish are abundant in most bodies of water. They can be found in nearly all aquatic environments, from high mountain streams to the abyssal and hadal depths of the deepest oceans, although no species has yet been documented in the deepest 25% of the ocean. With 33,600 described species, fish exhibit greater species diversity than any other group of vertebrates. Fish are an important resource for humans worldwide as food. Commercial and subsistence fishers hunt fish in wild fisheries or farm them in ponds or in cages in the ocean, they are caught by recreational fishers, kept as pets, raised by fishkeepers, exhibited in public aquaria. Fish have had a role in culture through the ages, serving as deities, religious symbols, as the subjects of art and movies. Fish do not represent a monophyletic group, therefore the "evolution of fish" is not studied as a single event. Early fish from the fossil record are represented by a group of small, armored fish known as ostracoderms. Jawless fish lineages are extinct.
An extant clade, the lampreys may approximate ancient pre-jawed fish. The first jaws are found in Placodermi fossils; the diversity of jawed vertebrates may indicate the evolutionary advantage of a jawed mouth. It is unclear if the advantage of a hinged jaw is greater biting force, improved respiration, or a combination of factors. Fish may have evolved from a creature similar to a coral-like sea squirt, whose larvae resemble primitive fish in important ways; the first ancestors of fish may have kept the larval form into adulthood, although the reverse is the case. Fish are a paraphyletic group: that is, any clade containing all fish contains the tetrapods, which are not fish. For this reason, groups such as the "Class Pisces" seen in older reference works are no longer used in formal classifications. Traditional classification divides fish into three extant classes, with extinct forms sometimes classified within the tree, sometimes as their own classes: Class Agnatha Subclass Cyclostomata Subclass Ostracodermi † Class Chondrichthyes Subclass Elasmobranchii Subclass Holocephali Class Placodermi † Class Acanthodii † Class Osteichthyes Subclass Actinopterygii Subclass Sarcopterygii The above scheme is the one most encountered in non-specialist and general works.
Many of the above groups are paraphyletic, in that they have given rise to successive groups: Agnathans are ancestral to Chondrichthyes, who again have given rise to Acanthodiians, the ancestors of Osteichthyes. With the arrival of phylogenetic nomenclature, the fishes has been split up into a more detailed scheme, with the following major groups: Class Myxini Class Pteraspidomorphi † Class Thelodonti † Class Anaspida † Class Petromyzontida or Hyperoartia Petromyzontidae Class Conodonta † Class Cephalaspidomorphi † Galeaspida † Pituriaspida † Osteostraci † Infraphylum Gnathostomata Class Placodermi † Class Chondrichthyes Class Acanthodii † Superclass Osteichthy
Guangdong is a province in South China, on the South China Sea coast. Guangdong surpassed Henan and Shandong to become the most populous province in China in January 2005, registering 79.1 million permanent residents and 31 million migrants who lived in the province for at least six months of the year. This makes it the most populous first-level administrative subdivision of any country outside of South Asia, as its population is surpassed only by those of the Pakistani province of Punjab and the Indian states of Bihar and Uttar Pradesh; the provincial capital Guangzhou and economic hub Shenzhen are among the most populous and important cities in China. The population increase since the census has been modest, the province registering 108,500,000 people in 2015. Most of the historical Guangdong Province is administered by the People's Republic of China. However, the archipelagos of Pratas in the South China Sea are controlled by the Republic of China, were part of Guangdong Province before the Chinese Civil War.
Since 1989, Guangdong has topped the total GDP rankings among all provincial-level divisions, with Jiangsu and Shandong second and third in rank. According to state statistics, Guangdong's GDP in 2017 reached 1.42 trillion US dollars, making its economy the same size as Mexico. The province contributes 12% of the PRC's national economic output, is home to the production facilities and offices of a wide-ranging set of Chinese and foreign corporations. Guangdong hosts the largest import and export fair in China, the Canton Fair, hosted in the provincial capital of Guangzhou. "Guǎng" means "wide" or "vast", has been associated with the region since the creation of Guang Prefecture in AD 226. The name "Guang" came from Guangxin, an outpost established in Han dynasty near modern Wuzhou, whose name is a reference to an order by Emperor Wu of Han to "widely bestow favors and sow trust". Together and Guangxi are called Loeng gwong During the Song dynasty, the Two Guangs were formally separated as Guǎngnán Dōnglù and Guǎngnán Xīlù, which became abbreviated as Guǎngdōng Lù and Guǎngxī Lù. "Canton", though etymologically derived from Cantão, refers only to the provincial capital instead of the whole province, as documented by authoritative English dictionaries.
The local people of the city of Guangzhou and their language are called Cantonese in English. Because of the prestige of Canton and its accent, Cantonese sensu lato can be used for the phylogenetically related residents and Chinese dialects outside the provincial capital; the Neolithic era began in the Pearl River Delta 7,000 years before present, with the early period from around 7000 to 5000 BP, the late period from about 5000 to 3500 BP. In coastal Guangdong, the Neolithic was introduced from the middle Yangtze River area. In inland Guangdong, the neolithic appeared in Guangdong 4,600 years before present; the Neolithic in northern inland Guangdong is represented by the Shixia culture, which occurred from 4600–4200 BP. Inhabited by a mixture of tribal groups known to the Chinese as the Baiyue, the region first became part of China during the Qin dynasty. Under the Qin Dynasty, Chinese administration began and along with it reliable historical records in the region. After establishing the first unified Chinese empire, the Qin expanded southwards and set up Nanhai Commandery at Panyu, near what is now part of Guangzhou.
The region was a independent kingdom as Nanyue between the fall of Qin and the reign of Emperor Wu of Han. The Han dynasty administered Guangdong and northern Vietnam as Jiaozhi Province, southernmost Jiaozhi Province was used as a gateway for traders from the west—as far away as the Roman Empire. Under the Wu Kingdom of the Three Kingdoms period, Guangdong was made its own province, the Guang Province, in 226 CE; as time passed, the demographics of what is now Guangdong shifted to Chinese dominance as the populations intermingled due to commerce along the great canals, abruptly shifted through massive migration from the north during periods of political turmoil and nomadic incursions from the fall of the Han dynasty onwards. For example, internal strife in northern China following the rebellion of An Lushan resulted in a 75% increase in the population of Guangzhou prefecture between the 740s–750s and 800s–810s; as more migrants arrived, the local population was assimilated to Han Chinese culture or displaced.
Together with Guangxi, Guangdong was made part of Lingnan Circuit, or Mountain-South Circuit, in 627 during the Tang dynasty. The Guangdong part of Lingnan Circuit was renamed Guangnan East Circuit guǎng nán dōng lù in 971 during the Song dynasty. "Guangnan East" is the source of the name "Guangdong". As Mongols from the north engaged in their conquest of China in the 13th century, the Southern Song court fled southwards from its capital in Hangzhou; the defeat of the Southern Song court by Mongol naval forces in The Battle of Yamen 1279 in Guangdong marked the end of the Southern Song dynasty. During the Mongol Yuan dynas
Shandong is a coastal province of the People's Republic of China, is part of the East China region. Shandong has played a major role in Chinese history since the beginning of Chinese civilization along the lower reaches of the Yellow River, it has served as a pivotal cultural and religious center for Taoism, Chinese Buddhism, Confucianism. Shandong's Mount Tai is the most revered mountain of Taoism and one of the world's sites with the longest history of continuous religious worship; the Buddhist temples in the mountains to the south of the provincial capital of Jinan were once among the foremost Buddhist sites in China. The city of Qufu is the birthplace of Confucius, was established as the center of Confucianism. Shandong's location at the intersection of ancient as well as modern north–south and east–west trading routes have helped to establish it as an economic center. After a period of political instability and economic hardship that began in the late 19th century, Shandong has emerged as one of the most populous and most affluent provinces in the People's Republic of China with a GDP of CNY¥5.942 trillion in 2014, or USD$967 billion, making it China's third wealthiest province.
Individually, the two Chinese characters in the name "Shandong" mean "mountain" and "east". Shandong could hence be translated as "east of the mountains" and refers to the province's location to the east of the Taihang Mountains. A common nickname for Shandong is Qílǔ, after the States of Qi and Lu that existed in the area during the Spring and Autumn period. Whereas the State of Qi was a major power of its era, the State of Lu played only a minor role in the politics of its time. Lu, became renowned for being the home of Confucius and hence its cultural influence came to eclipse that of the State of Qi; the cultural dominance of the State of Lu heritage is reflected in the official abbreviation for Shandong, "鲁". English speakers in the 19th century called the province Shan-tung; the province is on the eastern edge of the North China Plain and in the lower reaches of the Yellow River, extends out to sea as the Shandong Peninsula. Shandong borders the Bohai Sea to the north, Hebei to the northwest, Henan to the west, Jiangsu to the south, the Yellow Sea to the southeast.
With its location on the eastern edge of the North China Plain, Shandong was home to a succession of Neolithic cultures for millennia, including the Houli culture, the Beixin culture, the Dawenkou culture, the Longshan culture, the Yueshi culture. The earliest dynasties exerted varying degrees of control over western Shandong, while eastern Shandong was inhabited by the Dongyi peoples who were considered "barbarians". Over subsequent centuries, the Dongyi were sinicized. During the Spring and Autumn period and the Warring States period, regional states became powerful. At this time, Shandong was home to two major states: the state of Qi at Linzi and the state of Lu at Qufu. Lu is noted for being the home of Confucius; the state was, comparatively small, succumbed to the larger state of Chu from the south. The state of Qi, on the other hand, was a major power throughout the period. Cities it ruled included Jimo and Ju; the Qin dynasty conquered Qi and founded the first centralized Chinese state in 221 BCE.
The Han dynasty that followed created a number of commanderies supervised by two regions in what is now modern Shandong: Qingzhou in the north and Yanzhou in the south. During the division of the Three Kingdoms, Shandong belonged to the Cao Wei, which ruled over northern China. After the Three Kingdoms period, a brief period of unity under the Western Jin dynasty gave way to invasions by nomadic peoples from the north. Northern China, including Shandong, was overrun. Over the next century or so Shandong changed hands several times, falling to the Later Zhao Former Yan Former Qin Later Yan Southern Yan the Liu Song dynasty, the Northern Wei dynasty, the first of the Northern dynasties during the Northern and Southern dynasties Period. Shandong stayed with the Northern dynasties for the rest of this period. In 412 CE, the Chinese Buddhist monk Faxian landed at Laoshan, on the southern edge of the Shandong peninsula, proceeded to Qingzhou to edit and translate the scriptures he had brought back from India.
The Sui dynasty reestablished unity in 589, the Tang dynasty presided over the next golden age of China. For the earlier part of this period Shandong was ruled as part of Henan Circuit, one of the circuits. On China splintered into warlord factions, resulting in the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. Shandong was part of all based in the north; the Song dynasty reunified China in the late tenth century. The classic novel Water Margin was based on folk tales of outlaw bands active in Shandong during the Song dynasty. In 1996, the discovery of over two hundred buried Buddhist statues at Qingzhou was hailed as a major archaeological find; the statues included early examples of painted figures, are thought to have been buried due to Emperor Huizong's repression of Buddhism. The Song dynasty was forced to cede northern China to the Jurchen Jin dynasty in 1142. Shandong was administered by the Jin as Shandong East Circuit and Shandong West Circuit – the first use of its current name; the modern provinc
Tan was an ancient state located in present-day Shandong Province, China. It is the first state reported to be "extinguished" during the Autumn period. In 1046 BCE, the last king of the Shang Dynasty, was defeated at the Battle of Muye by King Wu, founder of the Zhou Dynasty. Following this victory, he founded a number of small subordinate vassal states to be ruled by his brothers and generals. One of these was the State of Tan, located just East of present-day Jinan, the capital of the present-day Shandong Province; the Tan rulers, who were reputed to be descendants of Yu the Great, were given the then-new heredity title of zijue or viscount. In February 684 BCE, when rulers of neighboring states went to congratulate Duke Huan of Qi, ruler of the neighboring State of Qi, on defeating the State of Lu and the State of Song, Xian Li, the ruler of Tan declined to go. In October of that year, the ruler of Qi used this discourtesy as an excuse to attack Xian Li and his three brothers. After ten days, his siege was successful, Xian Li fled with 200 members of the royal court to the State of Ju, where his son, Qi Yi, was the ruler.
Qi Yi was the first to change his clan name to Tan in memory of their defeated state. Today, Tancheng claims to be the ancient capital of this State of Tan. However, it has been argued that it is the capital of a State of Tan established during the Tang Dynasty. Others argue that the ancient capital is the present-day Mingshui Sub-district of the city of Zhangqiu in Shandong Province
Taishan or Taishan County romanized in Cantonese as Toishan, in local dialect as Hoisan or Toisan, known as Xinning or Sunning, is a county-level city in the southwest of Guangdong province, China. It is administered as part of the prefecture-level city of Jiangmen. During the 2010 census, there were 941,095 inhabitants. Taishan calls itself the "First Home of the Overseas Chinese". An estimated half a million Chinese Americans are of Taishanese descent. Taishan is located in the Pearl River Delta in southwestern of Jiangmen Prefecture, it contains 95 islands and islets, including Shangchuan Island, the largest island in Guangdong now that Hainan has become a separate province. Taishan is one of Guangdong's "Four Counties", which excluded Heshan and is now part of the Greater Taishan Region. During the Ming dynasty, the area of present-day Taishan was carved out of Xinhui County on 12 February 1499 as Xinning County. Xinning was a source of migrant and emigrant workers, but a series of natural and political disasters in the 19th century exacerbated the situation.
Aside from the disruption of the Sea Ban regulations themselves, their revocation led to an influx of northern settlers who began long-running feuds with the returning locals. The 1842 Treaty of Nanjing that ended the First Opium War opened China to greater foreign trade just before the California Gold Rush made the prospect of emigration to the United States appealing. Many served as contract workers abroad, as in Hawaii and Cuba and—most famously—for the Central Pacific half of America's Transcontinental Railroad, where the Chinese made up 80% of the company's workforce as they laid track over the mountains and deserts of the west. By 1870, there were 63,000 Chinese in the United States all in California. Chin Gee Hee's Sun Ning Railway Company connected Xunning with its hinterland in 1908 and reached Jiangmen in 1913, it was notable as one of only three financed, built and run by the Chinese themselves before the 1949 Communist victory in the Chinese Civil War. In 1914, the new republican government renamed the area Taishan County to avoid confusion with other places named Xinning.
During the Second World War, the Xinning Railway was destroyed to prevent its use by the Japanese. Japanese soldiers killed nearly 280 people. Taishan was promoted to county-level city status on 17 April 1992, reflecting its increasing level of urbanization. A part of Jiangmen, Taishan covers 3,286 km2 and is subdivided into 16 towns, which are in turn subdivided into 313 village residential committees and 3,655 natural villages; these Towns are: Taicheng: sub-district and seat of the city but a township. Beidou: separated from other townships by Zhenhai Bay. Haiyan: site of an Overseas Chinese farm. Chuandao: includes Shangchuan and Xiachuan islands, has been declared an Integrated Open Tourism Experimental Zone; these “Natural Villages” include: Annanjiangchao. Bihou. Jilong. Guanbuli. If considering the total Greater Taishan Region or Sze Yap Region, which includes Kaiping, Xinhui and Taishan, there are about 8 to 9 million Taishanese people worldwide. According to American historian Him Mark Lai 430,000 or 70% of Chinese Americans in the 1980s were Taishanese according to 1988 data.
Some 500,000 Chinese Americans claim Taishanese origins. While Taishan itself has a population of about 1 million, there are around 1.3 million Taishanese people overseas, distributed in 91 countries and regions. It is estimated that, up to the mid- to late-20th century, over 75% of all overseas Chinese in North America claimed origin in Taishan, so Taishan has been named the "Home of Overseas Chinese." The main language of Taishan is Taishanese. While most Taishanese today use Mandarin in school or formal occasions, Taishanese is the de facto language. Schools require their students to speak Mandarin in the classroom, teachers are required to lecture in Mandarin. Taishanese is a language of the Yue Chinese, a large group which includes, but is broader than, the Cantonese spoken in Hong Kong and Guangzhou, thus Cantonese and Taishanese are distinct. Cantonese is widely known in Taishan, as it serves as the lingua franca of Guangdong Province. Before the 1980s, Taishanese was the predominant Chinese language spoken throughout North America's Chinatowns.
Taishan is the birthplace of Chinese volleyball, introduced by Overseas Chinese. Its teams have won many national championships. Taishan and Guangzhou are the birthplaces of Guangdong music. One quarter of the "Flying Tigers" came from Taishan; this legendary group of American airmen fought the Japanese before the United States entered the Second World War. Taishan hosts Jiangmen Star Park which has produced more international Chinese celebrities than any other region or city in China. Parts of the movie Let the Bullets Fly were filmed in Taishan in 2010. Electricity for Taishan is generated by the: Guohua Taishan Power Station Taishan Nuclear Power Plant Education enjoys significant support from Overseas Chinese professionals and businessmen. Many secondary schools were built and financed by Chinese living in the Special Administrative Regions, as well as various foreign countries, such as the United States and Brazil. To honour their benefactors, these schools bear their names or the names of their parents.
Peng Quan School is a prime example, constructed during 1999–2001, is now integrated in
Taicheng Township is the capital of Taishan City, which lies on the right bank of the Pearl River Delta in Guangdong Province, China. The township covers 157.6 km² with a population of 176,000. With the urban centre covering only some 18 km², there are 27000mu under cultivation and 10 neighbourhood and 26 village committees; some of these villages are surrounded by high-rise urban development, while others lie in the rural outskirts of the township, including the village of Bi Hou. In 1891, the Presbyterian Church of America constructed a chapel on the main thoroughfare of Tai Xi Road, reconstructed in elegant red-brick in 1922 with a capacity of 300. In 1906 Chen Yixi began building a railway which linked Taicheng with Jiangmen through the Sun Ning Railway Company. In 1907, the Tan Clan Middle School was founded east of the town, but is now surrounded by urban development. A new residential school is being constructed outside of the town to replace what is now a dilapidated and crowded structure.
In 1938 the railway was destroyed in advance of invading Japanese troops. On March 3, 1941, Japanese troops from Doushan marched into Taicheng led by a Chinese traitor, took the town in three hours. 282 people were killed, 534 stores and houses were burnt, goods estimated at ¥3,600,000 were plundered. A week the Nationalist Chinese Army retook the town, but were again forced out on September 20, 1941. Japanese troops remained in occupation until their unconditional surrender at the end of the war on August 15, 1945. In 1949 more than 30,000 people gathered in Taishan Park to celebrate the Communist victory in the civil war against the armies of the Kuomintang of Chiang Kai-shek. Railway service to Taishan started again in 2018, with the opening of the Shenzhen–Zhanjiang high-speed railway; the Taishan Railway Station is located within Taicheng Subdistrict, some 7 km north of Taishan city center. Http://www.taishan.com/english/towns/taicheng/index.htm http://www.tsinfo.com.cn/EN