Manner of articulation
In articulatory phonetics, the manner of articulation is the configuration and interaction of the articulators when making a speech sound. One parameter of manner is stricture, that is, how closely the speech organs approach one another, others include those involved in the r-like sounds, and the sibilancy of fricatives. For consonants, the place of articulation and the degree of phonation of voicing are considered separately from manner, homorganic consonants, which have the same place of articulation, may have different manners of articulation. Often nasality and laterality are included in manner, but some phoneticians, such as Peter Ladefoged, from greatest to least stricture, speech sounds may be classified along a cline as stop consonants, fricative consonants and vowels. Affricates often behave as if they were intermediate stops and fricatives, but phonetically they are sequences of a stop and fricative. Over time, sounds in a language may move along this cline toward less stricture in a process called lenition, sibilants are distinguished from other fricatives by the shape of the tongue and how the airflow is directed over the teeth.
Fricatives at coronal places of articulation may be sibilant or non-sibilant and flaps are similar to very brief stops. However, their articulation and behavior are enough to be considered a separate manner, rather than just length. Trills involve the vibration of one of the speech organs, since trilling is a separate parameter from stricture, the two may be combined. Increasing the stricture of a typical trill results in a trilled fricative, nasal airflow may be added as an independent parameter to any speech sound. It is most commonly found in nasal occlusives and nasal vowels, but nasalized fricatives, when a sound is not nasal, it is called oral. Laterality is the release of airflow at the side of the tongue and this can be combined with other manners, resulting in lateral approximants, lateral flaps, and lateral fricatives and affricates. Stop, an oral occlusive, where there is occlusion of the vocal tract. Examples include English /p t k/ and /b d ɡ/, if the consonant is voiced, the voicing is the only sound made during occlusion, if it is voiceless, a stop is completely silent.
What we hear as a /p/ or /k/ is the effect that the onset of the occlusion has on the vowel, as well as the release burst. The shape and position of the tongue determine the resonant cavity that gives different stops their characteristic sounds, nasal, a nasal occlusive, where there is occlusion of the oral tract, but air passes through the nose. The shape and position of the tongue determine the resonant cavity that gives different nasals their characteristic sounds, nearly all languages have nasals, the only exceptions being in the area of Puget Sound and a single language on Bougainville Island. Fricative, sometimes called spirant, where there is continuous frication at the place of articulation, examples include English /f, s/, /v, z/, etc
In recent years, Assyrian Neo-Aramaic has spread throughout the Assyrian diaspora. Speakers of Assyrian Neo-Aramaic, Chaldean Neo-Aramaic and Turoyo are ethnic Assyrians and are descendants of the ancient Assyrian inhabitants of Northern Mesopotamia, Assyrian Neo-Aramaic is the largest speaking Neo-Aramaic group, followed by Chaldean Neo-Aramaic and Turoyo. Despite the terms Chaldean Neo-Aramaic and Assyrian Neo-Aramaic indicating an ethnic identity. Assyrian is a moderately inflected, fusional language with a two-gender noun system and it is a null-subject language and it features a pronoun drop to some degree. The word order of modern Assyrian is predominately SVO, although other sentence structures are used too. There is some Akkadian vocabulary and influence in the language, Assyrian Neo-Aramaic is written from right to left, and it uses the Madnhāyā version of the Syriac alphabet. To a moderate degree, Assyrian is intelligible with Senaya, Lishana Deni and it is somewhat partially intelligible with Lishan Didan, Hulaulá and Lishanid Noshan.
Its mutual intelligibility with Turoyo is rather limited, the Syriac language had evolved from Imperial Aramaic, an Akkadian infused dialect introduced as the lingua franca of Assyria and the Neo Assyrian Empire by Tiglath-Pileser III in the 8th century BC. Aramaic was the language of commerce and communication and became the language of Assyria in classical antiquity. It became the lingua franca of the Neo-Assyrian Empire, Neo-Babylonian Empire, the Achaemenid Empire, the Parthian Empire, after the conquest of Assyria and other Aramaic dialects gradually lost their status as imperial languages but continued to flourish as lingua francas alongside Ancient Greek. By the 1st century AD, Akkadian was extinct, although some loaned vocabulary still survives in Assyrian Neo-Aramaic to this day. The Neo-Aramaic languages are descended from Old Aramaic, the lingua franca in the phase of the Neo-Assyrian Empire. The Neo-Aramaic languages evolved from Middle Aramaic by the 13th century, the Assyrian Empire resorted to a policy of deporting troublesome conquered peoples into the lands of Mesopotamia.
Consequently, during the Persian rule of Assyria, Aramaic gradually became the language spoken by the Assyrians. Even before the Empire fell, the Assyrians had made the language the lingua franca of its empire, there is evidence that the adoption of Syriac, the language of the Assyrian people, was led by missionaries. Much literary effort was put into the production of a translation of the Bible into Syriac. At the same time, Ephrem the Syrian was producing the most treasured collection of poetry, by the 3rd century AD, churches in Edessa began to use Syriac as the language of worship and the language became the literary and liturgical language of many churches in the Fertile Crescent. Syriac was the lingua franca of the Middle East until 900 AD, the differences with the Assyrian Church of the East led to the bitter Nestorian schism in the Syriac-speaking world
Cantonese, or Standard Cantonese, is a variety of Chinese spoken in the city of Guangzhou in southeastern China. It is the prestige variety of Yue, one of the major subdivisions of Chinese. In mainland China, it is the lingua franca of the province of Guangdong and some neighbouring areas such as Guangxi. In Hong Kong and Macau, Cantonese serves as one of their official languages and it is spoken amongst overseas Chinese in Southeast Asia and throughout the Western World. When Cantonese and the closely related Yuehai dialects are classified together, Cantonese is viewed as vital part of the cultural identity for its native speakers across large swathes of southeastern China, Hong Kong and Macau. Although Cantonese shares some vocabulary with Mandarin, the two varieties are mutually unintelligible because of differences in pronunciation and lexicon, sentence structure, in particular the placement of verbs, sometimes differs between the two varieties. This results in the situation in which a Cantonese and a Mandarin text may look similar, in English, the term Cantonese is ambiguous.
Cantonese proper is the variety native to the city of Canton and this narrow sense may be specified as Canton language or Guangzhou language in English. However, Cantonese may refer to the branch of Cantonese that contains Cantonese proper as well as Taishanese and Gaoyang. In this article, Cantonese is used for Cantonese proper, speakers called this variety Canton speech or Guangzhou speech, although this term is now seldom used outside mainland China. In Guangdong province, people call it provincial capital speech or plain speech. In Hong Kong and Macau, as well as among overseas Chinese communities, in mainland China, the term Guangdong speech is increasingly being used among both native and non-native speakers. Due to its status as a prestige dialect among all the dialects of the Cantonese or Yue branch of Chinese varieties, the official languages of Hong Kong are Chinese and English, as defined in the Hong Kong Basic Law. The Chinese language has different varieties, of which Cantonese is one.
Given the traditional predominance of Cantonese within Hong Kong, it is the de facto official spoken form of the Chinese language used in the Hong Kong Government and all courts and it is used as the medium of instruction in schools, alongside English. A similar situation exists in neighboring Macau, where Chinese is an official language along with Portuguese. As in Hong Kong, Cantonese is the predominant spoken variety of Chinese used in life and is thus the official form of Chinese used in the government. The variant spoken in Hong Kong and Macau is known as Hong Kong Cantonese, Cantonese first developed around the port city of Guangzhou in the Pearl River Delta region of southeastern China
Dutch orthography uses the Latin alphabet and has evolved to suit the needs of the Dutch language. The spelling system is issued by government decree and is compulsory for all government documentation, the modern Dutch alphabet consists of the 26 letters of the ISO basic Latin alphabet and is used for the Dutch language. Five letters are vowels and 21 letters are consonants, the letter E is the most frequently used letter in the Dutch alphabet, usually representing a schwa sound. The least frequently used letters are Q and X. Dutch uses the following letters, note that for simplicity, dialectal variation and subphonemic distinctions are not always indicated. See Dutch phonology for more information, the Latin letters c, qu, x and y are sometimes adapted to k, kw, ks and i. Greek letters φ and ῥ become f and r, not ph or rh, combinations -eon-, -ion-, -yon- in loanwords from French are written with a single n except when a schwa follows. Vowel length is indicated but in different ways by using an intricate system of single and double letters.
Old Dutch possessed phonemic consonant length in addition to phonemic vowel length, with no correspondence between them, long vowels could appear in closed syllables, and short vowels could occur in open syllables. In the transition to early Middle Dutch, short vowels were lengthened when they stood in open syllables, short vowels could now occur only in closed syllables. Consonants could still be long in pronunciation and acted to close the preceding syllable, any short vowel that was followed by a long consonant remained short. The spelling system used by early Middle Dutch scribes accounted for that by indicating the length only when it was necessary. As the length was implicit in open syllables, it was not indicated there, in Middle Dutch, the distinction between short and long consonants started to disappear. That made it possible for short vowels to appear in syllables once again. That eventually led to the modern Dutch spelling system, modern Dutch spelling still retains much of the details of the late Middle Dutch system.
The distinction between checked and free vowels is important in Dutch spelling, a checked vowel is one that is followed by a consonant in the same syllable while a free vowel ends the syllable. This distinction can apply to pronunciation or spelling independently, but a syllable that is checked in pronunciation will always be checked in spelling as well. Checked in neither, la-ten /ˈlaː. tə/ Checked in spelling only, a vowel that is checked in both is always short/lax. As tense /y/ is rare except before /r/, free ⟨u⟩ is likewise rare except before ⟨r⟩, the same rule applies to word-final vowels, which are always long because they are not followed by any consonant
Lips are a visible body part at the mouth of humans and many animals. Lips are soft and serve as the opening for food intake and in the articulation of sound, human lips are a tactile sensory organ, and can be an erogenous zone when used in kissing and other acts of intimacy. The upper and lower lips are referred to as the Labium superius oris and Labium inferius oris, the juncture where the lips meet the surrounding skin of the mouth area is the vermilion border, and the typically reddish area within the borders is called the vermilion zone. The vermilion border of the lip is known as the cupids bow. The fleshy protuberance located in the center of the lip is a tubercle known by various terms including the procheilon, the tuberculum labii superioris. The vertical groove extending from the procheilon to the septum is called the philtrum. The skin of the lip, with three to five layers, is very thin compared to typical face skin, which has up to 16 layers. With light skin color, the lip skin contains fewer melanocytes, because of this, the blood vessels appear through the skin of the lips, which leads to their notable red coloring.
With darker skin color this effect is less prominent, as in case the skin of the lips contains more melanin. The skin of the lip forms the border between the skin of the face, and the interior mucous membrane of the inside of the mouth. The lip skin is not hairy and does not have sweat glands, therefore, it does not have the usual protection layer of sweat and body oils which keep the skin smooth, inhibit pathogens, and regulate warmth. For these reasons, the lips dry out faster and become chapped more easily, the lower lip is formed from the mandibular prominence, a branch of the first pharyngeal arch. The lower lip covers the body of the mandible. It is lowered by the depressor labii inferioris muscle and the orbicularis oris borders it inferiorly, the upper lip covers the anterior surface of the body of the maxilla. It is raised by the levator labii superioris and is connected to the lip by the thin lining of the lip itself. The skin of the lips is stratified squamous epithelium, the mucous membrane is represented by a large area in the sensory cortex, and is therefore highly sensitive.
The Frenulum Labii Inferioris is the frenulum of the lower lip, the Frenulum Labii Superioris is the frenulum of the upper lip. Trigeminal nerve The infraorbital nerve is a branch of the maxillary branch and it supplies not only the upper lip, but much of the skin of the face between the upper lip and the lower eyelid, except for the bridge of the nose
The Armenian alphabet is an alphabetical writing system used to write Armenian. It was developed around 405 AD by Mesrop Mashtots, an Armenian linguist and ecclesiastical leader, the Armenian word for alphabet is այբուբեն aybuben, named after the first two letters of the Armenian alphabet, ⟨Ա⟩ Armenian, այբ ayb and ⟨Բ⟩ Armenian, բեն ben. Listen to the pronunciation of the letters in Eastern Armenian or in Western Armenian, notes, ^ Only used in classical orthography, word-initially and in some compound words. ^ Except in ով /ov/ who and ովքեր /ovkʰer/ those, ^ Iranian Armenians pronounce this letter as, like in Classical Armenian. ^ In classical orthography, ու and և are considered a digraph, in reformed orthography, they are separate letters of the alphabet. ^ In reformed orthography, the letter ւ appears only as a component of ու, in classical orthography, the letter usually represents /v/, except in the digraph իւ /ju/. The spelling reform in Soviet Armenia replaced իւ with the trigraph յու, ^ Except in the present tense of to be, եմ /em/ I am, ես /es/ you are, ենք /enkh/ we are, եք /ekh/ you are, են /en/ they are.
^ The letter ը is generally used only at the start or end of a word, ancient Armenian manuscripts used many ligatures. Some of the commonly used ligatures are, ﬓ, ﬔ, ﬕ, ﬖ, ﬗ, և, Armenian print typefaces include many ligatures. In the new orthography, the character և is no longer a typographical ligature, Armenian punctuation is often placed above and slightly to the right of the vowel whose tone is modified, in order to reflect intonation. The computer-induced use of English-style single or double quotes is strongly discouraged in Armenian as they look too much like other – unrelated – Armenian punctuations, the storaket is used as a comma, and placed as in English. The mijaket is used like a colon, mainly to separate two closely related clauses, or when a long list of items follows. The verjaket is used as the full stop, and placed at the end of the sentence. The yerkaratsman nshan is used as an exclamation mark, the shesht is used as an emphasis mark, and usually placed over the last vowel of the interjection word to indicate stress.
The hartsakan nshan is used as a mark and placed after the last vowel of the question word. The apatarts is used as an apostrophe, only in Western Armenian, to indicate elision of a vowel. The yentamna is used as the ordinary Armenian hyphen, the pativ was used as an Armenian abbreviation mark, and was placed on top of an abbreviated word to indicate that it was abbreviated. ISO9985 transliterates the Armenian alphabet for modern Armenian as follows, In the linguistic literature on Classical Armenian, hübschmann-Meillet have The Armenian alphabet was introduced by Mesrop Mashtots and Isaac of Armenia in 405 CE
While many languages have numerous dialects that differ in phonology, the contemporary spoken Arabic language is more properly described as a continuum of varieties. This article deals primarily with Modern Standard Arabic, which is the standard variety shared by educated speakers throughout Arabic-speaking regions, MSA is used in writing in formal print media and orally in newscasts and formal declarations of numerous types. Modern Standard Arabic has 28 consonant phonemes and 6 vowel phonemes, all phonemes contrast between emphatic consonants and non-emphatic ones. Some of these phonemes have coalesced in the modern dialects. A phonemic quality of length applies to consonants as well as vowels, Modern Standard Arabic only has six vowel phonemes, or three pairs of corresponding short and long vowels. It has two diphthongs in classic Arabic with no allophones, allophony in different dialects of Arabic can occur, and is partially conditioned by neighboring consonants within the same word. /i, iː, u, uː/ Across North Africa and West Asia, /i/ may be realized as before emphatic consonants, /u/ can have different realizations, i. e.
Sometimes with one value for each vowel in both short and long lengths or two different values for each short and long lengths and they are distinct phonemes in loan words. In Egypt, close vowels have different values, short initial or medial, ← instead of /i, /i~ɪ/ and /u~ʊ/ completely become /e/ and /o/ respectively in some other particular dialects. Unstressed final long /aː, iː, uː/ are most often shortened or reduced, /aː/ →, /iː/ → /i/, even highly proficient speakers will import the vowel-retraction rules from their native dialects. Certain speakers exhibit a degree of asymmetry in leftward vs. rightward spread of vowel-retraction, the final heavy syllable of a root is stressed. However, the pronunciation of loanwords is highly dependent on the native variety. Foreign words often have a sprinkling of long vowels, as their word shapes do not conform to standardized prescriptive pronunciations written by letters for short vowels. For short vowels /e/ and /o/, there may be no vowel letter written, as is normally done in Arabic, the letters ي or و are always used to render the long vowels /eː/ and /oː/.
Even in the most formal of conventions, pronunciation depends upon a speakers background, the number and phonetic character of most of the 28 consonants has a broad degree of regularity among Arabic-speaking regions. Note that Arabic is particularly rich in uvular, the emphatic coronals cause assimilation of emphasis to adjacent non-emphatic coronal consonants. Long consonants are pronounced exactly like short consonants, but last longer, in Arabic, they are called mushaddadah, but they are not actually pronounced any stronger. Between a long consonant and a pause, an epenthetic occurs, the following restrictions apply, Onset First consonant, Can be any consonant, including a liquid
The Bulgarian alphabet is used to write the Bulgarian language. In AD886, the Bulgarian Empire introduced the Glagolitic alphabet, devised by Saints Cyril, the Glagolitic alphabet was gradually superseded in centuries by the Cyrillic script, developed around the Preslav Literary School, Bulgaria at the beginning of the 10th century. With the accession of Bulgaria to the European Union on 1 January 2007, the following table gives the letters of the Bulgarian alphabet, along with the IPA values for the sound of each letter. The listed transliteration in the Official transliteration column is official in Bulgaria and is listed in the Official orthographic dictionary, for other transliteration standards see Romanization of Bulgarian. Most letters in the Bulgarian alphabet stand for just one specific sound, three letters stand for the single expression of combinations of sounds, these are щ, ю, and я. Two sounds do not correspond to separate letters, but are expressed by the combination of two letters, these are дж and дз.
The names of most letters are simple representations of their values, with consonants being followed by /ɤ/ – thus the alphabet goes, /a/ – /bɤ/ – /vɤ/. However, the name of the letter Й is i-kratko, the name of Ъ is er-golyam, people often refer to Ъ simply as /ɤ/. The accented letter Ѝ is used to distinguish the conjunction и from the pronoun ѝ and it is not considered a separate letter but rather a special form of И. Bulgarian is usually described as having a phonemic orthography, meaning that words are spelt the way they are pronounced and this is largely true, but there are exceptions. Three of the most cited examples are, The sounds and, the vowel in stressed verb endings -а, -ат, -я and -ят and the stressed short definite articles -a and -я is pronounced. Thus чета is pronounced, and мъжа is pronounced, voiced consonants are pronounced unvoiced when at the end of a word or when preceding an unvoiced consonant – e. g. втори is pronounced, and град is pronounced. Similarly, unvoiced consonants are pronounced voiced when preceding a voiced consonant – e. g.
сграда is, since the time of Bulgarias liberation in the late 19th century, the Bulgarian language has taken on a large number of words from Western European languages. Download and upload can be simply свалям and качвам, the insertion of English words directly into a Cyrillic Bulgarian sentence, while frowned upon, has been increasingly used in the media. However, this is not always the case, as in the headline Фейсбук vs. Гугъл, note the inconsistency here – despite the insistence on Cyrillic, the vs. has been retained in Roman script. The 2012 Official Orthographic Dictionary of the Bulgarian Language by the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences permits widely known names to remain in their original alphabet. Example sentences are given, all containing names of American IT companies, Microsoft, YouTube, PayPal, Facebook
International Phonetic Alphabet
The International Phonetic Alphabet is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet. It was devised by the International Phonetic Association as a representation of the sounds of spoken language. The IPA is used by lexicographers, foreign students and teachers, speech-language pathologists, actors, constructed language creators. The IPA is designed to represent only those qualities of speech that are part of language, phonemes, intonation. IPA symbols are composed of one or more elements of two types and diacritics. For example, the sound of the English letter ⟨t⟩ may be transcribed in IPA with a letter, or with a letter plus diacritics. Often, slashes are used to signal broad or phonemic transcription, thus, /t/ is less specific than, occasionally letters or diacritics are added, removed, or modified by the International Phonetic Association. As of the most recent change in 2005, there are 107 letters,52 diacritics and these are shown in the current IPA chart, posted below in this article and at the website of the IPA.
In 1886, a group of French and British language teachers, led by the French linguist Paul Passy, for example, the sound was originally represented with the letter ⟨c⟩ in English, but with the digraph ⟨ch⟩ in French. However, in 1888, the alphabet was revised so as to be uniform across languages, the idea of making the IPA was first suggested by Otto Jespersen in a letter to Paul Passy. It was developed by Alexander John Ellis, Henry Sweet, Daniel Jones, since its creation, the IPA has undergone a number of revisions. After major revisions and expansions in 1900 and 1932, the IPA remained unchanged until the International Phonetic Association Kiel Convention in 1989, a minor revision took place in 1993 with the addition of four letters for mid central vowels and the removal of letters for voiceless implosives. The alphabet was last revised in May 2005 with the addition of a letter for a labiodental flap, apart from the addition and removal of symbols, changes to the IPA have consisted largely in renaming symbols and categories and in modifying typefaces.
Extensions to the International Phonetic Alphabet for speech pathology were created in 1990, the general principle of the IPA is to provide one letter for each distinctive sound, although this practice is not followed if the sound itself is complex. There are no letters that have context-dependent sound values, as do hard, the IPA does not usually have separate letters for two sounds if no known language makes a distinction between them, a property known as selectiveness. These are organized into a chart, the chart displayed here is the chart as posted at the website of the IPA. The letters chosen for the IPA are meant to harmonize with the Latin alphabet, for this reason, most letters are either Latin or Greek, or modifications thereof. Some letters are neither, for example, the letter denoting the glottal stop, ⟨ʔ⟩, has the form of a question mark
Pinyin, or Hànyǔ Pīnyīn, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in mainland China, Malaysia and Taiwan. It is often used to teach Standard Chinese, which is written using Chinese characters. The system includes four diacritics denoting tones, Pinyin without tone marks is used to spell Chinese names and words in languages written with the Latin alphabet, and in certain computer input methods to enter Chinese characters. The pinyin system was developed in the 1950s by many linguists, including Zhou Youguang and it was published by the Chinese government in 1958 and revised several times. The International Organization for Standardization adopted pinyin as a standard in 1982. The system was adopted as the standard in Taiwan in 2009. The word Hànyǔ means the language of the Han people. In 1605, the Jesuit missionary Matteo Ricci published Xizi Qiji in Beijing and this was the first book to use the Roman alphabet to write the Chinese language. Twenty years later, another Jesuit in China, Nicolas Trigault, neither book had much immediate impact on the way in which Chinese thought about their writing system, and the romanizations they described were intended more for Westerners than for the Chinese.
One of the earliest Chinese thinkers to relate Western alphabets to Chinese was late Ming to early Qing Dynasty scholar-official, the first late Qing reformer to propose that China adopt a system of spelling was Song Shu. A student of the great scholars Yu Yue and Zhang Taiyan, Song had been to Japan and observed the effect of the kana syllabaries. This galvanized him into activity on a number of fronts, one of the most important being reform of the script, while Song did not himself actually create a system for spelling Sinitic languages, his discussion proved fertile and led to a proliferation of schemes for phonetic scripts. The Wade–Giles system was produced by Thomas Wade in 1859, and it was popular and used in English-language publications outside China until 1979. This Sin Wenz or New Writing was much more sophisticated than earlier alphabets. In 1940, several members attended a Border Region Sin Wenz Society convention. Mao Zedong and Zhu De, head of the army, both contributed their calligraphy for the masthead of the Sin Wenz Societys new journal.
Outside the CCP, other prominent supporters included Sun Yat-sens son, Sun Fo, Cai Yuanpei, the countrys most prestigious educator, Tao Xingzhi, an educational reformer. Over thirty journals soon appeared written in Sin Wenz, plus large numbers of translations, some contemporary Chinese literature, and a spectrum of textbooks