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Bilabial consonant

In phonetics, a bilabial consonant is a labial consonant articulated with both lips. The bilabial consonants identified by the International Phonetic Alphabet are: Owere Igbo has a six-way contrast among bilabial stops:. 0.7% of the world's languages lack bilabial consonants altogether, including Tlingit, Chipewyan and Wichita. The extensions to the IPA define a bilabial percussive for striking the lips together. A lip-smack in the non-percussive sense of the lips noisily parting would be; the IPA chart shades out bilabial lateral consonants, sometimes read as indicating that such sounds are not possible. The fricatives and are lateral, but no language makes a distinction for centrality so the allophony is not noticeable. Place of articulation Index of phonetics articles General references

1928 United States presidential election in Indiana

The 1928 United States presidential election in Indiana took place on November 6, 1928, as part of the 1928 United States Presidential Election, held throughout all contemporary 48 states. Voters chose fifteen representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president. Since the Civil War, partisan alliances in Indiana had been related to history of White settlement, with most of Southern Indiana and German-settled counties voting Democratic, opposed to Yankee-settled Northern Indiana which voted Republican; some breakdown of these traditional loyalties took place in the 1920s due to German opposition to Woodrow Wilson’s World War I policies, but these occurred to a lesser extent than in other Midwestern states because of the conservative dominance within Indiana’s Democratic Party. 1928, with most other Democrats standing out as they felt the part had no chance of winning due to the prosperous economy, saw New York Governor Al Smith nominated by default.

Many traditionally Democratic Upland Southerners recoiled at the nomination of Smith because he was a devout Catholic, opposed to Prohibition, associated with the corruption of the Tammany Hall political machine. Smith’s decision to run with Arkansas Senator Joseph T. Robinson, a “dry” and Protestant, did not alleviate fears of what he would do in the White House. Ultimate Republican nominee, Secretary of Commerce Herbert Hoover of California, lost the GOP primary in the Hoosier State but was untroubled to win the nomination nationally; the Democratic primary was held late in the primary season and was won by Smith, who by had effective wrapped up the nomination, despite the state casting its vote for favorite son Evans Woollen. In a state whose farmers’ were suffering a financial crisis amidst national prosperity due to the loss of demand following the war, the Indiana Farm Bureau would not endorse either ticket. However, Indiana’s Senator James E. Watson said that Hoover would carry the state despite these obvious problems.

After becoming certain to be nominated, it was thought by the Wall Street Journal that Smith would have to carry Indiana to have any chance of winning the Presidency. However, as early as the beginning of July politicos said that prohibitionist and anti-Catholic forces in Indiana gave Smith no chance of carrying the state, despte Smith saying he would enforce the law if elected. At the end of August, pollsters were suggesting that the latent opposition of the anti-Catholic Ku Klux Klan – which had all but ruled Indiana earlier in the 1920s – and the prohibitionist Anti-Saloon League in rural areas of Indiana would of itself make it impossible for Smith to carry the state. Hoover visited Indiana late in August as part of the Lake County Fair, focusing on the agricultural crisis and, alongside Iowa Senator Smith W. Brookhart, blaming the Democrats and the Federal Reserve System for the extant farm crisis. Smith did not visit the state during the fall campaign, polls throughout that season saw the state as safe for Hoover.

Hoover carried the state by 20.09 percentage points, at the time the best Republican result achieved in Indiana, although it was beaten in 1956, 1972, 1984 and 2004

Irene Petrie

Irene Eleanora Verita Petrie was a British missionary who died in Kashmir on the Indian subcontinent in 1897. Petrie was born in Kensington Park in 1864, her parents were Martin Petrie. Her father was a Colonel in the army, she was educated at home and attended Notting Hill High School for Girls before taking the Cambridge Higher examination. She was presented at court in 1885, she decided to be a missionary but her father forbade it. He died in 1892 and her sister encouraged her to fulfil her ambition; the Church Missionary Society trained her in Stoke Newington and she was bound for Lahore in October 1893. She was a volunteer at the St Hilda's Diocesan Home which cared for the Christian poor; the following year she moved to the CMS's Kashmir mission in Srinagar where she improved her language skills. In 1895 she was sent back to England to rally support for their work, she was returned to Srinagar. She visited Indian women in their own homes; the British had built three churches and Petrie found that she preferred the service in Urdu at one church to the one delivered in English.

At the Kashmir mission she lodged with Cecil Tyndale-Biscoe. Petrie died in Leh in 1897 from a fever, her sister, Mary Louisa Georgina Petrie Carus-Wilson, wrote her biography which went to several editions. Media related to Irene Petrie at Wikimedia Commons