Bilirubin is a yellow compound that occurs in the normal catabolic pathway that breaks down heme in vertebrates. This catabolism is a necessary process in the body's clearance of waste products that arise from the destruction of aged or abnormal red blood cells. First the hemoglobin gets stripped of the heme molecule which thereafter passes through various processes of porphyrin catabolism, depending on the part of the body in which the breakdown occurs. For example, the molecules excreted in the urine differ from those in the feces; the production of biliverdin from heme is the first major step in the catabolic pathway, after which the enzyme biliverdin reductase performs the second step, producing bilirubin from biliverdin. Bilirubin is excreted in bile and urine, elevated levels may indicate certain diseases, it is responsible for the yellow discoloration in jaundice. Its subsequent breakdown products, such as stercobilin, cause the brown color of faeces. A different breakdown product, urobilin, is the main component of the straw-yellow color in urine.
It has been found in plants. Bilirubin consists of an open chain tetrapyrrole, it is formed by oxidative cleavage of a porphyrin in heme. Biliverdin is reduced to bilirubin. After conjugatation with glucuronic acid, bilirubin is excreted. Bilirubin is structurally similar to the pigment phycobilin used by certain algae to capture light energy, to the pigment phytochrome used by plants to sense light. All of these contain an open chain of four pyrrolic rings. Like these other pigments, some of the double-bonds in bilirubin isomerize; this isomerization is relevant to the phototherapy of jaundiced newborns: the E,Z-isomers of bilirubin formed upon light exposure are more soluble than the unilluminated Z,Z-isomer, as the possibility of intramolecular hydrogen bonding is removed. Increased solubility allows the excretion of unconjugated bilirubin in bile; some textbooks and research articles show the incorrect geometric isomer of bilirubin. The occurring isomer is the Z,Z-isomer. Bilirubin is created by the activity of biliverdin reductase on biliverdin, a green tetrapyrrolic bile pigment, a product of heme catabolism.
Bilirubin, when oxidized, reverts to become biliverdin once again. This cycle, in addition to the demonstration of the potent antioxidant activity of bilirubin, has led to the hypothesis that bilirubin's main physiologic role is as a cellular antioxidant. Total bilirubin = direct bilirubin + indirect bilirubinElevation of both alanine aminotransferase and bilirubin is more indicative of serious liver injury than is elevation in ALT alone, as postulated in Hy's law that elucidates the relation between the lab test results and drug-induced liver injury The measurement of unconjugated bilirubin is underestimated by measurement of indirect bilirubin, as unconjugated bilirubin reacts with diazosulfanilic acid to create azobilirubin, measured as direct bilirubin. Direct bilirubin = Conjugated bilirubin + delta bilirubin In the liver, bilirubin is conjugated with glucuronic acid by the enzyme glucuronyltransferase, making it soluble in water: the conjugated version is the main form of bilirubin present in the "direct" bilirubin fraction.
Much of it goes into the bile and thus out into the small intestine. Though most bile acid is reabsorbed in the terminal ileum to participate in enterohepatic circulation, conjugated bilirubin is not absorbed and instead passes into the colon. There, colonic bacteria deconjugate and metabolize the bilirubin into colorless urobilinogen, which can be oxidized to form urobilin and stercobilin. Urobilin is excreted by the kidneys to give urine its yellow color and stercobilin is excreted in the faeces giving stool its characteristic brown color. A trace of the urobilinogen is reabsorbed into the enterohepatic circulation to be re-excreted in the bile. Conjugated bilirubin's half-life is shorter than delta bilirubin. Although the terms direct and indirect bilirubin are used equivalently with conjugated and unconjugated bilirubin, this is not quantitatively correct, because the direct fraction includes both conjugated bilirubin and δ bilirubin. Delta bilirubin is albumin-bound conjugated bilirubin.
In the other words, delta bilirubin is the kind of bilirubin covalently bound to albumin, which appears in the serum when hepatic excretion of conjugated bilirubin is impaired in patients with hepatobiliary disease. Furthermore, direct bilirubin tends to overestimate conjugated bilirubin levels due to unconjugated bilirubin that has reacted with diazosulfanilic acid, leading to increased azobilirubin levels. Δ bilirubin = total bilirubin – The half-life of delta bilirubin is equivalent to that of albumin since the former is bound to the latter, yields 2–3 weeks. A free-of-bound bilirubin has a half-life of 2 to 4 hours. Under normal circumstances, only a small amount, if any, of urobilinogen, is excreted in the urine. If the liver's function is impaired or when biliary drainage is blocked, some of the conjugated bilirubin leaks out of the hepatocytes and appears in the urine, turning it dark amber. However, in disorders involving hemolytic anemia, an increased number of red blood cells are broken down, causing an increase in the amount of unconjugated bilirubin in the blood.
Because the unconjugated bilirubin is not water soluble, one will not see an increase in bilirubin in the urine. Because there is no problem with the liver or bile systems, this excess unconjugated bilirubin will go through all of the normal processing mechanisms that occur and will show up as an increase in urine urobil
The Japanese eel is a species of anguillid eel found in Japan, China and Vietnam, as well as the northern Philippines. Like all the eels of the genus Anguilla and the family Anguillidae, it is catadromous, meaning it spawns in the sea, but lives parts of its life in fresh water; the spawning area of this species is in the North Equatorial Current in the western North Pacific to the west of the Mariana Islands. The larvae are called leptocephali and are carried westward by the North Equatorial Current and northward by the Kuroshio Current to East Asia, where they live in rivers and estuaries; the Japanese eel is an important food fish in East Asia, where it is raised in aquaculture ponds in most countries in the region. In Japan, where they are called unagi, they are an important part of the food culture, with many restaurants serving grilled eel, called kabayaki. Eels have uses in Chinese medicine; the Japanese eel and other anguillid eels live in fresh water and estuaries where they feed and grow as yellow eels for a number of years before they begin to mature and become silver eels.
The silver eels migrate out of fresh water into the ocean and start their long journey to their spawning area. Adult Japanese eels migrate thousands of kilometers from freshwater rivers in East Asia to their spawning area without feeding; the spawning area of this species was discovered in 1991 by collecting small leptocephali about 10 mm in size, in 2005 the same team of Japanese scientists at the University of Tokyo found a more precise location of spawning based on genetically identified specimens of newly hatched preleptocephali only 2 to 5 days old in a small area near the Suruga Seamount to the west of the Mariana Islands. Since more pre-leptocephali have been collected at sea, Japanese eel eggs have been collected and genetically identified on the research vessel; the collections of eggs and hatched larvae have been made along the western side of the seamount chain of the West Mariana Ridge. Mature adults of the Japanese eel and giant mottled eel were captured using large midwater trawls in 2008 by Japanese scientists at the Fisheries Research Agency.
The adults of the Japanese eel appear to spawn in the upper few hundred meters of the ocean, based on the recent catches of their spawning adults and newly hatched larvae. The timing of catches of eggs and larvae and the ages of larger larvae have shown that Japanese eels only spawn during the few days just before the new moon period of each month during their spawning season. After hatching in the ocean, the leptocephali are carried westward by the North Equatorial Current and northward by the Kuroshio Current to East Asia. In the open ocean, the larvae feed on marine snow, before they metamorphose into the glass eel stage; the glass eels enter the estuaries and headwaters of rivers and many travel upstream. In fresh water and estuaries, the diet of yellow eels consists of shrimp, other crustaceans, aquatic insects, small fishes; the Japanese eel population, along with anguillid eel populations worldwide, have declined drastically in recent years due to a combination of overfishing and habitat loss or changing water conditions in the ocean interfering with spawning and the transport of their leptocephali.
In the case of the Japanese eel, spawning is affected by the north-south shifts of a salinity front created by an area of low-salinity waters resulting from tropical rainfall. The front is thought to be detected by the adult spawning eels and to affect the latitudes at which they spawn. A northward shift in the front that occurred over the past 30 years appears to have occurred, which could cause more larvae to be retained in eddies offshore in the region east of Taiwan, southward shifts in the salinity front have been observed in recent years that could increase southward transport into the Mindanao Current that flows into the Celebes Sea; these types of unfavorable larval transport are thought to reduce the recruitment success of the Japanese eels that reach river mouths as glass eels. The Japanese freshwater eel produces a fluorescent protein; this protein is the basis of a new test to assess dangerous blood toxins that can trigger liver disease. Fishbase.org
Edwin Stein known as Ed Stein or Eddie Stein, is an English former professional football player and coach. Stein, who played as a midfielder, played non-league football for Dagenham, before making one appearance in the Football League for Barnet during the 1991-1992 season. Eddie made over 500 appearances for Barnet between 1982-1993, making his debut on 14 August 1982 in a 1-0 defeat at Bangor City in the Alliance Premier League in the following line up. Sub Peter Robinson. Eddie was voted Player of the Season at Underhill in 1988-89 by the BFC Supporters Association Stein retired from professional footballer in 1992 to become manager at Barnet. Stein resigned from Barnet in July 1993 in order to become Assistant Manager at Southend United, under former colleague Barry Fry, he became manager of non-league side Harrow Borough, leaving that position in November 2003 after three-and-a-half years. Stein took over as manager of Southern Premier Division side Banbury United in September 2012, he resigned in August 2014.
As of 19 November 2010 His brothers Brian and Mark were professional footballers. Reckless Guide to Barnet FC - Edwin Stein