The bass guitar is a plucked string instrument similar in appearance and construction to an electric guitar, except with a longer neck and scale length, four to six strings or courses. The four-string bass is tuned the same as the double bass, which corresponds to pitches one octave lower than the four lowest-pitched strings of a guitar, it is played with the fingers or thumb, or striking with a pick. The electric bass guitar has pickups and must be connected to an amplifier and speaker to be loud enough to compete with other instruments. Since the 1960s, the bass guitar has replaced the double bass in popular music as the bass instrument in the rhythm section. While types of basslines vary from one style of music to another, the bassist plays a similar role: anchoring the harmonic framework and establishing the beat. Many styles of music include the bass guitar, it is a soloing instrument. According to the New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, an "Electric bass guitar a Guitar with four heavy strings tuned E1'-A1'-D2-G2."
It defines bass as "Bass. A contraction of Double bass or Electric bass guitar." According to some authors the proper term is "electric bass". Common names for the instrument are "bass guitar", "electric bass guitar", "electric bass" and some authors claim that they are accurate; the bass guitar is a transposing instrument, as it is notated in bass clef an octave higher than it sounds. In the 1930s, musician and inventor Paul Tutmarc of Seattle, developed the first electric bass guitar in its modern form, a fretted instrument designed to be played horizontally; the 1935 sales catalog for Tutmarc's electronic musical instrument company, featured his "Model 736 Bass Fiddle", a four-stringed, solid-bodied, fretted electric bass guitar with a 30 1⁄2-inch scale length, a single pick up. The adoption of a guitar's body shape made the instrument easier to hold and transport than any of the existing stringed bass instruments; the addition of frets enabled bassists to play in tune more than on fretless acoustic or electric upright basses.
Around 100 of these instruments were made during this period. Audiovox sold their “Model 236” bass amplifier. Around 1947, Tutmarc's son, began marketing a similar bass under the Serenader brand name, prominently advertised in the nationally distributed L. D. Heater Music Company wholesale jobber catalogue of 1948. However, the Tutmarc family inventions did not achieve market success. In the 1950s, Leo Fender and George Fullerton developed the first mass-produced electric bass guitar; the Fender Electric Instrument Manufacturing Company began producing the Precision Bass in October 1951. The "P-bass" evolved from a simple, un-contoured "slab" body design and a single coil pickup similar to that of a Telecaster, to something more like a Fender Stratocaster, with a contoured body design, edges beveled for comfort, a split single coil pickup; the "Fender Bass" was a revolutionary new instrument for gigging musicians. In comparison with the large, heavy upright bass, the main bass instrument in popular music from the early 1900s to the 1940s, the bass guitar could be transported to shows.
When amplified, the bass guitar was less prone than acoustic basses to unwanted audio feedback. In 1953 Monk Montgomery became the first bassist to tour with the Fender bass guitar, in Lionel Hampton's postwar big band. Montgomery was possibly the first to record with the bass guitar, on July 2, 1953 with The Art Farmer Septet. Roy Johnson, Shifty Henry, were other early Fender bass pioneers. Bill Black, playing with Elvis Presley, switched from upright bass to the Fender Precision Bass around 1957; the bass guitar was intended to appeal to guitarists as well as upright bass players, many early pioneers of the instrument, such as Carol Kaye, Joe Osborn, Paul McCartney were guitarists. In 1953, following Fender's lead, Gibson released the first short-scale violin-shaped electric bass, with an extendable end pin so a bassist could play it upright or horizontally. Gibson renamed the bass the EB-1 in 1958. In 1958, Gibson released the maple arched-top EB-2 described in the Gibson catalogue as a "hollow-body electric bass that features a Bass/Baritone pushbutton for two different tonal characteristics".
In 1959 these were followed by the more conventional-looking EB-0 Bass. The EB-0 was similar to a Gibson SG in appearance. Whereas Fender basses had pickups mounted in positions in between the base of the neck and the top of the bridge, many of Gibson's early basses featured one humbucking pickup mounted directly against the neck pocket; the EB-3, introduced in 1961 had a "mini-humbucker" at the bridge position. Gibson basses tended to be smaller, sleeker instruments with a shorter scale length than the Precision. A number of other companies began manufacturing bass guitars during the 1950s: Kay in 1952, Hofner and Danelectro in 1956, Rickenbacker in 1957 and Burns/Supersound in 1958. 1956 saw the appearance at the German trade fair "Musikmesse Frankfurt" of the distinctive Höfner 500/1 violin-shaped bass made using violin construction techniques by Walter Höfner, a second-generation violin luthier. The design was known popularly as the "Beat
An electric guitar is a guitar that uses one or more pickups to convert the vibration of its strings into electrical signals. The vibration occurs when a guitar player strums, fingerpicks, slaps or taps the strings; the pickup uses electromagnetic induction to create this signal, which being weak is fed into a guitar amplifier before being sent to the speaker, which converts it into audible sound. The electric signal can be electronically altered to change the timbre of the sound; the signal is modified using effects such as reverb, distortion and "overdrive". Invented in 1931, the electric guitar was adopted by jazz guitar players, who wanted to play single-note guitar solos in large big band ensembles. Early proponents of the electric guitar on record include Les Paul, Lonnie Johnson, Sister Rosetta Tharpe, T-Bone Walker, Charlie Christian. During the 1950s and 1960s, the electric guitar became the most important instrument in popular music, it has evolved into an instrument, capable of a multitude of sounds and styles in genres ranging from pop and rock to country music and jazz.
It served as a major component in the development of electric blues and roll, rock music, heavy metal music and many other genres of music. Electric guitar design and construction varies in the shape of the body and the configuration of the neck and pickups. Guitars may have a fixed bridge or a spring-loaded hinged bridge, which lets players "bend" the pitch of notes or chords up or down, or perform vibrato effects; the sound of an electric guitar can be modified by new playing techniques such as string bending and hammering-on, using audio feedback, or slide guitar playing. There are several types of electric guitar, including: the solid-body guitar. In pop and rock music, the electric guitar is used in two roles: as a rhythm guitar, which plays the chord sequences or progressions, riffs, sets the beat. In a small group, such as a power trio, one guitarist switches between both roles. In large rock and metal bands, there is a rhythm guitarist and a lead guitarist. Many experiments at electrically amplifying the vibrations of a string instrument were made dating back to the early part of the 20th century.
Patents from the 1910s show telephone transmitters were adapted and placed inside violins and banjos to amplify the sound. Hobbyists in the 1920s used carbon button microphones attached to the bridge. With numerous people experimenting with electrical instruments in the 1920s and early 1930s, there are many claimants to have been the first to invent an electric guitar. Electric guitars were designed by acoustic guitar makers and instrument manufacturers; the demand for amplified guitars began during the big band era. The first electric guitars used in jazz were hollow archtop acoustic guitar bodies with electromagnetic transducers. Early electric guitar manufacturers include Rickenbacker in 1932; the first electrically amplified stringed instrument to be marketed commercially was designed in 1931 by George Beauchamp, the general manager of the National Guitar Corporation, with Paul Barth, vice president. The maple body prototype for the one-piece cast aluminium "frying pan" was built by Harry Watson, factory superintendent of the National Guitar Corporation.
Commercial production began in late summer of 1932 by the Ro-Pat-In Corporation, in Los Angeles, a partnership of Beauchamp, Adolph Rickenbacker, Paul Barth. In 1934, the company was renamed the Rickenbacker Electro Stringed Instrument Company. In that year Beauchamp applied for a United States patent for an Electrical Stringed Musical Instrument and the patent was issued in 1937. By early-mid 1935, Electro String Instrument Corporation had achieved mainstream success with the A-22 "Frying Pan" steel guitar, set out to capture a new audience through its release of the Electro-Spanish Model B and the Electro-Spanish Ken Roberts, the first full 25" scale electric guitar produced; the Electro-Spanish Ken Roberts was revolutionary for its time, providing players a full 25" scale, with easy access to 17 frets free of the body. Unlike other lap-steel electrified instruments produced during the time, the Electro-Spanish Ken Roberts was designed to play standing vertical, upright with a strap; the Electro-Spanish Ken Roberts was the first instrument to feature a hand-operated vibrato as a standard appointment, a device called the "Vibrola," invented by Doc Kauffman.
It is estimated that fewer than 50 Electro-Spanish Ken Roberts were constructed between 1933 and 1937. The solid-body electric guitar is made without functionally resonating air spaces; the first solid-body Spanish standard guitar was offered by Vivi-Tone no than 1934. This model featured a guitar-shaped body of a single sheet
"Flaming" is a song by English rock band Pink Floyd, featured on their 1967 debut album, The Piper at the Gates of Dawn. Written and sung by Syd Barrett, the lyrics describe a childlike game with fantastical imagery, while prominent organ and driving bass guitar carry the uptempo music. After David Gilmour joined the band, the song remained in their set list for a while in 1968 after Barrett's departure. "Flaming" was the third US Pink Floyd single and was released by Tower Records, but it did not chart. The mono US single mix of "Flaming" is edited from other stereo or mono versions of the recording; this US single was released in place of the UK single, "Apples and Oranges", which had just failed to break into the UK charts. It was the first of two US Pink Floyd singles released on Tower that were not released on a single in the UK; the other US single, not released in the UK was "Let There Be More Light" b/w "Remember a Day". This song is one of three known Pink Floyd songs to refer to an eiderdown.
The other two songs are "Julia Dream", the B-side to a 1968 single, "A Pillow of Winds" from the Meddle album. A live version of "Flaming" was played in London's All Saints Hall in 1966; the song remained a live staple until the end of 1968. A live version of the song, with Gilmour in Barrett's place, was shown on French television; the song opened with a slide whistle played by bassist Roger Waters. Syd Barrett – lead vocals, electric guitar, 12-string acoustic guitar, vocal percussion, wind-up toys Rick Wright – Farfisa organ, Hammond organ, Lowrey organ, tack piano, backing vocals, vocal percussion, wind-up toys Roger Waters – bass guitar, slide whistle, backing vocals, vocal percussion, wind-up toys Nick Mason – drums, finger cymbals, wind-up toys Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics
Phish is an American rock band, founded at the University of Vermont in Burlington, Vermont in 1983. The band is known for musical improvisation, extended jams, blending of genres, a dedicated fan base; the band consists of guitarist Trey Anastasio, bassist Mike Gordon, drummer Jon Fishman, keyboardist Page McConnell, all of whom perform vocals, with Anastasio being the primary lead vocalist. The band was formed by Anastasio, Gordon and guitarist Jeff Holdsworth, who were joined by McConnell in 1985. Holdsworth departed the band in 1986, the quartet lineup has remained in place since then. Following the stabilization of their lineup, Phish performed together for 15 years, until they embarked on a hiatus in October 2000; the band regrouped in late 2002, but disbanded in August 2004 after a farewell performance at their Coventry Festival in Vermont. They reunited in March 2009 for a series of three consecutive concerts at Hampton Coliseum in Hampton and have since resumed performing regularly. Phish's music blends elements of a wide variety of genres, including funk, progressive rock, psychedelic rock, country, blues and pop.
The band was part of a movement of improvisational rock groups, inspired by the Grateful Dead and colloquially known as "jam bands", which gained considerable popularity as touring concert acts in the 1990s. Phish has developed a large and dedicated following by word of mouth, the exchange of live recordings, selling over 8 million albums and DVDs in the United States. In 1998, Rolling Stone described Phish as "the most important band of the'90s." The magazine wrote that the band helped to "...spawn a new wave of bands oriented around group improvisation and extended instrumental grooves". Phish was formed at the University of Vermont in 1983 by guitarists Trey Anastasio and Jeff Holdsworth, bassist Mike Gordon, drummer Jon Fishman. Anastasio and Fishman had met that October, after Anastasio overheard Fishman playing drums in his dormitory room, asked if he and Holdsworth could jam with him. Gordon met the trio shortly thereafter, after he answered a want-ad for a bass guitarist that Anastasio had posted around the university.
For their first gig, at Harris Millis Cafeteria at the University of Vermont on December 2, 1983, the band was billed as "Blackwood Convention". The band performed one more concert in 1983, did not perform again for nearly a year, stemming from Anastasio's suspension from the university following a prank he had pulled with a friend. Anastasio returned to his hometown of Princeton, New Jersey following the prank, attended Mercer County Community College. While there, he reconnected with his childhood friend Tom Marshall, the pair began a songwriting collaboration and recorded material that would appear on the Bivouac Jaun demo tape. Marshall and Anastasio have subsequently composed the majority of Phish's original songs throughout their career. Anastasio returned to Burlington in late 1984 and resumed playing with Blackwood Convention, which soon renamed themselves Phish, they played their first concert under that name on October 23 of that year; the band was named both after Fishman, whose nickname is "Fish," and phshhhh, an onomatopoeia of the sound of a brush on a snare drum.
Anastasio designed the band's logo. The band would collaborate with percussionist Marc Daubert in the fall of 1984, a time during which they promoted themselves as playing Grateful Dead songs. Keyboardist Page McConnell met Phish in early 1985, when he arranged for them to play a spring concert at Goddard College, the small university he attended in Plainfield, Vermont, he began performing with the band as a guest shortly thereafter, made his live debut during the third set of their May 3, 1985 concert at UVM's Redstone Campus. In the summer of 1985, Phish went on a short hiatus while Anastasio and Fishman vacationed in Europe. McConnell joined Phish as a full-time band member in September 1985. Phish performed with a five-piece lineup for about six months after McConnell joined, a period which ended when Holdsworth quit the group in March 1986 following a religious conversion. Holdsworth's departure from the band solidified its "Trey, Page and Fish" lineup, which remains in place to this day.
With the encouragement of McConnell and Fishman relocated in mid-1986 to Goddard College. Phish distributed at least six different experimental self-titled cassettes during this era, including The White Tape; this first studio recording was circulated in two variations: the first, mixed in a dorm room as late as 1985, received a higher distribution than the second studio remix of the original four tracks, c. 1987. The older version was released under the title Phish in August 1998. Jesse Jarnow's book Heads: A Biography of Psychedelic America details much of the band's early years at Goddard College, including their early relationship with fellow Goddard students Richard "Nancy" Wright and Jim Pollock. Pollock and Wright were musical collaborators who made experimental recordings on multi-track cassettes, had been introduced to Phish through McConnell, who co-hosted a radio program on WGDR with Pollock. Phish adopted a number of Nancy's songs into their own set, including "Halley's Comet", "I Didn't Know", "Dear Mrs. Reagan", the latter song being written by Nancy and Pollock.
In Heads, Jarnow argues that Wright and his music were influential to Phish's early style and experimental sound. Wright amicably ended his associatio
The Piper at the Gates of Dawn
The Piper at the Gates of Dawn is the debut studio album by the English rock band Pink Floyd, the only one made under founding member Syd Barrett's leadership. The album, named after the title of chapter seven of Kenneth Grahame's The Wind in the Willows and featuring a kaleidoscopic cover photo of the band taken by Vic Singh, was recorded from February to May 1967 and released on 4 August 1967, it was produced by Beatles engineer Norman Smith and released in 1967 by EMI Columbia in the United Kingdom and Tower in the United States, in August and October respectively. Two of the album's songs, "Astronomy Domine" and "Interstellar Overdrive", became long-term mainstays of the band's live set list, while other songs were performed live only a handful of times; the release of the album in the US was timed with the band's tour of the US. The US version of the album has a rearranged track list; this version omits "Astronomy Domine", "Flaming", "Bike" and contains the UK non-album single, "See Emily Play".
In the UK, no singles were released from the album, but in the US, "Flaming" was offered as a single. Since its release, the album has been hailed a pivotal psychedelic rock album, with the embryonic elements of what was to become progressive rock. In 1973, it was packaged with the band's second album, A Saucerful of Secrets, released as A Nice Pair to introduce new fans to the band's early work after the success of The Dark Side of the Moon. Special limited editions of The Piper at the Gates of Dawn were issued to mark its thirtieth and fiftieth anniversaries in 1997, 2007, 2018 with the former two releases containing bonus tracks. In 2012, The Piper at the Gates of Dawn was voted 347th on Rolling Stone magazine's list of the "500 Greatest Albums of All Time". Architecture students Roger Waters, Nick Mason and Richard Wright and art student Syd Barrett had performed under various group names since 1962, began touring as "The Pink Floyd Sound" in 1965, they turned professional on 1 February 1967 when they signed with EMI, with an advance fee of £5,000.
Their first single, a song about a kleptomaniac transvestite titled "Arnold Layne", was released on 11 March to mild controversy, as Radio London refused to air it. About three weeks the band were introduced to the mainstream media. EMI's press release claimed that the band were "musical spokesmen for a new movement which involves experimentation in all the arts", but EMI attempted to put some distance between them and the underground scene from which the band originated by stating that "the Pink Floyd does not know what people mean by psychedelic pop and are not trying to create hallucinatory effects on their audiences." The band returned to Sound Techniques studio to record their next single, "See Emily Play", on 18 May. The single was released a month on 16 June, reached number six in the charts. Pink Floyd picked up a tabloid reputation for making music for LSD users; the popular broadsheet News of the World printed a story nine days before the album's recording sessions began, saying that "The Pink Floyd group specialise in'psychedelic music', designed to illustrate LSD experiences."
Contrary to this image, only Barrett was known to be taking LSD. The band's record deal was poor for the time: a £5,000 advance over five years, low royalties and no free studio time. However, it did include album development, EMI, unsure of what kind of band they had signed, gave them free rein to record whatever they wanted, they were obliged to record their first album at EMI's Abbey Road Studios in London, overseen by producer Norman Smith, a central figure in Pink Floyd's negotiations with EMI. Balance engineer Pete Bown, who had mentored Smith, helped ensure that the album had a unique sound, through his experimentation with equipment and recording techniques. Bown, assisted by studio manager David Harris, set up microphones an hour. Bown's microphone choices were different from those used by Smith to record the Beatles' EMI sessions; because of the quietness of Barrett's singing, he was placed in a vocal isolation booth to sing his parts. Automatic double tracking was used to add layers of echo to some instruments.
The album featured an unusually heavy use of reverberation to give it its own unique sound. Much of the reverberation effect came from a set of Elektro-Mess-Technik plate reverberators – customised EMT 140s containing thin metal plates under tension – and the studio's tiled echo chamber built in 1931; the album is made up of two different classes of songs: lengthy improvisations from the band's live performances and shorter songs that Barrett had written. Barrett's LSD intake escalated part-way through the album's recording sessions. Although in his 2005 autobiography Mason recalled the sessions as trouble-free, Smith disagreed and claimed that Barrett was unresponsive to his suggestions and constructive criticism. In an attempt to build a relationship with the band, Smith played jazz on the piano while the band joined in; these jam sessions worked well with Waters, helpful, Wright, "laid-back". Smith's attempts to connect with Barrett were less productive: "With Syd, I realised I was wasting my time."
Smith admitted that his traditional ideas of music were somewhat at odds with the psychedelic background from which Pink Floyd had come. He managed to "discourage the live ramble", as band manager Peter Jenner called it, guiding the band toward producing songs with a more manageable length. Barrett would end up writing eight of the album's songs and contributing to two instrumentals credited to the whole band, wi
A tack piano known as a harpsipiano, jangle piano, a junk piano, is an altered version of an ordinary piano, in which objects such as thumbtacks or nails are placed on the felt-padded hammers of the instrument at the point where the hammers hit the strings, giving the instrument a tinny, more percussive sound. It is used to evoke the feeling of a honky-tonk piano. Tack pianos are associated with ragtime pieces appearing in Hollywood Western saloon scenes featuring old upright pianos; the instrument was used for classical music performances as a substitute for a harpsichord. Honky-tonk Luthéal Player piano Prepared piano
Musique concrète is a type of music composition that utilizes recorded sounds as raw material, assembling them into a form of montage. It can feature sounds derived from recordings of musical instruments, the human voice, the natural environment as well as those created using synthesizers and computer-based digital signal processing. Compositions in this idiom are not restricted to the normal musical rules of melody, rhythm, so on, it exploits acousmatic listening, meaning sound identities can be intentionally obscured or appear unconnected to their source cause. Contrasted with "pure" elektronische Musik, the theoretical basis of musique concrète as a compositional practice was developed by Pierre Schaeffer, beginning in the early 1940s. From the late 1960s onward, in France, the term acousmatic music started to be used in reference to fixed media compositions that utilized both musique concrète based techniques and live sound spatialisation. In 1928 music critic André Cœuroy wrote in his book Panorama of Contemporary Music that "perhaps the time is not far off when a composer will be able to represent through recording, music composed for the gramophone".
In the same period the American composer Henry Cowell, in referring to the projects of Nikolai Lopatnikoff, believed that "there was a wide field open for the composition of music for phonographic discs." This sentiment was echoed further in 1930 by Igor Stravinsky, when he stated in the revue Kultur und Schallplatte that "there will be a greater interest in creating music in a way that will be peculiar to the gramophone record." The following year, 1931, Boris de Schloezer expressed the opinion that one could write for the gramophone or for the wireless just as one can for the piano or the violin. Shortly after, German art theorist Rudolf Arnheim discussed the effects of microphonic recording in an essay entitled "Radio", published in 1936. In it the idea of a creative role for the recording medium was introduced and Arnheim stated that: "The rediscovery of the musicality of sound in noise and in language, the reunification of music and language in order to obtain a unity of material:, one of the chief artistic tasks of radio".
In 1942 French composer and theoretician Pierre Schaeffer began his exploration of radiophony when he joined Jacques Copeau and his pupils in the foundation of the Studio d'Essai de la Radiodiffusion nationale. The studio functioned as a center for the Resistance movement in French radio, which in August 1944 was responsible for the first broadcasts in liberated Paris, it was here that Schaeffer began to experiment with creative radiophonic techniques using the sound technologies of the time. The development of Schaeffer's practice was informed by encounters with voice actors, microphone usage and radiophonic art played an important part in inspiring and consolidating Schaeffer's conception of sound-based composition. Another important influence on Schaeffer's practice was cinema, the techniques of recording and montage, which were associated with cinematographic practice, came to "serve as the substrate of musique concrète." Marc Battier notes that, prior to Schaeffer, Jean Epstein drew attention to the manner in which sound recording revealed what was hidden in the act of basic acoustic listening.
Epstein's reference to this "phenomenon of an epiphanic being", which appears through the transduction of sound, proved influential on Schaeffer's concept of reduced listening. Schaeffer would explicitly cite Jean Epstein with reference to his use of extra-musical sound material. Epstein had imagined that "through the transposition of natural sounds, it becomes possible to create chords and dissonances and symphonies of noise, which are a new and cinematographic music". Earlier than Schaeffer conducting his preliminary experiments into sound manipulation was the activity of Egyptian composer Halim El-Dabh; as a student in Cairo in the early to mid-1940s he began experimenting with "tape music" using a cumbersome wire recorder. He recorded the sounds of an ancient zaar ceremony and at the Middle East Radio studios processed the material using reverberation, voltage controls, re-recording; the resulting tape-based composition, entitled The Expression of Zaar, was presented in 1944 at an art gallery event in Cairo.
El-Dabh has described his initial activities as an attempt to unlock "the inner sound" of the recordings. While his early compositional work was not known outside of Egypt at the time, El-Dabh would gain recognition for his influential work at the Columbia-Princeton Electronic Music Center in the late 1950s. Following Schaeffer's work with Studio d'Essai at Radiodiffusion Nationale during the early 1940s he was credited with originating the theory and practice of musique concrète; the Studio d'Essai was renamed Club d'Essai de la Radiodiffusion-Télévision Française in 1946 and in the same year Schaeffer discussed, in writing, the question surrounding the transformation of time perceived through recording. The essay evidenced knowledge of sound manipulation techniques he would further exploit compositionally. In 1948 Schaeffer formally initiated "research in to noises" at the Club d'Essai and on 5 October 1948 the results of his ini