Gandhāra was an ancient state, a mahajanapada, in the Peshawar basin in the northwest portion of the ancient Indian subcontinent, present-day Afghanistan and Pakistan. The center of the region was at the confluence of the Kabul and Swat rivers, bounded by the Sulaiman Mountains on the west and the Indus River on the east; the Safed Koh mountains separated it from the Kohat region to the south. This being the core area of Gandhara, the cultural influence of "Greater Gandhara" extended across the Indus river to the Taxila region and westwards into the Kabul and Bamiyan valleys in Afghanistan, northwards up to the Karakoram range. Gandhara was one of sixteen mahajanapadas of ancient India mentioned in Buddhist sources such as Anguttara Nikaya. During the Achaemenid period and Hellenistic period, its capital city was Pushkalavati, modern Charsadda; the capital city was moved to Peshawar by the Kushan emperor Kanishka the Great in about AD 127. Gandhara existed since the time of the Rigveda, as well as the Zoroastrian Avesta, which mentions it as Vaēkərəta, the sixth most beautiful place on earth, created by Ahura Mazda.
Gandhara was conquered by the Achaemenid Empire in the 6th century BC. Conquered by Alexander the Great in 327 BC, it subsequently became part of the Maurya Empire and the Indo-Greek Kingdom; the region was a major center for Greco-Buddhism under the Indo-Greeks and Gandharan Buddhism under dynasties. It was a central location for the spread of Buddhism to Central Asia and East Asia, it was a center of Bactrian Zoroastrianism and Hinduism. Famed for its local tradition of Gandhara Art, Gandhara attained its height from the 1st century to the 5th century under the Kushan Empire. Gandhara "flourished at the crossroads of Asia," connecting trade routes and absorbing cultural influences from diverse civilizations. Pockets of Buddhism persisted in Pakistan's Swat valley until the 11th century; the Persian term Shahi is used by historian Al-Biruni to refer to the ruling dynasty that took over from the Kabul Shahi and ruled the region during the period prior to Muslim conquests of the 10th and 11th centuries.
After it was conquered by Mahmud of Ghazni in 1001 AD, the name Gandhara disappeared. During the Muslim period, the area was administered from Kabul. During Mughal times, it was an independent district. Gandhara was known in Sanskrit as गन्धार gandhāra, in Avestan as Vaēkərəta, in Old Persian as Gadāra in Babylonian and Elamite as Paruparaesanna, in Chinese as T: 犍陀羅/S: 犍陀罗, in Greek as Γανδάρα; the Gandhari people are a tribe mentioned in the Rigveda, the Atharvaveda, Vedic texts. They are recorded in the Avestan-language of Zoroastrianism under the name Vaēkərəta; the name Gāndhāra occurs in the classical Sanskrit of the epics. One proposed origin of the name is from the Sanskrit word गन्ध gandha, meaning "perfume" and "referring to the spices and aromatic herbs which they traded and with which they anointed themselves.". A Persian form of the name, mentioned in the Behistun inscription of Emperor Darius I, was translated as Paruparaesanna in Babylonian and Elamite in the same inscription. In addition to Gandhara proper, the province encompassed the Kabul Valley and Chitral.
Kandahar is sometimes etymologically associated with Gandhara. However, Kandahar was not part of the main territory of Gandhara; the boundaries of Gandhara varied throughout history. Sometimes the Peshawar Valley and Taxila were collectively referred to as Gandhara; the heart of Gandhara, was always the Peshawar Valley. The kingdom was ruled from capitals at Kapisa, Taxila, Puruṣapura and in its final days from Udabhandapura on the River Indus. Evidence of the Stone Age human inhabitants of Gandhara, including stone tools and burnt bones, was discovered at Sanghao near Mardan in area caves; the artifacts are 15,000 years old. More recent excavations point to 30,000 years before the present. Gandhara was an ancient kingdom of the Peshawar Valley, extending between the Swat valley and Potohar plateau regions of Pakistan as well as the Jalalabad district of northeastern Afghanistan. In an archaeological context, the Vedic period in Gandhara corresponds to the Gandhara grave culture; the name of the Gandhāris is attested in the Rigveda.
The Gandhāris, along with the Balhikas, Mūjavants and the Magadhas, are mentioned in the Atharvaveda, as distant people. Gandharas are included in the Uttarapatha division of Buddhistic traditions; the Aitareya Brahmana refers to King Nagnajit of Gandhara, a contemporary of Janaka, king of Videha. Gandhara was one of sixteen mahajanapadas of ancient India; the primary cities of Gandhara were Puruṣapura, Takṣaśilā, Pushkalavati. The latter remained the capital of Gandhara down to the 2nd century AD, when the capital was moved to Peshawar. An important Buddhist shrine helped to make the city a centre of pilgrimage until the 7th century. Pushkalavati, in the Peshawar Valley, is situated at the confluence of the Swat and Kabul rivers, where three different branches of the River Kabul meet; that specific place is still called Prang an
The Kabul River, the classical Cophes, is a 700-kilometre long river that emerges in Maidan Wardak Province in the Sanglakh Range of the Hindu Kush mountains in Afghanistan, is separated from the watershed of the Helmand River by the Unai Pass. The Kabul River empties into the Indus River near Pakistan, it is the main river in eastern Afghanistan. The Kabul River passes through the cities of Kabul and Jalalabad in Afghanistan before flowing into Khyber Pakhtunkhwa in Pakistan some 25 kilometres north of the Durand Line border crossing at Torkham. In Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, the river passes through the cities of Peshawar and Nowshera; the major tributaries of the Kabul River are the Logar, Alingar, Kunar and Swat rivers. The Kabul River is little more than a trickle for most of the year, but swells in summer due to melting snows in the Hindu Kush Range, its largest tributary is the Kunar River, which starts out as the Mastuj River, flowing from the Chiantar glacie in Brughil valley in Chitral and after flowing south into Afghanistan it is met by the Bashgal river flowing from Nurestan.
The Kunar meets the Kabul near Jalalabad. In spite of the Kunar carrying more water than the Kabul, the river continues as the Kabul River after this confluence for the political and historical significance of the name; the Kabul River is impounded by several dams. The Naghlu and Darunta dams are located in the Kabul and Nangarhar provinces of Afghanistan; the Warsak Dam is in the Valley of Peshawar in Pakistan 20 km northwest of the city of Peshawar. In Arrian's The Campaigns of Alexander, the River Kabul is referred to as Κωφήν Kōphēn, the accusative of Κωφής Kōphēs; the word Kubhā, the ancient name of the river is both a Sanskrit and Avestan word. The word changed to Kābul. Al-Biruni called it "the River of Ghorwand"; the Kabul River gave its name to the region and to the settlement of Kabul. List of rivers of Afghanistan List of rivers of Pakistan "Kabul River". Encyclopædia Britannica. 1911
Badakhshan Province is one of the 34 provinces of Afghanistan, located in the farthest northeastern part of the country between Tajikistan and northern Pakistan. It shares a 56.5-mile border with China. It is part of a broader historical Badakhshan region; the province contains 22 to 28 districts, over 1,200 villages, 904,700 people. Feyzabad serves as the provincial capital. Badakhshan is bordered by Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Province and Khatlon Province in Tajikistan to the north and east. In the east of the province a long spur called the Wakhan Corridor extends above northern Pakistan's Chitral and Northern Areas to a border with China; the province has a total area of 44,059 square kilometres, most of, occupied by the Hindu Kush and Pamir mountain ranges. Badakhshan was a stopover on the ancient Silk Road trading path, China has shown great interest in the province after the fall of the Taliban, helping to reconstruct roads and infrastructure. According to the World Wildlife Fund, Badakhshan contains temperate grasslands and shrublands, as well as Gissaro-Alai open woodlands along the Pamir River.
Common plants found in these areas include pistachio, walnut, apple and sagebrush. Montane grasslands and shrublands are existent in the province, with the Hindu Kush alpine meadow in the high mountains in the northern and southwestern regions; the Wakhan corridor contains two montane grassland and shrubland regions: the Karakoram-West Tibetan Plateau alpine steppe and in the Pamir Mountains and Kuh-e Safed Khers in Darwaz region. South of Fayzabad the terrain becomes dominated by xeric shrublands. Common vegetation includes thorny bushes, zizyphus and Amygdatus. Paropamisus xeric woodlands can be found in central areas. Common vegetation includes almond, pistachio and sea-buckthorn; the area has a long history like the rest of Afghanistan, dating to its conquering by the Achaemenid Empire and beyond. Badakhshan etymologically derives from an official title; the suffix of the name, -ān, means the region belonged to someone with the title badaxš. The territory was ruled by the Uzbek Khanate of Bukhara between the early 16th century and the mid-18th century.
It was given to Ahmad Shah Durrani by Murad Beg of Bukhara after a treaty of friendship was reached in or about 1750 and became part of the Durrani Empire. It was ruled by the Durranis followed by the Barakzai dynasty, was untouched by the British during the three Anglo-Afghan wars that were fought in the 19th and 20th centuries, it remained peaceful for about 100 years until the 1980s Soviet–Afghan War at which point the Mujahideen began a rebellion against the central Afghan government. During the 1990s, much of the area was controlled by forces loyal to Burhanuddin Rabbani and Ahmad Shah Massoud, who were de facto the national government until 1996. Badakhshan was the only province that the Taliban did not conquer during their rule from 1996 to 2001. However, during the course of the wars a non-Taliban Islamic emirate was established in Badakhshan by Mawlawi Shariqi, paralleling the Islamic Revolutionary State of Afghanistan in neighboring Nuristan. Rabbani, a Badakhshan native, Massoud, were the last remnants of the anti-Taliban Northern Alliance during the peak of Taliban control in 2001.
Badakhshan was thus one of the few provinces of the country that witnessed little insurgency in the Afghan wars - however during the 2010s Taliban insurgents managed to attack and take control of several districts in the province. On 26 October 2015, the 7.5 Mw Hindu Kush earthquake shook northern Afghanistan with a maximum Mercalli intensity of VIII. This earthquake destroyed 30,000 homes, left several hundred dead, more than 1,700 injured; the current Governor of the province is Shah Waliullah Adeeb. His predecessors were Baz Mohammad Ahmadi; the borders with neighboring Tajikistan and Pakistan are monitored by the Afghan Border Police. All law enforcement activities throughout the province are handled by the Afghan National Police. A provincial Police Chief is assigned to lead both the ANP and the ABP; the Police Chief represents the Ministry of the Interior in Kabul. The ANP is backed by the military, including the NATO-led forces. Fayzabad, the capital of Badakhshan province, sits on the Kokcha River and has an approximate population of 50,000.
The chief commercial and administrative center of northeast Afghanistan and the Pamir region, Fayzabad has rice and flour mills. Fayzabad Airport serves the province with regular direct flights to Kabul; the percentage of households with clean drinking water increased from 13% in 2005 to 21% in 2011. The percentage of births attended to by a skilled birth attendant increased from 1.5% in 2003 to 2% in 2011. The overall literacy rate fell from 31% in 2005 to 26% in 2011; the overall net enrolment rate increased from 46% in 2005 to 68% in 2011. Despite massive mineral reserves, Badakhshan is one of the most destitute areas in the world. Opium poppy growing is the only real source of income in the province and Badakhshan has one of the highest rates of maternal mortality in the world, due to the complete lack of health infrastructure, inaccessible locations, bitter winters of the province. BORNA Institute of Higher Education being the first private university located on the bank of Kokcha river. Lapis lazuli has been mined in the Sar-e-Sang mines, located in the Kuran wa Munjan District of Badakhshan, for over 6,000 years.
The mines were the largest and most well-known source in ancient times. Most recent
Afghanistan the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located in South-Central Asia. Afghanistan is bordered by Pakistan in the south and east, its territory covers 652,000 square kilometers and much of it is covered by the Hindu Kush mountain range, which experiences cold winters. The north consists of fertile plains, while the south-west consists of deserts where temperatures can get hot in summers. Kabul serves as its largest city. Human habitation in Afghanistan dates back to the Middle Paleolithic Era, the country's strategic location along the Silk Road connected it to the cultures of the Middle East and other parts of Asia; the land has been home to various peoples and has witnessed numerous military campaigns, including those by Alexander the Great, Muslim Arabs, British and since 2001 by the United States with NATO-allied countries. It has been called "unconquerable" and nicknamed the "graveyard of empires"; the land served as the source from which the Kushans, Samanids, Ghaznavids, Khaljis, Hotaks and others have risen to form major empires.
The political history of the modern state of Afghanistan began with the Hotak and Durrani dynasties in the 18th century. In the late 19th century, Afghanistan became a buffer state in the "Great Game" between British India and the Russian Empire, its border with British India, the Durand Line, was formed in 1893 but it is not recognized by the Afghan government and it has led to strained relations with Pakistan since the latter's independence in 1947. Following the Third Anglo-Afghan War in 1919 the country was free of foreign influence becoming a monarchy under King Amanullah, until 50 years when Zahir Shah was overthrown and a republic was established. In 1978, after a second coup Afghanistan first became a socialist state and a Soviet Union protectorate; this evoked the Soviet–Afghan War in the 1980s against mujahideen rebels. By 1996 most of Afghanistan was captured by the Islamic fundamentalist group the Taliban, who ruled most of the country as a totalitarian regime for over five years.
The Taliban were forcibly removed by the NATO-led coalition, a new democratically-elected government political structure was formed, but they still control a significant portion of the country. Afghanistan is a unitary presidential Islamic republic with a population of 31 million composed of ethnic Pashtuns, Tajiks and Uzbeks, it is a member of the United Nations, the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, the Group of 77, the Economic Cooperation Organization, the Non-Aligned Movement. Afghanistan's economy is the world's 108th largest, with a GDP of $64.08 billion. The name Afghānistān is believed to be as old as the ethnonym Afghan, documented in the 10th-century geography book Hudud ul-'alam; the root name "Afghan" was used in reference to a member of the ethnic Pashtuns, the suffix "-stan" means "place of" in Persian. Therefore, Afghanistan translates to land of the Afghans or, more in a historical sense, to land of the Pashtuns. However, the modern Constitution of Afghanistan states that "he word Afghan shall apply to every citizen of Afghanistan."
Excavations of prehistoric sites by Louis Dupree and others suggest that humans were living in what is now Afghanistan at least 50,000 years ago, that farming communities in the area were among the earliest in the world. An important site of early historical activities, many believe that Afghanistan compares to Egypt in terms of the historical value of its archaeological sites; the country sits at a unique nexus point where numerous civilizations have interacted and fought. It has been home to various peoples through the ages, among them the ancient Iranian peoples who established the dominant role of Indo-Iranian languages in the region. At multiple points, the land has been incorporated within large regional empires, among them the Achaemenid Empire, the Macedonian Empire, the Indian Maurya Empire, the Islamic Empire. Many empires and kingdoms have risen to power in Afghanistan, such as the Greco-Bactrians, Hephthalites, Kabul Shahis, Samanids, Ghurids, Kartids, Timurids and the Hotak and Durrani dynasties that marked the political origins of the modern state.
Archaeological exploration done in the 20th century suggests that the geographical area of Afghanistan has been connected by culture and trade with its neighbors to the east and north. Artifacts typical of the Paleolithic, Neolithic and Iron ages have been found in Afghanistan. Urban civilization is believed to have begun as early as 3000 BCE, the early city of Mundigak may have been a colony of the nearby Indus Valley Civilization. More recent findings established that the Indus Valley Civilisation stretched up towards modern-day Afghanistan, making the ancient civilisation today part of Pakistan and India. In more detail, it extended from what today is northwest Pakistan to northwest India and northeast Afghanistan. An Indus Valley site has been found on the Oxus River at Shortugai in northern Afghanistan. There are several smaller IVC colonies to be found in Afghanistan as well. After 2000 BCE, successive waves of semi-nomadic
Nangarhār called Nangrahar or Ningrahar, is one of the 34 provinces of Afghanistan, located in the eastern part of the country. It is divided into twenty-two districts and has a population of about 1,436,000; the city of Jalalabad is the capital of Nangarhar province. Henry George Raverty theorized that the word Nangarhar is derived from the Pashto term nang-nahlr, which appears in some Dari language chronicles; the term refers to nine streams originating from Safed Koh. However, according to S. H. Hodivala, the name of the province derives from the Sanskrit term Nagarahara, which appears in a 9th century inscription discovered at Ghosrawa in present-day Bihar, India. Nang-go-lo-ho, the Chinese transcription of this term, appears in the annals of the Song dynasty of China. Henry Walter Bellew derived the name from the Sanskrit nava-vihara, meaning "nine viharas"; the province was part of the Achaemenid Empire, in the Gandhara satrapy. The Nangarhar province territory and the Eastern Iranian peoples there fell to the Maurya Empire, led by Chandragupta Maurya.
The Mauryas introduced Buddhism to the region. Seleucus is said to have reached a peace treaty with Chandragupta by giving control of the territory south of the Hindu Kush to the Mauryas upon intermarriage and 500 elephants. Song Yun, a Chinese monk visited Nangarhar in 520 AD, claimed that the people in the area were Buddhists. Yun came across a vihara in Nangarhar containing the skull of Buddha, another of Kekalam where 13 pieces of the cloak of Buddha and his 18 feet long mast were preserved. In the city of Naki, a tooth and hair of Buddha were preserved and in the Kupala cave Buddha's shadow reflected close to which he saw a stone tablet, at that time considered to be related to Buddha; the region fell to the Ghaznavids after defeating Jayapala in the late 10th century. It fell to the Ghorids followed by the Khaljis and the Moghuals, until becoming part of Ahmad Shah Durrani's Afghan Empire in 1747. During the First Anglo-Afghan War, the invading British-led Indian forces were defeated on their way to Rawalpindi in 1842.
British-led Indian forces retreated a couple of years later. Some fighting took place during the 1919 Third Anglo-Afghan War between the Afghan army that were led by King Amanullah Khan and British-Indians near the Durand Line border areas; the province remained calm until the 1980s Soviet–Afghan War. Nangarhar was used by pro-Pakistani mujahideen fighting against the Soviet-backed Democratic Republic of Afghanistan; the Pakistani-trained mujahideen received funding from the United States and Saudi Arabia. Many Arab fighters from the Arab World had been fighting against the government forces of Mohammad Najibullah, who defeated them near Jalalabad. In April 1992, Najibullah resigned as President and the various mujahideen took control over the country; when the 1992 Peshawar Accord failed, the mujahideen turned guns on each other and started a nationwide civil war. This was followed by the Taliban take-over in 1996 and the establishment of al-Qaeda training camps in Nangarhar province. Osama bin Laden held a strong position in Nangarhar during the late 1990s.
He led a fight against US-led forces in the 2001 Tora Bora campaign. He escaped to Abottabad, where he was killed in a night raid by members of SEAL Team Six in 2011. After the removal of the Taliban government and the formation of the Karzai administration in late 2001, U. S.-led Afghan National Security Forces established authority across the province. Despite this, Taliban insurgents continue to stage attacks against Afghan government forces; the Haqqani Network and militants loyal to Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant – Khorasan Province are blamed for the attacks, which sometimes include major suicide bombings. Several incursions by Pakistani military forces have been reported in the districts next to the Durand Line border; the focus of the conflict is on the Kunar rivers, which run through Nangarhar. On April 13, 2017, U. S. President Donald Trump ordered a targeted strike on ISIL-KP by use of the second largest non-nuclear bomb in the U. S. arsenal at the time. The bomb was a 21,000 lb. weapon called the Massive Ordnance Air Blast Bomb.
The intended target was ISIL militants hiding inside tunnels, most of whom came "from Bangladesh, Tajikistan, Russia and other countries." Mohammad Radmanish, spokesman for the Afghan Ministry of Defense stated: "Most militants killed in the attack were from Pakistan, India and Bangladesh." It was the first time. The current governor of the province is Hayatullah Hayat, his predecessor was Mohammad Gulab Mangal. His predecessor was Saleem Khan Kunduzi who resigned on 22 October 2016. Gul Agha Sherzai served as the governor since 2004 but left in order to run in the 2014 Afghan presidential election; the city of Jalalabad serves as the capital of the province. All law enforcement activities throughout the province are controlled by the Afghan National Police along with the Afghan Local Police; the border with neighboring Pakistan is monitored by the Afghan Border Police. A provincial police chief is assigned to lead both the ANP and the ABP; the Police Chief represents the Ministry of the Interior in Kabul.
The ANP and ABP are backed by the Afghan Armed Forces, including the NATO-led forces. Nangarhar shares a border with the neighboring Federally Administered Tribal Areas and the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
History of Arabs in Afghanistan
The history of Arabs in Afghanistan spans over one millennium, from the 11th century Islamic conquest when Arabs arrived with their Islamic mission until when others from the Arab world arrived to defend fellow Muslims from the Soviet Union followed by NATO forces. Most of the early Arabs lost their Arabic hegemony and mixed with the local population, though they are still considered a cognizably distinct ethnic group according to the Constitution of Afghanistan and the Afghan National Anthem. Afghans who carry Sayed or Quraishi in their names claim Arab ancestry. At the end of the 7th century, the Umayyad Arabs entered into the area now known as Afghanistan after decisively defeating the Sassanid Empire in Nihawand. Following this colossal defeat, the last Sassanid Emperor, Yazdegerd III, who became a hunted fugitive, fled eastward deep into Central Asia. In pursuing Yazdegerd, the route the Arabs selected to enter the area was from north-eastern Iran and thereafter into Herat where they stationed a large portion of their army before advancing toward eastern Afghanistan.
Some Arabs settled in married locals while adopting new customs. Other groups and contingents who elected not to settle pushed eastwards but encountered resistance in areas surrounding Bamiyan; when arriving at Kabul, the Arabs confronted the Kabul Shahan who had built a long defensive wall around the city. The bloodiest war in Kabul was in Chahardihi area where still tombs of Arabs killed in that war exist in DarulAman area; the most famous Arab character killed in that war was Shah-do Shamshira, whose tomb is located near Kabul river in Asmayee st. One of the most famous Commanders who fought against Arab invaders is known as Mazangi. Mazangi was in command at the battle of Asmayee. There is a number sights where Arab invaders fought in Kabul, but the bloodiest battle after Asmayee was the battle of Alwoden in the area known as Darul Aman today; the historical details of this battle remains unknown, though the Arabs were nonetheless subdued in the long term. In the year 44, the Caliph Moavia Bin Aby Soofian nominated Zeead, the son of Oomya, to the government of Bussora and Khorassan.
In the same year Abdool Ruhman Bin Shimur, another Arab Ameer of distinction, marched from Murv to Kabul, where he made converts of upwards of twelve thousand persons... Saad was recalled in the year 59, Abdool Ruhman, the son of Zeead, who invaded Kabul, was nominated ruler of Khorassan... Shortly after his arrival in Khorassan, Sulim deputed Yezeed Bin Zeead, to Seestan. Not long after, having learned that the Prince of Kabul, throwing off his allegiance, had attacked and taken prisoner Aby Oobeyda, the son of Zeead, the late governor of Seestan, he marched with a force to recover that province, but was defeated in a pitched battle; when Sulim heard this news, he sent Tilla Bin Abdoolla, an officer of his court, as envoy to the court of Kabul, to ransom Aby Oobeyda. Tilla afterwards received the government of Seestan as a reward for his services on this occasion, having collected a large force, he subdued Kabul in the short term and Khalid Bin Abdoolla was nominated to its government. Despite the lack of much written accounts, another famous archaeological legacy of this battle remains standing in Kabul, notably the tomb of the Shah-e Do Shamshira next to the Shah-Do Shamshira Mosque.
The site, located near Kabul's market district, was built near the area where an Arab commander died. Despite fighting heroically with a sword in each hand, one of the Muslim head commanders fell in battle, it is his memory, honored by the mosque today. The two-story edifice was built in the 1920s on the order of King Amanullah's mother on the site of one of Kabul's first mosques. Following the Arab confrontation, the region was made part of Khorasan with its seat of power in Herat in the west; the Arabs partially relinquished some of their territorial control though reasserted its authority 50 years in 750 when the Abbasid caliphs replaced the Ummayads. By many Arabs blended with locals as the Arabic identity in the region began to undergo a significant change. Arab contingents settled throughout various parts of present-day Afghanistan including the Wardak, Kabul, Balkh and in the Sulaiman Mountains. Over time they adopted local customs and languages, some became Persianized while others became Afghanized who followed Pashtunwali.
Khalid being subsequently superseded, became apprehensive of returning to Arabia by the route of Persia, on account of the enemies he had in that country, so of remaining in Kabul, under his successor. He retired, with his family, a number of Arab retainers, into the Sooli-many mountains, situated between Mooltan and Pishawur, where he took up his residence, gave his daughter in marriage to one of the Afghan chiefs, who had become a proselyte to Maho-medism. From this marriage many children were born, among; the one Lody, the other Soor. It was during the reign of the Ya ` qub Saffari; the Arabs attempted to re-exert their influence in the area by supporting the Samanid rulers of Balkh who in return, assisted the Abbasid Arabs against the defiant Saffarid dynasty. Despite maintaining some clothing customs and attire, most the early Afghan-Arabs (or Arab-Afghans
Haḍḍa is a Greco-Buddhist archeological site located in the ancient region of Gandhara, ten kilometers south of the city of Jalalabad, in the Nangarhar Province of eastern Afghanistan. Some 23,000 Greco-Buddhist sculptures, both clay and plaster, were excavated in Hadda during the 1930s and the 1970s; the findings combine elements of Buddhism and Hellenism in an perfect Hellenistic style. Although the style of the artifacts is typical of the late Hellenistic 2nd or 1st century BCE, the Hadda sculptures are dated, to the 1st century CE or later; this discrepancy might be explained by a preservation of late Hellenistic styles for a few centuries in this part of the world. However it is possible that the artifacts were produced in the late Hellenistic period. Given the antiquity of these sculptures and a technical refinement indicative of artists conversant with all the aspects of Greek sculpture, it has been suggested that Greek communities were directly involved in these realizations, that "the area might be the cradle of incipient Buddhist sculpture in Indo-Greek style".
The style of many of the works at Hadda is Hellenistic, can be compared to sculptures found at the Temple of Apollo in Bassae, Greece. The toponym Hadda has its origins in Sanskrit haḍḍa n. m. "a bone", or, an unrecorded *haḍḍaka, adj. " of bones". The former - if not a fossilized form - would have given rise to a Haḍḍ in the subsequent vernaculars of northern India; the latter would have given rise to the form Haḍḍa and would well reflect the belief that Hadda housed a bone-relic of Buddha. The term haḍḍa is found as a loan in Pashto haḍḍ, n. id. and may reflect the linguistic influence of the original pre-Islamic population of the area. A sculptural group excavated at the Hadda site of Tapa-i-Shotor represents Buddha surrounded by Hellenistic Herakles and Tyche holding a cornucopia; the only adaptation of the Greek iconography is that Herakles holds the thunderbolt of Vajrapani rather than his usual club. Other attendants to the Buddha have been excavated which display manifest Hellenistic styles, such as the "Genie au Fleur", today in Paris at the Guimet Museum.
It is believed the oldest surviving Buddhist manuscripts-indeed the oldest surviving Indian manuscripts of any kind-were recovered around Hadda. Dating from around the 1st century CE, they were written on bark in Gandhari using the Kharoṣṭhī script, were unearthed in a clay pot bearing an inscription in the same language and script, they are part of the long-lost canon of the Sarvastivadin Sect that dominated Gandhara and was instrumental in Buddhism's spread into central and east Asia via the Silk Road. The manuscripts are now in the possession of the British Library. Hadda is said to have been entirely destroyed in the fighting during the civil war in Afghanistan. There were many works of art lost as a result of the civil war. One of the worst of the casualties was the loss of two statues; the Red Mountain range in Bamiyan that once housed two giant statues of the Buddha, on cliff faces, besides smaller structures of archaeological significance. The two big statues, dating back to the 5th or 6th century CE, were the largest of all Buddhist statues so far attested in the world.
Only remnants of these statues were left behind. Vandalised Afghanistan Oldest Buddhist bark texts Photographs from Tepe Shotur/Haḍḍa