National Security Agency
The National Security Agency is a national-level intelligence agency of the United States Department of Defense, under the authority of the Director of National Intelligence. The NSA is responsible for global monitoring and processing of information and data for foreign and domestic intelligence and counterintelligence purposes, specializing in a discipline known as signals intelligence; the NSA is tasked with the protection of U. S. communications networks and information systems. The NSA relies on a variety of measures to accomplish its mission, the majority of which are clandestine. Originating as a unit to decipher coded communications in World War II, it was formed as the NSA by President Harry S. Truman in 1952. Since it has become the largest of the U. S. intelligence organizations in terms of personnel and budget. The NSA conducts worldwide mass data collection and has been known to physically bug electronic systems as one method to this end; the NSA has been alleged to have been behind such attack software as Stuxnet, which damaged Iran's nuclear program.
The NSA, alongside the Central Intelligence Agency, maintains a physical presence in many countries across the globe. SCS collection tactics encompass "close surveillance, wiretapping and entering". Unlike the CIA and the Defense Intelligence Agency, both of which specialize in foreign human espionage, the NSA does not publicly conduct human-source intelligence gathering; the NSA is entrusted with providing assistance to, the coordination of, SIGINT elements for other government organizations – which are prevented by law from engaging in such activities on their own. As part of these responsibilities, the agency has a co-located organization called the Central Security Service, which facilitates cooperation between the NSA and other U. S. defense cryptanalysis components. To further ensure streamlined communication between the signals intelligence community divisions, the NSA Director serves as the Commander of the United States Cyber Command and as Chief of the Central Security Service; the NSA's actions have been a matter of political controversy on several occasions, including its spying on anti-Vietnam-war leaders and the agency's participation in economic espionage.
In 2013, the NSA had many of its secret surveillance programs revealed to the public by Edward Snowden, a former NSA contractor. According to the leaked documents, the NSA intercepts and stores the communications of over a billion people worldwide, including United States citizens; the documents revealed the NSA tracks hundreds of millions of people's movements using cellphones metadata. Internationally, research has pointed to the NSA's ability to surveil the domestic Internet traffic of foreign countries through "boomerang routing"; the origins of the National Security Agency can be traced back to April 28, 1917, three weeks after the U. S. Congress declared war on Germany in World War I. A code and cipher decryption unit was established as the Cable and Telegraph Section, known as the Cipher Bureau, it was headquartered in Washington, D. C. and was part of the war effort under the executive branch without direct Congressional authorization. During the course of the war it was relocated in the army's organizational chart several times.
On July 5, 1917, Herbert O. Yardley was assigned to head the unit. At that point, the unit consisted of two civilian clerks, it absorbed the navy's Cryptanalysis functions in July 1918. World War I ended on November 11, 1918, the army cryptographic section of Military Intelligence moved to New York City on May 20, 1919, where it continued intelligence activities as the Code Compilation Company under the direction of Yardley. After the disbandment of the U. S. Army cryptographic section of military intelligence, known as MI-8, in 1919, the U. S. government created the Cipher Bureau known as Black Chamber. The Black Chamber was the United States' first peacetime cryptanalytic organization. Jointly funded by the Army and the State Department, the Cipher Bureau was disguised as a New York City commercial code company, its true mission, was to break the communications of other nations. Its most notable known success was at the Washington Naval Conference, during which it aided American negotiators by providing them with the decrypted traffic of many of the conference delegations, most notably the Japanese.
The Black Chamber persuaded Western Union, the largest U. S. telegram company at the time, as well as several other communications companies to illegally give the Black Chamber access to cable traffic of foreign embassies and consulates. Soon, these companies publicly discontinued their collaboration. Despite the Chamber's initial successes, it was shut down in 1929 by U. S. Secretary of State Henry L. Stimson, who defended his decision by stating, "Gentlemen do not read each other's mail". During World War II, the Signal Intelligence Service was created to intercept and decipher the communications of the Axis powers; when the war ended, the SIS was reorganized as the Army Security Agency, it was placed under the leadership of the Director of Military Intelligence. On May 20, 1949, all cryptologic activities were centralized under a national organization called the Armed Forces Security Agency; this organization was established within the U. S. Department of Defense under the command of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
The guitar is a fretted musical instrument that has six strings. It is played with both hands by strumming or plucking the strings with either a guitar pick or the finger/fingernails of one hand, while fretting with the fingers of the other hand; the sound of the vibrating strings is projected either acoustically, by means of the hollow chamber of the guitar, or through an electrical amplifier and a speaker. The guitar is a type of chordophone, traditionally constructed from wood and strung with either gut, nylon or steel strings and distinguished from other chordophones by its construction and tuning; the modern guitar was preceded by the gittern, the vihuela, the four-course Renaissance guitar, the five-course baroque guitar, all of which contributed to the development of the modern six-string instrument. There are three main types of modern acoustic guitar: the classical guitar, the steel-string acoustic guitar, the archtop guitar, sometimes called a "jazz guitar"; the tone of an acoustic guitar is produced by the strings' vibration, amplified by the hollow body of the guitar, which acts as a resonating chamber.
The classical guitar is played as a solo instrument using a comprehensive finger-picking technique where each string is plucked individually by the player's fingers, as opposed to being strummed. The term "finger-picking" can refer to a specific tradition of folk, blues and country guitar playing in the United States; the acoustic bass guitar is a low-pitched instrument, one octave below a regular guitar. Electric guitars, introduced in the 1930s, use an amplifier and a loudspeaker that both makes the sound of the instrument loud enough for the performers and audience to hear, given that it produces an electric signal when played, that can electronically manipulate and shape the tone using an equalizer and a huge variety of electronic effects units, the most used ones being distortion and reverb. Early amplified guitars employed a hollow body, but solid wood guitars began to dominate during the 1960s and 1970s, as they are less prone to unwanted acoustic feedback "howls"; as with acoustic guitars, there are a number of types of electric guitars, including hollowbody guitars, archtop guitars and solid-body guitars, which are used in rock music.
The loud, amplified sound and sonic power of the electric guitar played through a guitar amp has played a key role in the development of blues and rock music, both as an accompaniment instrument and performing guitar solos, in many rock subgenres, notably heavy metal music and punk rock. The electric guitar has had a major influence on popular culture; the guitar is used in a wide variety of musical genres worldwide. It is recognized as a primary instrument in genres such as blues, country, folk, jota, metal, reggae, rock and many forms of pop. Before the development of the electric guitar and the use of synthetic materials, a guitar was defined as being an instrument having "a long, fretted neck, flat wooden soundboard, a flat back, most with incurved sides." The term is used to refer to a number of chordophones that were developed and used across Europe, beginning in the 12th century and in the Americas. A 3,300-year-old stone carving of a Hittite bard playing a stringed instrument is the oldest iconographic representation of a chordophone and clay plaques from Babylonia show people playing an instrument that has a strong resemblance to the guitar, indicating a possible Babylonian origin for the guitar.
The modern word guitar, its antecedents, has been applied to a wide variety of chordophones since classical times and as such causes confusion. The English word guitar, the German Gitarre, the French guitare were all adopted from the Spanish guitarra, which comes from the Andalusian Arabic قيثارة and the Latin cithara, which in turn came from the Ancient Greek κιθάρα. Which comes from the Persian word "sihtar"; this pattern of naming is visible in setar and sitar. The word "tar" at the end of all of these words is a Persian word that means "string". Many influences are cited as antecedents to the modern guitar. Although the development of the earliest "guitars" is lost in the history of medieval Spain, two instruments are cited as their most influential predecessors, the European lute and its cousin, the four-string oud. At least two instruments called "guitars" were in use in Spain by 1200: the guitarra latina and the so-called guitarra morisca; the guitarra morisca had a rounded back, wide fingerboard, several sound holes.
The guitarra Latina had a narrower neck. By the 14th century the qualifiers "moresca" or "morisca" and "latina" had been dropped, these two cordophones were referred to as guitars; the Spanish vihuela, called in Italian the "viola da mano", a guitar-like instrument of the 15th and 16th centuries, is considered to have been the single most important influence in the development of the baroque guitar. It had six courses, lute-like tuning in fourths and a guitar-like body, although early representations reveal an instrument with a cut waist, it was larger than the contemporary four-course guitars. By the 16th century, the vihuela's construction had more in common with the modern guitar, with its curved one-piece ribs, than with the viols, more like a larger version of the contemporary four-course guita
Jim O'Rourke (musician)
Jim O'Rourke is an American musician and record producer. He was long associated with the Chicago improv scene. Around 2000, he relocated to New York before moving on to Tokyo, where he resides. O’Rourke is best known for his numerous solo and collaborative projects, many of which are instrumental, for his tenure as a member of Sonic Youth from 1999 to 2005. O'Rourke was born on January 18, 1969 in Chicago, United States, he is an alumnus of DePaul University. He has released albums of jazz, glitchy electronica and rock music. O'Rourke has collaborated with Thurston Moore, Lee Ranaldo, Kim Gordon, Steve Shelley, Derek Bailey, Mats Gustafsson, Mayo Thompson, Brigitte Fontaine, Loren Mazzacane Connors, Nurse with Wound, Phill Niblock, Organum, Henry Kaiser, Flying Saucer Attack, in 2006 mixed Joanna Newsom's album Ys. In 2009, he mixed several tracks on Newsom's follow up Have One On Me, he has produced albums by artists such as Sonic Youth, Stereolab, Kahimi Karie, John Fahey, Faust, Tony Conrad, The Red Krayola, Bobby Conn, Beth Orton, Joanna Newsom and U.
S. Maple, he mixed Wilco's Yankee Hotel Foxtrot album and produced their 2004 album, A Ghost Is Born, for which he won a Grammy Award for "Best Alternative Album". During the recording of Yankee Hotel Foxtrot, O'Rourke collaborated with Wilco member Jeff Tweedy and pre-Wilco Glenn Kotche under the name Loose Fur, their self-titled debut was released in 2003 with a follow-up in 2006 entitled Born Again in the USA. He mixed the unfinished recordings that made up a planned third album by the late American singer-songwriter Judee Sill, recorded in 1974 and mixed by O'Rourke for a 2005 release. O'Rourke was once a member of Illusion of Gastr Del Sol and Sonic Youth. Beginning in 1999 he played bass guitar and synthesizer with Sonic Youth, in addition to recording and mixing duties with the group, he withdrew as a full member in late 2005, but continued to play with them in some of their side projects. In the early 1993, O'Rourke formed an avant-rock group with Darin Gray and Dylan Posa called Brise-Glace.
The band released one studio album, When in Vanitas... in 1994. They released a 7" in the same year titled In Sisters All and Felony/Angels on Installment Plan. O'Rourke has released many albums under his own name on a variety of labels exploring a range of electronic and avant-garde styles, his most well-known works may be his series of releases on Drag City, which focus on more traditional songcraft: Bad Timing, Insignificance, The Visitor and Simple Songs. The titles of the first four albums all refer to films by the British director Nicolas Roeg. With music director Takehisa Kosugi, he played for the Merce Cunningham dance company for four years. O'Rourke received a 2001 Foundation for Contemporary Arts Grants to Artists Award. Since 2013, O'Rourke has used his Steamroom Bandcamp page to release material. Steamroom releases have included reissues of rare or unpublished older material as well as original pieces, he worked as a music consultant for the 2003 film School of Rock, in which he taught the child actors in the movie how to play the songs.
He was supposed to have a cameo role in the film as well, but couldn't do it as he was on tour with Sonic Youth. The song "Happy Days" was featured in the Harmony Korine film Julien Donkey-Boy, he scored the 2002 film Love Liza, directed by Todd Louiso. He scored the 2004 video installation "Fireball" and did the sound design on the documentary "Red Orchestra" by Stefan Roloff, he has scored films by Werner Herzog, Olivier Assayas, Shinji Aoyama, Kōji Wakamatsu, Harmony Korine and others. His own short films have been part of the 2004 and 2006 Whitney Biennial and the 2005 Rotterdam Film Festival, his first three full-length albums for Drag City are named after three successive films by director Nicolas Roeg: Bad Timing: A Sensual Obsession and Insignificance. His fourth Drag City album, The Visitor, is named for an album that appears within Roeg's The Man Who Fell to Earth, recorded by the film's protagonist Thomas Jerome Newton, he scored Kōji Wakamatsu's 3-hour long film United Red Army in 2007.
He scored Kyle Armstrong's 2012 documentary film Magnetic Reconnection. He scored the 2014 British film The Creeping Garden. Bad Timing Eureka Halfway to a Threeway EP Insignificance The Visitor Simple Songs Some Kind of Pagan It Takes Time To Do Nothing Secure on the Loose Rim The Ground Below Above Our Heads Tamper Disengage Scend Remove the Need Rules of Reduction When in Vanitas... Terminal Pharmacy Happy Days Bad Timing Eureka Halfway to a Threeway EP Insignificance I'm Happy and I'm Singing and a 1, 2, 3, 4 Mizu No Nai Umi Corona / Tokyo Realization – Japan only release. Dedicated to Tōru Takemitsu The Visitor – Dedicated to Derek Bailey. All Kinds of People ~ Love Burt Bacharach Old News #5 Old News #6 Old News #7 Old News #8 Imikuzushi Old News #9 Simple Songs Sleep L
Supper is Bill Callahan's tenth album, released in March 2003 on Domino Records in Europe and on Drag City in North America under his then-alias. It was recorded by Jeremy Lemos from August to September 2002 and mastered by Nick Webb at Abbey Road Studios. In 2004, the track "Vessel in Vain" appeared on the soundtrack of Shane Meadows' acclaimed British thriller Dead Man's Shoes. In 2005, the track "A Guiding Light" appeared on the soundtrack of "Winter Passing". In 2012, the track "Our Anniversary" appeared on the soundtrack of Smashed and is played over the film's closing credits. All tracks written by Bill Callahan. "Feather by Feather" – 5:36 "Butterflies Drowned in Wine" – 4:37 "Morality" – 2:46 "Ambition" – 4:27 "Vessel in Vain" – 4:19 "Truth Serum" – 7:28 "Our Anniversary" – 6:17 "Driving" – 4:09 "A Guiding Light" – 3:49 Bill Callahan – vocals, hammond, piano Ken Champion – pedal steel, piano Ryan Hembrey – bass, cello Andy Hopkins – guitar Sarabeth Tucek – vocals Jim White – drums Nate Lepine – wind controller Bill Lowman – guitar, banjo Rian Murphy – drums
North Riding of Yorkshire
The North Riding of Yorkshire is one of the three historic subdivisions of the English county of Yorkshire, alongside the East and West ridings. From the Restoration it was used as a lieutenancy area, having been part of the Yorkshire lieutenancy previously; the three ridings were treated as three counties for many purposes, such as having separate quarter sessions. An administrative county was created with a county council in 1889 under the Local Government Act 1888 on the historic boundaries. In 1974 both the administrative county and the Lieutenancy of the North Riding of Yorkshire were abolished, being succeeded in most of the riding by the new non-metropolitan county of North Yorkshire; the highest point in the North Riding is Mickle Fell at 2,585 ft. During the English Civil War, the North Riding predominantly supported the royalist cause, while other areas of Yorkshire tended to support the parliamentarians; the County of York, North Riding administrative county was formed in 1889. In 1894 it was divided into municipal boroughs, urban districts and rural districts under the Local Government Act 1894.
Middlesbrough had been incorporated as a municipal borough in 1853 and formed a county borough, exempt from county council control, from 1889. Richmond and Scarborough had been incorporated as municipal boroughs in 1835, with Thornaby-on-Tees added in 1892; the urban districts in 1894 were Eston, Hinderwell, Kirklington cum Upsland, Malton, Northallerton, Redcar and Marske by the Sea, Scalby and Brotton and Whitby. In 1922 Redcar was incorporated as a borough; the rural districts in 1894 were Aysgarth, Croft, Flaxton, Helmsley, Kirkby Moorside, Malton, Middlesbrough, Pickering, Richmond, Startforth, Thirsk and Whitby. County Review Orders reduced the number of urban and rural districts in the county: Hinderwell urban district was absorbed by Whitby rural district in 1932 A new Saltburn and Marske by the Sea urban district was formed from Saltburn by the Sea urban district and part of Guisborough rural district; the remainder of Guisborough RD passed to Loftus urban district and Whitby rural district in 1932 Kirklington cum Upsland urban district was absorbed by Bedale rural district in 1934 Masham urban district was redesignated as Masham rural district in 1934In 1968 a new county borough of Teesside was created, taking in Middlesbrough and parts of the administrative counties of Durham and North Riding.
From the North Riding came the boroughs of Redcar and Thornaby-on-Tees, the urban district of Eston, part of Stokesley rural district. The entirety of Teesside, including the parts north of the River Tees in Durham, was associated with the North Riding for lieutenancy and other purposes. In 1974 the North Riding was abolished as both a Lieutenancy; the majority of its former area became part of the new non-metropolitan county of North Yorkshire, which includes much of the northern rural part of the West Riding as well as the city of York and the northern and western fringes of the traditional East Riding. Middlesbrough and Redcar became part of Cleveland and are now in independent unitary authorities which became part of North Yorkshire for ceremonial purposes; the Startforth Rural District was transferred to County Durham, becoming part of the Teesdale district, subsequently abolished in 2009. The North Riding is now represented in the districts of Hambleton, Ryedale, Scarborough and Redcar and Cleveland, parts in Harrogate district, Stockton-on-Tees and County Durham.
The principal towns are Middlesbrough, Whitby and Northallerton. On three occasions a re-use of the name of the North Riding for local government purposes has been considered. During the 1990s UK local government reform, the Banham Commission suggested uniting Richmondshire, Hambleton and Scarborough districts in a new unitary authority called North Riding of Yorkshire; the government proposed renaming the ceremonial county of North Yorkshire the North Riding of Yorkshire. This was deemed inappropriate and rejected, after a "chorus of disapprobation". During a further local government review in the 2000s as part of the preparations for the regional assembly referendums, a unitary authority with the name North Riding of Yorkshire, consisting of Richmondshire, Hambleton and Scarborough was again suggested. However, the Commission withdrew this in favour or two unitary authorities, one for Hambleton and Richmondshire, the other for Ryedale and Scarborough. Unlike most counties in England, which were divided anciently into hundreds, Yorkshire was divided first into three ridings and into numerous wapentakes within each riding.
Within the North Riding of Yorkshire there were thirteen wapentakes in total, as follows: List of Lord Lieutenants of the North Riding List of High Sheriffs of North Yorkshire Custos Rotulorum of the North Riding of Yorkshire - List of Keepers of the Rolls Map of the North Riding of Yorkshire on Wikishire Information on the North Riding of Yorkshire on I'm From Yorkshire
Underground music comprises musical genres beyond mainstream culture. Any song, not being commercialized is considered underground. Underground music may tend to express common ideas, such as high regard for sincerity and intimacy, freedom of creative expression as opposed to the formulaic composition of commercial music, appreciation of artistic individuality as opposed to conformity to current mainstream trends. Apart from the underground rock scenes in the pre-Mikhail Gorbachev Soviet Union, or the modern anti-Islamic metal scene of theocratic states in the Arabian Peninsula few types of underground music are hidden, although performances and recordings may be difficult for outsiders to find; some underground rock bands never got non-mainstream roots. They are radical, aggressive 60s bands such as The Velvet Underground, The Stooges, MC5, 70s bands like The Sex Pistols, The Damned, The Clash, 80s hardcore punk bands like Discharge; some underground styles became mainstream, commercialized pop styles, as did for example, the underground hip hop style of the early 1980s.
In the 2000s, the increasing availability of the Internet and digital music technologies has made underground music easier to distribute using streaming audio and podcasts. Some experts in cultural studies now argue that "there is no underground" because the Internet has made what was underground music accessible to everyone at the click of a mouse. One expert, Martin Raymond, of London-based company The Future Laboratory, commented in an article in The Independent, saying trends in music and politics are:... now transmitted laterally and collaboratively via the internet. You once had a series of gatekeepers in the adoption of a trend: the innovator, the early adopter, the late adopter, the early mainstream, the late mainstream, the conservative, but now it goes straight from the innovator to the mainstream. In effect, this means a boy band could be influenced by a obscure 1960s garage rock, early 1980s post punk, noise rock acts like Pussy Galore or composers of avant-garde classical music such as John Cage and Karlheinz Stockhausen, while maintaining recognizability as a boy band.
The term "underground music" has been applied to various artistic movements, for instance the psychedelic music movement of the mid-1960s, but the term has in more recent decades come to be defined by any musicians who tend to avoid the trappings of the mainstream commercial music industry otherwise it tells only truth through the music. Frank Zappa attempted to define "underground" by noting that the "mainstream comes to you, but you have to go to the underground." In the 1960s, the term "underground" was associated with the hippie counterculture and psychedelic drugs, applied to journalism and film as well as music, as they sought to communicate psychedelic experiences and Free love ideals. In modern popular music, the term "underground" refers to performers or bands ranging from artists that do DIY guerrilla concerts and self-recorded shows to those that are signed to small independent labels. In some musical styles, the term "underground" is used to assert that the content of the music is illegal or controversial, as in the case of early 1990s death metal bands in the US such as Cannibal Corpse for their gory cover art and lyrical themes.
Black metal is an underground form of music and its Norwegian scene are notorious for their association with church burnings, the occult and their Anti-Christian views. All of extreme metal is considered underground music for its extreme nature. Shlomo Sher's "philosophy for artists" argues that there are three common misconceptions about the "underground": that it refers to the rave/electronica scene. Instead, Sher claims that "underground music" is linked by shared values, such as a valuing of grassroots "reality" over music with "pre-wrapped marketing glossing it up". In a Counterpunch magazine article, Twiin argues that "Underground music is free media", because by working "independently, you can say anything in your music" and be free of corporate censorship; the genre of post-punk is considered a "catchall category for underground, indie, or lo-fi guitar rock" bands which "initially avoided major record labels in the pursuit of artistic freedom, out of an'us against them' stance towards the corporate rock world", spreading "west over college station airwaves, small clubs and independent record stores."
Underground music of this type is promoted through word-of-mouth or by community radio DJs. In the early underground scenes, such as the Grateful Dead jam band fan scenes or the 1970s punk scenes, crude home-made tapes were traded or sold from the stage or from the trunk of a car. In the 2000s, underground music podcasts. A music underground can refer to the culture of underground music in a city and its accompanying performance venues; the Kitchen is an example of what was an important New York City underground music venue in the 1960s and 1970s. CBGB is another famous New York City underground music venue claiming to be "Home of Underground Rock since 1973". Many gen
Tortoise is an American experimental rock band formed in Chicago, Illinois in 1990. The band incorporates krautrock, minimal music and jazz into their music, a combination sometimes termed "post-rock". Since the release of their 1994 eponymous album, Tortoise has been credited for the rise of the post-rock movement in the 1990s; the group's origins lie in the late 1980s pairing of Doug McCombs and drummer John Herndon, who wanted to establish themselves as a freelance rhythm section. The idea did not come to fruition, but their interest in grooving rhythms, as well as their recording studio knowledge led to partnerships with drummer John McEntire and bassist Bundy K. Brown joining, followed by percussionist Dan Bitney. Though songs are credited to all the musicians, McEntire became perceived as the group's guiding force, as his contributions took the form of being the recording engineer and mixer, their first single was issued in 1993, their self-titled debut album followed a year later. Instrumental and mid-tempo, Tortoise garnered praise and attention, notably for its unusual instrumentation.
A remix album followed, Rhythms and Clusters. Brown left and was replaced by David Pajo for 1996's Millions Now Living Will Never Die, which showed up on many year-end best of lists, the 20 minute Djed was described by critic John Bush as proof that "Tortoise made experimental rock do double duty as evocative, beautiful music." In 1996, the band contributed to the AIDS benefit album Offbeat: A Red Hot Soundtrip produced by the Red Hot Organization. They released a Japanese-only compilation featuring tracks from the eponymous debut, Rhythms and compilation appearances. Named A Digest Compendium of the Tortoise's World on November 21, 1996 In 1998, Tortoise released TNT, arguably their most jazz-inflected album. Jeff Parker had joined as a guitarist alongside Pajo, who left the band following the album's completion. 2001 led to Standards, where Tortoise incorporated more electronic sounds and post-production into its music than in previous works. In 2001, the band curated an edition of the British All Tomorrow's Parties festival.
They returned in 2004 to curate another day of the same event. It's All Around You was released in 2004. In 2006, Tortoise collaborated with Bonnie'Prince' Billy on an album of covers entitled The Brave and the Bold, released A Lazarus Taxon, a box set containing two CDs of single tracks and remixes, a third CD with an expanded Rhythms and Clusters and a DVD of videos and film of live performances. In 2001, the band recorded "Dideridoo" for the Red Hot Organization's compilation album Red Hot + Indigo, a tribute to Duke Ellington, which raised money for various charities devoted to AIDS related causes. Bitney and McEntire contributed to the Bright Eyes album Cassadaga; the group has worked with multi-instrumentalist Paul Duncan of the band Warm Ghost. Tortoise released their previous to last album Beacons of Ancestorship on June 23, 2009; the band toured the Midwestern US in September and October 2009, in Europe in November and December. The band performed at the ATP New York 2010 music festival, held in Monticello, New York.
In 2012, Tortoise wrote and recorded the soundtrack to Eduardo Sánchez's Lovely Molly, a psychological horror film inspired by traditional folk-songs. In July 2013, photos and short videos of the band recording new music were posted to Tortoise's official Instagram and Facebook pages. On April 20, 2014, the band wrote on their Facebook page: "Hello, Facebook. We are heading back into the studio next week – LP VII in progress. Tokyo, Singapore, Kuala Lumpur, Hong Kong, Beijing and Taiwan – see you soon."On October 6, 2015, it was announced that a new album, called The Catastrophist, would be released in early 2016 by Thrill Jockey. Additionally, a single from the new album, entitled Gesceap, was released and it is available on YouTube. Mail order pressings of the album are available through Thrill Jockey as of October 10, 2015; as Tortoise rose to prominence in their early career, their instrumental music has been noted for its ambiguous categorization. The members have roots in Chicago's fertile music scene, playing in various indie rock and punk rock groups.
Tortoise was among the first American indie rock bands to incorporate styles closer to krautrock, minimal music and various jazz styles, rather than the strong rock and roll roots that had dominated the genre. Tortoise has been cited as being one of the prime forces behind the development and popularity of the post-rock movement. CMJ writer Jim Allen highlighted the influence of progressive rock on Tortoise's post-rock style. Other groups related to Tortoise include The Sea and Cake, Slint, Isotope 217, Chicago Odense Ensemble, Tar Babies, the Chicago Underground Duo. Tortoise records on the Thrill Jockey label. Tortoise Millions Now Living Will Never Die TNT Standards It's All Around You Beacons of Ancestorship The Catastrophist In the Fishtank – EP, collaboration with The Ex "Gently cupping the chin of the ape" – two track tour CD with enhanced content The Brave and the Bold – covers album, collaboration with Bonnie'Prince' Billy A Lazarus Taxon – compilation box-set of rare material, 3 CDs and 1 DVD Why Waste Time?
– Japan-only tour EP, Enhanced CD Rhythms, Resolutions & Clusters – remix album A Digest Compendium of the Tortoise's World – Japan-only compilation featuring