Chintamani is a Taluk Headquarters in the Indian state of Karnataka. Located on the Deccan Plateau in the south-eastern part of Karnataka. Chintamani is one of the well planned and developed Towns in the District of Kolar and presently Chikkaballapur. Chintamani is known for their largest markets in Karnataka. Refer to Chintamani Taluk Word Chintamani refers to a precious stone or gem that's been documented since centuries in the Hindu Scriptures and Literature; however the naming of the town as ` Chintamani' doesn't have any relation with this gem. It's said; the Town of Chintamani along with the District of Kolar has been part of the continuous rule of numerous kingdoms and rulers that include Cholas, Vijayanagar Empire, Mysore Wodeyars, Tippu Sultan and many local chieftains. This area during the 12th Century was under the rule of Kōpparakēsarivarman Vikrama Chola of the Chola dynasty. During the reign of British, the Town was called by name CHINTOMNIPETT; the document A Gazetteer of the Territories Under The Government of India on document page no. 204 reads...
CHINTOMNIPETT in British accent could have been CHINTAMANIPETE, in local Indian accent. However, as per the known history, the Maratha Chieftain Chintamani Rao was last in line to rule the locality of Chintamani. It's said. Part from this nothing much is known either about his achievements. There are a few buildings and monuments available which stand as an evidence of the history of the place. There is no valid information available about these; some of them include - The Fort like construction and watch tower on Anjanadri Hill Forts on the hill tops at Ambajidurga and Kaiwara and other villages nearby Inscription at Vasavi Kanyakaparameshwari Temple on Ganigara Veedhi Architecture and Construction features of some temples - Naganatheshwara Temple, Vasavi Kanyaparameshwari Temple The old temple at Alambagiri and writings found there. Street Lamps at Azad Chowk belonging to the time of British The Chintamani Cooperative Society Building on Double Road built around 1930's built during British The Drinking Water Fountain at Bangalore Circle in front of the Guru Bhavana Kalyanis at Ramakunte and near Railway Station Some identification names in use.
Example: The name Ambhajidurga. Ambhaji is a Maratha name. Below are a list of some citations that are available in some research documents. From the Textiles and weavers in medieval South India by Vijaya Ramaswamy, its to be noted. Most of the temples seen and being offered worship, have been built during the 19th Century. List below are the few monuments. Sri Hari Hareshwara Temple, Azad Chowk - This temple was built around the 19th century by Sri Karupakula Subbarayappa; the temple received restoration and alteration works by the family members. Temple spans over an area of around 25000 square feet; the temple is surrounded by a commercial complex on its East Side, while the other sides are bounded by a high wall. Within the temple complex are the temples dedicated to Lord Vishnu. Most of the Sabarimala Trips originate at this temple by offering the various rituals and attaining the pence. Chintamani lies in the southeast of the South Indian state of Karnataka, it is in the heart of the Mysore Plateau at an average elevation of 865 m.
The Taluk geographically lies between 78°12′36″N 13°16′38″E and 77°51′39″N 13°42′00″E. The Chintamani Town lies between 13.40°N 78.06°E / 13.40. Chintamani was a part of Kolar District since the Formation of State of Karnataka in 1950 until on 23 August 2007, when the Government of Karnataka carved out the new district of Chikkaballapur from the old Kolar district. Chintamani was included into the new district of Chikkaballapur. Chintamani is one among the 6 Taluks of Chikkaballapur District; the Taluk Headquarters, Chintamani Town is 36 km from the District Headquarters Chikkaballapur and about 74 km from State Capital Karnataka. The Taluk is bound by Sidlaghatta on West, Bagepalli on North-West, Kolar on South-West, Srinivaspur on South-East and Anantapur district of Andhra Pradesh on East; the Taluk covers an area of 892 km². Chintamani is falls in the Tropical Semi-Arid Type of climatic region of India; the climate here is moderately dry. The months of March to May of the summer season are hot with temperatures of around 38 °C.
The region receives less rainfall of about 40 to 75 cm annually. The area receives rainfall during both South West North East Monsoon Season. Taluk consists of Clayey-Loam Soil; this soil has moisture-retention capacity and allows deep furrowing and is suitable for cultivation of cereals and pulses. The Taluk doesn't have any perennial rivers. River Papagni has got its catchment basin on the hills of Ambajidurga; the basin over the years has got completed ruined with no vegetation and with soil erosion. Under NREGA guidelines about 73,111 plants are plated and being nurtured to improve the conditions at the catchment basin and inflow of the once river. Chintamani has a few large lakes. Kanampalli Lake is the main water reservoir for the Town. Besides other lakes include - Ambajidurga Lake, Gopasandra Lake, Malapalli Lake, N
Bagalkot district is an administrative district in the Indian state of Karnataka. The district headquarters is located in the town of Bagalkote; the district is located in northern Karnataka and borders Belgaum, Koppal and Bijapur. The new Bagalkote district was carved out of Bijapur in 1997 via Government of Karnataka directive Notification RD 42 LRD 87 Part III; the bifurcated Bagalkote district consists of nine taluks — Badami, Bilagi, Guledgudda,RabkaviBanhatti, Ilkal and Mudhol. Badami, part of Bagalkote was the capital of the Chalukyan Empire of South India under Pulakeshin I, who conquered the district in 550 CE. Bagalkot's Badami taluk remained the seat of the throne of the Chalukyas from 550 CE — 753 CE, when Chalukya king Kirtivarman II was overthrown by the Rashtrakutas. Remnants of Chalukyan art and architecture are important tourist attractions in Bagalkote. Pattadakallu has many UNESCO World Heritage temples built by Vikramaditya II, while Aihole, which lies on the banks of the Malaprabha River, is an important temple town with over 140 temples belonging to both the early and Chalukya times.
The cave temples of Badami Cave Temples and the Jain temples of Rashtrakutas at Lokapura and Bilgi are nearby. Cottage industries occupy a predominant position in Bagalkote; the district is known for its handloom industries. Ghataprabha River, Malaprabha River and Krishna River flow through the district. Koodalasangama lies at the point of confluence of rivers Malaprabha. Like most districts in India, Bagalkote is headed by a Deputy Commissioner, with various Tahalsidars heading individual taluks in the district; the Samadhi of 12th-century social reformist Basavanna, known for his crusade against caste exploitation, is located in Koodalasangama, a town in the taluk of Hungund. Stone inscriptions identify Bagadige as the ancient name of Bagalkote. According to legend, the area was gifted by the mythological Rāvana, lord of Lanka to his musicians. Other taluks in Bagalkote have mythological origins. Badami known as Vatapi, was named after an asura king who, according to the Mahābhārata, ruled the area along with his brother Ilvala.
Legend has it. The northwestern taluk of Jamkhandi derives its name from the Chalukya temple dedicated to Jambukeshwara, a form of the Hindu deity Shiva; the town of Aihole the capital of the Chalukyan Empire of Banavasi was known as Ayyavole and Aryapura meaning Noble city. The western taluk of Mudhol was traditionally known as Muduvollal — translating into lovely town; the ancient town of Pattadakal was known as Raktapura – red town and as Pattadakal Kisuvoval. The Greek astronomer Ptolemy identified many towns in the district of Bagalkote. Pattadakal was referred to as Petrigal. In inscriptions, the old name of the town was quoted as Bagadage under the Chalukyas. Between 1664 and 1755 this territory was under the Savanur Nawab from whom it was annexed by the Peshwa, Balajirao. During 1778, Haider Ali took possession of Bagalkote. Held by Savnur Nawab, it fell into the hands of Marathas in 1792. In 1800, the provincial manager, Anandarao Bhikaji belonging to the Ratia family residing at Bagalkote built a palace.
In 1810, Peshwa Bajirao II gave the area to Nilakantharao Sarsubedar who held Bagalkote Fort supported by a garrison till Gen. Munro occupied it in 1818; the place was a noted centre of freedom movement and of unification movement. The place is on the banks of the Ghataprabha River; the place is a centre of trade in cotton and groundnut. Bagalkot district is divided into nine taluks. There are 21 hoblies in the district: Badami taluk: Badami, Guledgudda, Kulageri Bagalkote taluk: Bagalkot, Sitimani, Neelanagar Bilgi taluk: Anagwadi, Bilgi Hungund taluk: Ilkal, Hungund, Karadi Jamkhandi taluk: Jamkhandi, Savalagi Rabkavi-Banahatti: Rabkavi, Terdal Mudhol taluk: Lokapur, Mahalingpur Over 191 Middle Palaeolithic localities have been discovered in the Kalagdi basin of the district; the discovery of settlements in the village of Lakhamapura near the Malaprabha valley yielded the identification of quartzitic artefacts such as handaxes and cleavers. A pre-Chalukyan brick temple was discovered at the foothills of Bachinagudda, in Pattadakal, where an idol depicting the bust of Chaturmukha Shiva was discovered.
Evidence of megalithic habitation was discovered at the foothills of Bachinagudda, as were Marahathi and Satavahana coins of a period. The first documented evidence of the existence of Bagalkot district dates back to the 2nd century CE, when the taluks of Badami and Kalkeri were mentioned in the works of the Greek astronomer Ptolemy. In the 6th century CE, the Hindu Chalukya rulers ruled over much of present South India; the Chalukyan king Pulakeshin. The Chinese explorer Hieun-Tsang visited Badami and described the people as "tall, proud...brave and exceedingly chivalrous". He estimated the kingdom to be 1,200 mi in circumference; the period of rule of the Chalukyas of Badami, whose kingdom stretched from modern Karnataka to Maharashtra and Gujarat, was a highlight of Bagalkote's history. Chalukya king Pulakeshin II further consolidated the empire by battling with the Kadambas, Mauryas of the Konkan and Emperor Harshavardhana, whom he vanquished on the banks of the Narmada river Accounts of war were inscr
Vatican City Vatican City State, is an independent city-state enclaved within Rome, Italy. Established with the Lateran Treaty, it is distinct from yet under "full ownership, exclusive dominion, sovereign authority and jurisdiction" of the Holy See. With an area of 44 hectares, a population of about 1,000, it is the smallest state in the world by both area and population; the Vatican City is an ecclesiastical or sacerdotal-monarchical state ruled by the pope who is, religiously speaking, the bishop of Rome and head of the Catholic Church. The highest state functionaries are all Catholic clergy of various national origins. Since the return of the popes from Avignon in 1377, they have resided at the Apostolic Palace within what is now Vatican City, although at times residing instead in the Quirinal Palace in Rome or elsewhere; the Holy See dates back to early Christianity, is the primate episcopal see of the Catholic Church, with 1.3 billion Catholics around the world distributed in the Latin Church and 23 Eastern Catholic Churches.
The independent Vatican City-state, on the other hand, came into existence in 11 February 1929 by the Lateran Treaty between the Holy See and Italy, which spoke of it as a new creation, not as a vestige of the much larger Papal States, which had encompassed much of central Italy. Within the Vatican City are religious and cultural sites such as St. Peter's Basilica, the Sistine Chapel and the Vatican Museums, they feature some of sculptures. The unique economy of Vatican City is supported financially by the sale of postage stamps and souvenirs, fees for admission to museums, sales of publications; the name Vatican City was first used in the Lateran Treaty, signed on 11 February 1929, which established the modern city-state. The name is taken from the geographic location of the state. "Vatican" is derived from the name of an Etruscan settlement, Vatica or Vaticum meaning garden, located in the general area the Romans called vaticanus ager, "Vatican territory". The official Italian name of the city is Città del Vaticano or, more formally, Stato della Città del Vaticano, meaning "Vatican City State".
Although the Holy See and the Catholic Church use Ecclesiastical Latin in official documents, the Vatican City uses Italian. The Latin name is Status Civitatis Vaticanæ; the name "Vatican" was in use in the time of the Roman Republic for a marshy area on the west bank of the Tiber across from the city of Rome. Under the Roman Empire, many villas were constructed there, after Agrippina the Elder drained the area and laid out her gardens in the early 1st century AD. In AD 40, her son, Emperor Caligula built in her gardens a circus for charioteers, completed by Nero, the Circus Gaii et Neronis called the Circus of Nero. Before the arrival of Christianity, it is supposed that this uninhabited part of Rome had long been considered sacred, or at least not available for habitation. A shrine dedicated to the Phrygian goddess Cybele and her consort Attis remained active long after the Constantinian Basilica of St. Peter was built nearby; the low quality of Vatican water after the reclamation of the area, was commented on by the poet Martial.
Tacitus wrote, that in AD 69, the Year of the Four Emperors, when the northern army that brought Vitellius to power arrived in Rome, "a large proportion camped in the unhealthy districts of the Vatican, which resulted in many deaths among the common soldiery. The Vatican Obelisk was taken by Caligula from Heliopolis in Egypt to decorate the spina of his circus and is thus its last visible remnant; this area became the site of martyrdom of many Christians after the Great Fire of Rome in AD 64. Ancient tradition holds. Opposite the circus was a cemetery separated by the Via Cornelia. Funeral monuments and mausoleums and small tombs as well as altars to pagan gods of all kinds of polytheistic religions were constructed lasting until before the construction of the Constantinian Basilica of St. Peter's in the first half of the 4th century. Remains of this ancient necropolis were brought to light sporadically during renovations by various popes throughout the centuries, increasing in frequency during the Renaissance until it was systematically excavated by orders of Pope Pius XII from 1939 to 1941.
The Constantinian basilica was built in 326 over what was believed to be the tomb of Saint Peter, buried in that cemetery. From on, the area became more populated in connection with activity at the basilica. A palace was constructed nearby as early as the 5th century during the pontificate of Pope Symmachus. Popes came to have a secular role as governors of regions near Rome, they ruled the Papal States, which covered a large portion of the Italian peninsula, for more than a thousand years until the mid-19th century, when all the territory belonging to the papacy was seized by the newly created Kingdom of Italy. For most of this time the popes did not live at the Vatican; the Lateran Palace, on the opposite side
Hanamasagar is a village in the southern state of Karnataka, India. It is located in Vijayapur taluk, of Vijayapur district, Karnataka and is nearly 40 km from the district headquarters Vijayapur, it is a small pilgrim, having the post office at Kambagi and Babaleshwar hobli. Hanamasagar was a pilgrim on behalf of Shree Karigirishwar Swamiji, there in the last century. Only one photo of Swamiji is available for their emblem; every year in month of July, celebrated festival. Shree Guru Chakravarti Sadashiv Murthy of Babaladi has a matt in Hanamasagar, i.e. Shri Karigiri Sangam Shivalingeshwar Punyashram. and shri Sangameshwar utasava in sravan massa. As of the 2011 India census, Hanumasagar is a medium size village located in Bijapur Taluka of Bijapur district, Karnataka with total 242 families residing; the Hanumasagar village has population of 1435 of which 730 are males while 705 are females as per Population Census 2011. In Hanumasagar village population of children with age 0-6 is 201 which makes up 14.01 % of total population of village.
Average Sex Ratio of Hanumasagar village is 966, lower than Karnataka state average of 973. Child Sex Ratio for the Hanumasagar as per census is 1209, higher than Karnataka average of 948. Hanumasagar village has lower literacy rate compared to Karnataka. In 2011, literacy rate of Hanumasagar village was 66.37 % compared to 75.36 % of Karnataka. In Hanumasagar Male literacy stands at 76.37 % while female literacy rate was 55.63 %. The village is situated geographically at 16°32'11.5"N north latitude and 75°31'16.7"E east longitude. The village grows sugarcane, pomegranates and sorghum, as well as small area of lemon and turmeric etc. Irrigation via water canals, bore-wells and open wells. Village is having Hindu and Muslim community people. People can speak Kannada Hindi, Marathi and English as well; the village has several temples, Such as Shri Karigiri Sangam Shivalingeshwar Punyashram Shree Sangameshwar Temple Shree Hanuman Temple Khaza Bande Nawaz Mosque and Maszid for Muslim community. Moharam and Uras festivals are celebrated by Muslim religion.
Annual festivals are celebrating in village, such as Shri Shivalingeshwar Paramarthikotsava, Shri Hari Pandurang Vittal Saptaha, Shree Sangameshwar Festival, Khaza Bandenawaz Uras, as well as Kara Hunnume, Nagara Panchami, Deepavli and Dassara etc. Some associations are put on cultural and sports events and other activities: Shri Gajanan Youth's Association Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose Youth's Association Village has a Govt Higher Primary School working with 1st to 8th standard and having more than 150 students; the village literacy rate is about 66.37%. Males has 76.37% and Female has 55.63% of literacy. Hanamasagar village is comes under Babaleshwar Assembly Constituency and Vijayapur Parliamentary Constituency. Mahadevappa Balappa Madarakhandi were ex-member of Vijayapur Taluk Panchayat. Param Pujya Shree Shivayogeshwar Co-operative Bank, Hanamasagar Babaleshwar - 08355 Sarawad - 586125Post office is in Kambagi and head Post office is in Sarawad. Hanamasagar is well connected to district headquarter Vijayapur via Kambagi through Babaleshwar.
State Highway - 55 is passes near by village. State Highway - 55 => Babaleshwar - Kambagi - Galagali- Mudhol - Yadawad - Yaragatti Village has a semi-arid climate. It has an average elevation of 606 metres; the climate is dry and healthy. In summer in April and May it is too hot. In winter season, from November to January the temperature is between 20 degree Celsius to 30 degree Celsius; the district has dry weather, so the humidity varies from 10% to 30%. Google Map village in Google map Wikimapia Hanamasagar village in Wikimapia map Welcome to Vijayapur
Kannada is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Kannada people in India in the state of Karnataka, by significant linguistic minorities in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Telangana and abroad. The language has 43.7 million native speakers, who are called Kannadigas. Kannada is spoken as a second and third language by over 12.9 million non-Kannada speakers living in Karnataka, which adds up to 56.6 million speakers. It is one of the scheduled languages of India and the official and administrative language of the state of Karnataka; the Kannada language is written using the Kannada script, which evolved from the 5th-century Kadamba script. Kannada is attested epigraphically for about one and a half millennia, literary Old Kannada flourished in the 6th-century Ganga dynasty and during the 9th-century Rashtrakuta Dynasty. Kannada has an unbroken literary history of over a thousand years. Kannada literature has been presented with 8 Jnanapith awards, the most for any Dravidian language and the second highest for any Indian language.
Based on the recommendations of the Committee of Linguistic Experts, appointed by the ministry of culture, the government of India designated Kannada a classical language of India. In July 2011, a center for the study of classical Kannada was established as part of the Central Institute of Indian Languages at Mysore to facilitate research related to the language. Kannada is a Southern Dravidian language, according to Dravidian scholar Sanford B. Steever, its history can be conventionally divided into three periods: Old Kannada from 450–1200 CE, Middle Kannada from 1200–1700, Modern Kannada from 1700 to the present. Kannada is influenced to an appreciable extent by Sanskrit. Influences of other languages such as Prakrit and Pali can be found in the Kannada language; the scholar Iravatham Mahadevan indicated that Kannada was a language of rich oral tradition earlier than the 3rd century BCE, based on the native Kannada words found in Prakrit inscriptions of that period, Kannada must have been spoken by a widespread and stable population.
The scholar K. V. Narayana claims that many tribal languages which are now designated as Kannada dialects could be nearer to the earlier form of the language, with lesser influence from other languages; the sources of influence on literary Kannada grammar appear to be three-fold: Pāṇini's grammar, non-Paninian schools of Sanskrit grammar Katantra and Sakatayana schools, Prakrit grammar. Literary Prakrit seems to have prevailed in Karnataka since ancient times; the vernacular Prakrit speaking people may have come into contact with Kannada speakers, thus influencing their language before Kannada was used for administrative or liturgical purposes. Kannada phonetics, vocabulary and syntax show significant influence from these languages; some naturalised words of Prakrit origin in Kannada are: baṇṇa derived from vaṇṇa, hunnime from puṇṇivā. Examples of naturalized Sanskrit words in Kannada are: varṇa, arasu from rajan, paurṇimā, rāya from rāja. Like the other Dravidian languages Kannada has borrowed words such as dina, surya, nimiṣa and anna.
Purava HaleGannada: This Kannada term translated means "Previous form of Old Kannada" was the language of Banavasi in the early Common Era, the Satavahana, Chutu Satakarni and Kadamba periods and thus has a history of over 2500 years. The Ashoka rock edict found at Brahmagiri has been suggested to contain words in identifiable Kannada. According to Jain tradition, the daughter of Rishabhadeva, the first Tirthankara of Jainism, invented 18 alphabets, including Kannada, which points to the antiquity of the language. Supporting this tradition, an inscription of about the 9th century CE, containing specimens of different alphabets Dravidian, was discovered in a Jain temple in the Deogarh fort. In some 3rd–1st century BCE Tamil inscriptions, words of Kannada influence such as'nalliyooraa','kavuDi' and posil' have been introduced; the use of the vowel a' as an adjective is not prevalent in Tamil but its usage is available in Kannada. Kannada words such as'gouDi-gavuDi' transform into Tamil's kavuDi' for lack of the usage of Ghosha svana in Tamil.
Hence the Kannada word'gavuDi' becomes'kavuDi' in Tamil.'Posil' was introduced into Tamil from Kannada and colloquial Tamil uses this word as'Vaayil'. In a 1st-century CE Tamil inscription, there is a personal reference to ayjayya', a word of Kannada origin. In a 3rd-century CE Tamil inscription there is usage of'oppanappa vIran'. Here the honorific'appa' to a person's name is an influence from Kannada. Another word of Kannada origin is found in a 4th-century CE Tamil inscription. S. Settar studied the'sittanvAsal' inscription of first century CE as the inscriptions at'tirupparamkunram','adakala' and'neDanUpatti'; the inscriptions were studied in detail by Iravatham Mahadevan also. Mahadevan argues that the words'erumi','kavuDi','poshil' and'tAyiyar' have their origin in Kannada because Tamil cognates are not available. Settar adds the words'nADu' and'iLayar' to this list. Mahadevan feels that some grammatical categories found in these inscriptions are unique to Kannada rather than Tamil. Both these scholars attribute these influences to the movements and spread of Jainas in these regions.
These inscriptions belong to the period between the first century BCE and fourth century CE. These are some examples that are proof of the early usage of a few Kannada origin words in early Tamil inscriptions before the common era and in the
A village is a clustered human settlement or community, larger than a hamlet but smaller than a town, with a population ranging from a few hundred to a few thousand. Though villages are located in rural areas, the term urban village is applied to certain urban neighborhoods. Villages are permanent, with fixed dwellings. Further, the dwellings of a village are close to one another, not scattered broadly over the landscape, as a dispersed settlement. In the past, villages were a usual form of community for societies that practice subsistence agriculture, for some non-agricultural societies. In Great Britain, a hamlet earned the right to be called a village. In many cultures and cities were few, with only a small proportion of the population living in them; the Industrial Revolution attracted people in larger numbers to work in factories. This enabled specialization of labor and crafts, development of many trades; the trend of urbanization continues, though not always in connection with industrialization.
Although many patterns of village life have existed, the typical village is small, consisting of 5 to 30 families. Homes were situated together for sociability and defence, land surrounding the living quarters was farmed. Traditional fishing villages were located adjacent to fishing grounds. "The soul of India lives in its villages," declared M. K. Gandhi at the beginning of 20th century. According to the 2011 census of India, 68.84% of Indians live in 640,867 different villages. The size of these villages varies considerably. 236,004 Indian villages have a population of fewer than 500, while 3,976 villages have a population of 10,000+. Most of the villages have their own temple, mosque, or church, depending on the local religious following. In Afghanistan, the village, or deh is the mid-size settlement type in Afghan society, trumping the hamlet or qala, though smaller than the town, or shār. In contrast to the qala, the deh is a bigger settlement which includes a commercial area, while the yet larger shār includes governmental buildings and services such as schools of higher education, basic health care, police stations etc.
Auyl is a Kazakh word meaning "village" in Kazakhstan. According to the 2009 census of Kazakhstan, 42.7% of Kazakhs live in 8172 different villages. To refer to this concept along with the word "auyl" used the Slavic word "selo" in Northern Kazakhstan. People's Republic of China In mainland China, villages 村 are divisions under township Zh:乡 or town Zh:镇. Republic of China In the Republic of China, villages are divisions under townships or county-controlled cities; the village is called a tsuen or cūn under a rural township and a li under an urban township or a county-controlled city. See Li. Japan South Korea In Brunei, villages are the third- and lowest-level subdivisions of Brunei below districts and mukims. A village is locally known by the Malay word kampung, they may be villages in the traditional or anthropological sense but may comprise delineated residential settlements, both rural and urban. The community of a village is headed by a village head. Communal infrastructure for the villagers may include a primary school, a religious school providing ugama or Islamic religious primary education, compulsory for the Muslim pupils in the country, a mosque, a community centre.
In Indonesia, depending on the principles they are administered, villages are called Kampung or Desa. A "Desa" is administered according to traditions and customary law, while a kelurahan is administered along more "modern" principles. Desa are located in rural areas while kelurahan are urban subdivisions. A village head is called kepala desa or lurah. Both are elected by the local community. A desa or kelurahan is the subdivision of a kecamatan, in turn the subdivision of a kabupaten or kota; the same general concept applies all over Indonesia. However, there is some variation among the vast numbers of Austronesian ethnic groups. For instance, in Bali villages have been created by grouping traditional hamlets or banjar, which constitute the basis of Balinese social life. In the Minangkabau area in West Sumatra province, traditional villages are called nagari. In some areas such as Tanah Toraja, elders take; as a general rule and kelurahan are groupings of hamlets. A kampung is defined today as a village in Indonesia.
Kampung is a term used in Malaysia, for "a Malay hamlet or village in a Malay-speaking country". In Malaysia, a kampung is determined as a locality with 10,000 or fewer people. Since historical times, every Malay village came under the leadership of a penghulu, who has the power to hear civil matters in his village. A Malay village contains a "masjid" or "surau", paddy fields and Malay houses on st
Belgaum is a district in the state of Karnataka, India. The city of Belgaum is the district headquarters in North Karnataka, it houses the second legislative building. According to the 2011 Census of India, it has a population of 4,778,439 of which 24.03% live in urban areas, making it the second most populous district in Karnataka, after Bangalore. The district has an area of 13,415 square kilometers, is bounded on the west and north by Maharashtra state, on the northeast by Bijapur District, on the east by Bagalkote District, on the southeast by Gadaga District, on the south by Dharawad District and Uttara Kannada districts, on the southwest by the state of Goa. Belgaum is the Divisional Headquarters of North Karnataka The ancient name of the town of Belgaum was Venugrama, meaning Bamboo Village, it is called as Malnad Pradesh. The most ancient place in the district is Halsi, it appears that from the middle of the 6th century to about 760 the area was held by the Chalukyas, who were succeeded by the Rashtrakutas.
After the break-up of the Rashtrakuta power a portion of it survived in the Rattas, who from 1210 onward made Venugrama their capital. Inscriptions give evidence of a long struggle between the Rattas and the Kadambas of Goa, who succeeded in the latter years of the 12th century in acquiring and holding part of the district. By 1208, the Kadambas had been overthrown by the Rattas, who in their turn succumbed to the Yadavas of Devagiri in 1250. After the overthrow of the Yadavas by the Delhi Sultanate, Belgaum was for a short time under the rule of the latter. In 1347 the northern part was conquered by the Bahmani Sultanate, which in 1473 took the town of Belgaum and conquered the southern part also; when Aurangzeb overthrew the Bijapura sultans in 1686, Belgaum passed to the Mughals. In 1776 the country was overrun by Hyder Ali of Mysore, but was taken by the Madhavrao Peshwa with British assistance. In 1818 it was handed over to the British East India Company, was made part of the district of Dharwar.
In 1836 this was divided into the northern district becoming Belgaum. Yadur is situated beside Krishna river, there is famous veerbhadra temple. Many devotees visit this place from Maharashtra. Hooli is one of the oldest villages in Belgaum district. There are many Chalukya temples in the village and the'Panchaligeswara temple is famous. Kittur in Belgaum district is a place of historical importance. Rani Chennamma of Kittur is known for her resistance to British rule; the British had a sizable infantry post here, having realised the military importance of its geographic location. It is one of the reasons for Belgaum's sobriquet The Cradle of Infantry. Development of a rail network for the movement of resources and troops was one of the means employed by both the British East India Company and the British to exert control over India. Belgaum's railway station, the Mahatma Gandhi Railway Station was established by the British. A signboard declaring the sobriquet can be seen hung on Platform 1 at the station.
Belgaum district was incorporated into the newly formed Mysore state with the passage of the States Reorganisation Act, which reorganized India's states along linguistic lines since the majority of the people in the district spoke Kannada. Because of that linguistic disparity, the case is now in the Supreme Court of India. Administration of Belgaum District has been divided into 14 taluks. Athani taluk is the largest with an area of 1,997.70 km2 and Raybag taluk is the smallest with an area of 958.8 km2. The district comprises six police sub-divisions. Apart from the Belgaum City Corporation, there are 17 municipalities, 20 towns, 485 gram panchayats, 1,138 inhabited villages and 26 non-inhabited villages. Belgaum is the headquarters of the Belgaum Revenue Division. According to the 2011 census Belgaum district has a population of 4,778,439 equal to the nation of Singapore or the US state of Alabama; this gives it a ranking of 25th in India. The district has a population density of 356 inhabitants per square kilometre.
Its population growth rate over the decade 2001–2011 was 13.38%. Belgaum has a sex ratio of 969 females for every 1000 males, a literacy rate of 73.94%. S. Ballesh - Shehnai artist Hemant Birje - Actor Phadeppa Dareppa Chaugule - India's first Olympic marathon runner Kittur Chennamma - Indian freedom fighter Shirasangi Lingaraj Desai - Provincial ruler Kumar Gandharva - Indian classical singer Balappa Hukkeri- Singer Kaka Kalelkar - Indian independence activist Chandrashekhara Kambara - Poet Atul Kulkarni - Actor Belawadi Mallamma - Warrior queen Ronit More - Cricketer plays for Chennai Super Kings Renukamma Murugodu - Actress Bandu Patil- Indian hockey player Sangolli Rayanna - Indian Freedom fighter Acharya Vidyasagar - Jain Digambara monk Official Website of Belgaum district