Frank Reginald Carey
Frank Reginald "Chota" Carey, was a Royal Air Force fighter pilot and flying ace who served during World War II. Born in Brixton, Carey was educated at Belvedere School before he joined the RAF in September 1927 at the age of 15 as an apprentice metal rigger. After completing the apprenticeship Carey was assigned to No. 43 Squadron RAF based at RAF Tangmere. In 1933 he converted to the role of fitter at RAF Worthy Down. In 1935 he applied to become a fighter pilot and completed the training in 1936. Carey was posted back by 1939 was an established pilot. At the outbreak of World War II in September 1939 Carey flew defensive patrols over eastern Scotland, where he gained his first successes, he was awarded the Distinguished Flying Medal in February 1940 for several shared air victories. Commissioned as pilot officer in April 1940, he transferred to No. 3 Squadron RAF and participated in the Battle of France. In May he was awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross for seven enemy aircraft shot down and two shot down.
On 14 June he received a Bar to a promotion to flying officer. From 9 July to 18 August 1940 Carey flew in the Battle of Britain, he accounted for a further nine enemy aircraft destroyed, three destroyed, one damaged but was wounded in July and again in August. His wounds were severe and he took no further part in the battle. In November 1940 he was posted to Operational Training Unit 52 as an instructor. Carey was given command of No. 135 Squadron RAF, as acting squadron leader, in August 1941. In December the Squadron began moving to India, with Carey leading the formation against the Japanese invasion of Burma. In February 1942 he was promoted to wing commander and by the end of the year had shot down nine Japanese aircraft. Carey was taken off operations and sent to RAF Amarda Road in India as Air Officer Commanding Air Fighting Training Unit 1 in 1943. In November 1944 he was promoted to group captain and left Burma for Egypt as AOC at OTU 73. Carey was mentioned in the 1945 New Year Honours list.
In July 1945 he moved to England as Group Captain Tactics at the Central Flying Establishment until the Japanese surrender on 2 September 1945. Carey was credited with 23 enemy aircraft shot down, six shared destroyed, four unconfirmed destroyed, seven probable, two destroyed on the ground and ten damaged. Of the 23 credited destroyed in air combat, 15 were 8 Japanese. Following World War II he spent two years at Staff College and continued his career in the RAF until 1958, when he moved to Australia as Air Adviser to the United Kingdom High Commissioner. Carey retired from the RAF in June 1960 and went to work for the Rolls Royce Aero Engine Division in Australia. On 3 June 1960 he was appointed a Commander of the Order of the British Empire. After his retirement Carey returned to England and died in Chichester, aged 92. Frank Reginald Carey was born in Brixton, London on 7 May 1912 to Alfred John Carey and Elsie Mabel Carey. Frank was the eldest of three sons -- Roy Gerald. Carey had vague memories of aviation as a child.
During the Zeppelin and German bombing campaign over England his parents strapped a table over his bed to afford the young Frank some protection from bomb fragments. During the war his mother became ill with tuberculosis; the family moved to Lindfield, north of Haywards Heath in Sussex. Alfred hoped. Elsie succumbed to her condition on 26 November 1924. After her death Alfred pursued his career as work as a chauffeur. Alfred set up an ironmongers company soon after, but the Wall Street Crash of 1929 forced Carey senior into bankruptcy. Carey was educated at Haywards Heath. A former pupil of Belverdere had become a fighter pilot in the Royal Air Force; the pilot visited the school and performed low fly-pasts in an Armstrong Whitworth Siskin, this display encouraged Carey to seek a career as a pilot and leave home. Carey's father had remarried and Frank did not get on with his new wife or new step-brothers; the family's finances were in a parlous state and coupled with Frank's poor educational performance, he was prevented from applying to join the RAF immediately.
Cary found salvation in the Halton Apprenticeship Scheme at Halton House, near Aylesbury and Tring in Buckinghamshire. Lord Trenchard, the Chief of the Air Staff, set up the scheme at RAF Halton which used Halton House as the Officers' Mess. Carey was sometimes assigned to RAF Cranwell until 1926 when the site could take the overwhelming numbers of applicants. With the help of his former headmaster at Lindfield, Carey sat and passed the examinations at Burlington Gardens in West London. Carey was lacking in discipline but soon became adept at keeping lean. At the end of the three-year course he finished 227th out of a class of 419, just qualified with an overall grade of 65 percent. Mathematics, Science and English was rated at 59.9 percent. General service was marked his technical knowledge was rated at 73 percent, he was accepted into the RAF in September 1927 as an airframe fitter. His tutors noted he had not attained a trainee non-commissioned officer rank and was not to be fit for command.
In 1930 Carey was posted to No. 43 Squadron RAF based at RAF Tangmere near West Sussex. After serving for one year and improving his technical grade, Carey was posted to RAF Worthy Down near Winchester where he spent most of his time in the workshops rebuilding and servicing Napier Lion engines. In 1935, after sever
Distinguished Service Order
The Distinguished Service Order is a military decoration of the United Kingdom, of other parts of the Commonwealth, awarded for meritorious or distinguished service by officers of the armed forces during wartime in actual combat. Since 1993 all ranks have been eligible. Instituted on 6 September 1886 by Queen Victoria in a Royal Warrant published in The London Gazette on 9 November, the first DSOs awarded were dated 25 November 1886; the order was established to reward individual instances of meritorious or distinguished service in war. It was a military order, until for officers only, awarded to officers ranked major or higher, with awards to ranks below this for a high degree of gallantry, just short of deserving the Victoria Cross. While given for service under fire or under conditions equivalent to service in actual combat with the enemy, a number of awards made between 1914 and 1916 were under circumstances not under fire to staff officers, causing resentment among front-line officers.
After 1 January 1917, commanders in the field were instructed to recommend this award only for those serving under fire. From 1916, ribbon bars could be authorised for subsequent awards of the DSO, worn on the ribbon of the original award. In 1942, the award was extended to officers of the Merchant Navy who had performed acts of gallantry while under enemy attack. A requirement that the order could be given only to someone mentioned in despatches was removed in 1943. Since 1993, reflecting the review of the British honours system which recommended removing distinctions of rank in respect of operational awards, the DSO has been open to all ranks, with the award criteria redefined as'highly successful command and leadership during active operations'. At the same time, the Conspicuous Gallantry Cross was introduced as the second highest award for gallantry. Despite some fierce campaigns in Iraq and Afghanistan, the DSO has yet to be awarded to a non-commissioned rank; the DSO had been awarded by Commonwealth countries but by the 1990s most, including Canada and New Zealand, were establishing their own honours systems and no longer recommended British honours.
Recipients of the order are known as Companions of the Distinguished Service Order, are entitled to use the post-nominal letters "DSO". All awards are announced in the London Gazette; the medal signifying the award of the DSO is a silver-gilt cross with curved ends, 1.6 in wide, enamelled white and edged in gilt. It is manufactured by the Crown Jewellers. In the centre of the obverse, within a green enamelled laurel wreath, is the imperial crown in gold upon a red enamelled background; the reverse has the royal cypher of the reigning monarch in gold within a similar wreath and background. A ring at the top of the medal attaches to a ring at the bottom of a gilt suspension bar, ornamented with laurel. Since 1938 the year of award engraved on the back of the suspension bar. At the top of the ribbon is a second gilt bar ornamented with laurel; the medals are issued unnamed but some recipients have had their names engraved on the reverse of the suspension bar. The red ribbon is 1.125 in wide with narrow blue edges.
The bar for an additional award is plain gold with an Imperial Crown in the centre. Since about 1938, the year of the award has been engraved on the back of the bar. A rosette is worn on the ribbon in undress uniform to signify the award of each bar. From 1918 to 2017 the insignia of the Distinguished Service Order has been awarded 16,935 times, in addition to 1,910 bars; the figures to 1979 are laid out in the table below, the dates reflecting the relevant entries in the London Gazette: In addition, between 1980 and 2017 90 DSOs have been earned, including awards for the Falklands and the wars in the Gulf and Afghanistan, in addition to three second-award bars. The above figures include awards to the Commonwealth:In all, 1,220 DSOs have gone to Canadians, plus 119 first bars and 20 second bars. From 1901 to 1972, when the last Australian to receive the DSO was announced, 1,018 awards were made to Australians, plus 70 first bars and one second bar; the DSO was awarded to over 300 New Zealanders during the two World Wars.
Honorary awards to members of allied foreign forces include at least 1,329 for World War I, with further awards for World War II. The following received the DSO and three bars: Archibald Walter Buckle, rose from naval rating in the Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve to command the Anson Battalion of the Royal Naval Division during the First World War William Denman Croft, First World War army officer William Robert Aufrere Dawson, Queen's Own Royal West Kent Regiment during the First World War, wounded nine times and mentioned in despatches four times Basil Embry, Second World War Royal Air Force officer Bernard Freyberg awarded the Victoria Cross Edward Albert Gibbs, Second World War destroyer captain Arnold Jackson, First World War British Army officer and 1500 metres Olympic gold medal winner in 1912 Douglas Kendrew, served as a brigade commander in Italy and the Middle East between 1944 and 1946. Subsequently appointed Governor of Western Australia. Robert Sinclair Knox, First World War British Army officer Frederick William Lumsden, British First World War Army officer awarded the Victoria Cross Paddy Mayne, Special Air Service commander in the Second World War and Irish rugby player Sir Richard George Onslow, Second World War destroyer captain and admiral Alastair Pearson, a British Army officer who received his four awards within the space of two years during the Second World War James Brian Tait, RAF pilot awarded the DFC and bar, completed
Eric Stanley Lock, was a British Royal Air Force fighter pilot and flying ace of the Second World War. Born in Shrewsbury in 1919 Lock had his first experience of flying as a teenager. In the late 1930s with war a possibility and the event of him being called to arms, Lock decided that he would prefer to fight as an airman, he joined the RAF in 1939. He completed his training in 1940 and was posted to No. 41 Squadron RAF in time for the Battle of Britain. Lock became the RAF's most successful Allied pilot during the battle, shooting down 21 German aircraft and sharing in the destruction of one. After the Battle of Britain Lock served on the Channel Front, flying offensive sweeps over France. Lock went on to bring his overall total to 26 aerial victories, one shared destroyed and eight probable in 25 weeks of operational sorties over a one-year period—during which time he was hospitalised for six months. Included in his victory total were 20 German fighter aircraft, 18 of them Messerschmitt Bf 109s.
In mid-1941 Lock was promoted to the rank of Flight Lieutenant. Lock earned the nickname "Sawn Off Lockie", because of his short stature. Within less than six months of becoming one of the most famous RAF pilots in the country, he crash–landed in the English Channel after his Supermarine Spitfire was damaged by ground–fire. Lock was posted missing in action, he was never seen again. Eric Stanley Lock was born in 1919 to a farming and quarrying family, whose home was in the rural Shropshire village of Bayston Hill, he was educated at Prestfelde Public School, London Road. On his 14th birthday his father treated him to a five-shilling, 15-minute flight with Sir Alan Cobham's Air Circus. Unlike most teenagers, Lock had soon lost interest. At 16 he joined his father's business. In 1939 he made the decision that if there was going to be a war, he wanted to be a fighter pilot, so joined the Royal Air Force Volunteer Reserve. Within three months Lock began flight training. On the outbreak of War in September 1939, as a trained pilot Lock joined the RAF as a Sergeant Pilot.
After further training at No.6 Flying School RAF Little Rissington, he was commissioned as a Pilot Officer and posted to No. 41 Squadron at RAF Catterick, North Yorkshire, flying Spitfires. Lock completed his training in late May 1940. Qualified as a fighter pilot, he was posted to No. 41 Squadron at RAF Catterick as Acting Pilot Officer. Lock spent several weeks with his Squadron before taking two weeks leave pass in July 1940 to marry his girlfriend Peggy Meyers, a former "Miss Shrewsbury". Lock returned to his unit and soon began combat patrols over the North of England, defending British airspace against Luftflotte 5 based in Norway. Lock was bored by the patrols; the Battle of Britain began in July 1940 with the Luftwaffe making attacks on British shipping in the English Channel and Britain's East Coast. In August RAF Fighter Command's bases came under attack as the Germans attempted to establish air superiority over southern England; the battles grew larger in scale, but 41 Squadron, based in the north, were well clear of the main combat zone and saw little action for the first four weeks of the German air offensive.
Lock's frustration ended on 15 August 1940. On this date the Luftwaffe attempted to stretch Fighter Command by launching a wave of aircraft against targets in northern England where German intelligence believed there to be little opposition, it was in this battle Lock gained his first victory. Climbing at 20,000 feet north of Catterick Lock spotted a massed formation of Messerschmitt Bf 110s and Junkers Ju 88s; the Squadron was made an attack. In the first attack Lock followed his Section Leader. In the second he had an opportunity to fire at a Bf 110 heavy fighter. After two short bursts the starboard engine caught fire. Following the enemy fighter down to 10,000 feet, Lock fired into the fuselage and set the port engine on fire; the machine-gunner ceased Lock left it at 5,000 feet. Lock was going to claim only a probable, but another No. 41 pilot saw it crash into Seaham Harbour and confirmed his victory. Lock soon attacked the Ju 88s. In light of Fighter Command's need for units in the south of the country, No. 41 Squadron was redeployed to RAF Hornchurch in Essex on 3 September 1940.
On 5 September, Lock flew as Red 2, protecting the Squadron's Leader. He shot down two Heinkel. One of his victims crashed into a river, the other caught fire and its undercarriage fell down. Lock followed it down, he realised his mistake—reducing height to pursue a damaged enemy put a pilot at risk from enemy fighters—but it was too late. A Messerschmitt Bf 109 attacked he sustained damage to his Spitfire and a wound to his leg. Lock zoom-climbed; the Bf 109 attempted to follow but the pilot stalled and fell away. Lock dived. Waiting for the German fighter to come out of its dive he fired several short bursts and it exploded. Looking around he saw the second He 111 land in the English Channel, about ten miles from the first. Lock circled above the He 111 and noticing a boat he alerted the boat to its presence by flying over it and led the vessel to the crash site; as he left the scene he saw the crew surrendering to the occupants of the boat. On the way home he saw his first victim with a dingy nearby.
A further Bf 109 was claimed destroyed on that date. The following day, despite pain from his leg and against medical advice, Lock claimed his seventh victory
Cyprus the Republic of Cyprus, is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean and the third largest and third most populous island in the Mediterranean, located south of Turkey, west of Syria and Lebanon, northwest of Israel, north of Egypt, southeast of Greece. The earliest known human activity on the island dates to around the 10th millennium BC. Archaeological remains from this period include the well-preserved Neolithic village of Khirokitia, Cyprus is home to some of the oldest water wells in the world. Cyprus was settled by Mycenaean Greeks in two waves in the 2nd millennium BC; as a strategic location in the Middle East, it was subsequently occupied by several major powers, including the empires of the Assyrians and Persians, from whom the island was seized in 333 BC by Alexander the Great. Subsequent rule by Ptolemaic Egypt, the Classical and Eastern Roman Empire, Arab caliphates for a short period, the French Lusignan dynasty and the Venetians, was followed by over three centuries of Ottoman rule between 1571 and 1878.
Cyprus was placed under the UK's administration based on the Cyprus Convention in 1878 and was formally annexed by Britain in 1914. While Turkish Cypriots made up 18% of the population, the partition of Cyprus and creation of a Turkish state in the north became a policy of Turkish Cypriot leaders and Turkey in the 1950s. Turkish leaders for a period advocated the annexation of Cyprus to Turkey as Cyprus was considered an "extension of Anatolia" by them. Following nationalist violence in the 1950s, Cyprus was granted independence in 1960; the crisis of 1963–64 brought further intercommunal violence between Greek Cypriots and Turkish Cypriots, which displaced more than 25,000 Turkish Cypriots into enclaves and brought the end of Turkish Cypriot representation in the republic. On 15 July 1974, a coup d'état was staged by Greek Cypriot nationalists and elements of the Greek military junta in an attempt at enosis, the incorporation of Cyprus into Greece; this action precipitated the Turkish invasion of Cyprus on 20 July, which led to the capture of the present-day territory of Northern Cyprus in the following month, after a ceasefire collapsed, the displacement of over 150,000 Greek Cypriots and 50,000 Turkish Cypriots.
A separate Turkish Cypriot state in the north was established by unilateral declaration in 1983. These events and the resulting political situation are matters of a continuing dispute; the Republic of Cyprus has de jure sovereignty over the entire island, including its territorial waters and exclusive economic zone, with the exception of the Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia, which remain under the UK's control according to the London and Zürich Agreements. However, the Republic of Cyprus is de facto partitioned into two main parts: the area under the effective control of the Republic, located in the south and west, comprising about 59% of the island's area. Another nearly 4% of the island's area is covered by the UN buffer zone; the international community considers the northern part of the island as territory of the Republic of Cyprus occupied by Turkish forces. The occupation is viewed as illegal under international law, amounting to illegal occupation of EU territory since Cyprus became a member of the European Union.
Cyprus is a major tourist destination in the Mediterranean. With an advanced, high-income economy and a high Human Development Index, the Republic of Cyprus has been a member of the Commonwealth since 1961 and was a founding member of the Non-Aligned Movement until it joined the European Union on 1 May 2004. On 1 January 2008, the Republic of Cyprus joined the eurozone; the earliest attested reference to Cyprus is the 15th century BC Mycenaean Greek, ku-pi-ri-jo, meaning "Cypriot", written in Linear B syllabic script. The classical Greek form of the name is Κύπρος; the etymology of the name is unknown. Suggestions include: the Greek word for the Mediterranean cypress tree, κυπάρισσος the Greek name of the henna tree, κύπρος an Eteocypriot word for copper, it has been suggested, for example, that it has roots in the Sumerian word for copper or for bronze, from the large deposits of copper ore found on the island. Through overseas trade, the island has given its name to the Classical Latin word for copper through the phrase aes Cyprium, "metal of Cyprus" shortened to Cuprum.
The standard demonym relating to Cyprus or its people or culture is Cypriot. The terms Cypriote and Cyprian are used, though less frequently; the earliest confirmed site of human activity on Cyprus is Aetokremnos, situated on the south coast, indicating that hunter-gatherers were active on the island from around 10,000 BC, with settled village communities dating from 8200 BC. The arrival of the first humans correlates with the extinction of the dwarf hippos and dwarf elephants. Water wells discovered by archaeologists in western Cyprus are believed to be among the oldest in the world, dated at 9,000 to 10,500 years old. Remains of an 8-month-old cat were discovered buried with a human body at a separate Neolithic site in Cyprus; the grave is estimated to be 9,500 years old, predating ancient Egyptian civilisation and pushing back the ear
No. 22 Group RAF
No. 22 Group is one of five groups active in the Royal Air Force, falling under the responsibility of Deputy Commander-in-Chief in Air Command. Its previous title up until 2018 was No. 22 Group. It is responsible for RAF training policy and controlling the Royal Air Force College and the RAF's training stations; as such, it is the direct successor to Training Group. Although No. 22 Group was due to be formed on 1 April 1918, the same day as the RAF was established, it was not activated until 1 July 1918 in the RAF's North-Western Area. It moved its headquarters to the Station Hotel, Stirling; the next month, on 8 August 1918, it received the designation'Operations', or possibly'Marine Operational', making its full title No. 22 Group or No. 22 Group. It controlled No. 78 Wing RAF, stations at Auldbar, Dundee, East Fortune, Kirkwall/Orkney, Luce Bay, RAF Machrihanish, Peterhead & Strathberg. With the post First World War RAF force reductions, No. 22 Group was disbanded on 30 May 1919. The next creation of No 22 Group came on 12 April 1926 when the group was re-formed from No 7 Group within Inland Area.
The group's designation was No. 22 its headquarters was at South Farnborough. On 17 February 1936, No 22 Group was transferred from the control of Inland Area to that of the Air Defence of Great Britain; that same year, on 1 May, the group was raised to command status. However, only just over two months on 14 July, the newly created command was reduced back to group status, becoming part of Fighter Command on the day of Fighter Command's creation. On 24 June 1940 No 22 Group was once again raised to command status and that year, on 1 December, the new command was expanded to become Army Co-operation Command. On 1 August 1943 the group was re-established as No. 22 Group in Technical Training Command, responsible for all training in ground trades, from electronics to cooking. The group continued in its training function for nearly 30 years until it was disbanded 31 January 1972; the current creation of No. 22 Group was established on 30 October 2006, once again as No. 22 Group. This creation was a renaming of Training Group which ceased to exist as No 22 Group was re-established.
The group is responsible for: Youth engagement across the UK. The areas of responsibility are: Royal Air Force Air Cadets RAF College Cranwell and Directorate of Recruiting & Individual Training The Directorate of Flying Training The Directorate of Ground Training The Defence College of Technical Training consisting of: The Defence College of Aeronautical Engineering The Defence College of Communications and Information Systems The Defence College of Electro-Mechanical Engineering at MoD Lyneham The Defence School of Marine Engineering at HMS Sultan, Gosport The Directorate of RAF Sport; the command responsibilities are: Director ground training is the senior air staff officer and deputises for the air officer commanding in all functions. In addition, DGT/SASO: Commands RAF St Mawgan, RAF Weston-on-the-Green, the Defence SERE Training Organisation, the FD/AT Ctrs, the RAF School of Physical Training, Ground Standards and Evaluation and the Air Media Ctr. Commandant ACO commands the ACO (RAF ATC and CCF.
Comdt ACO: Commands the ACO, RAF Kenley, RAF Kirknewton, RAF Little Rissington, No 2 FTS and the gliding schools. Delivers: TDA for all courses within the span of command. Commandant RAF College attracts and recruits the Air Force of tomorrow whilst training and developing the Air Force of today. Comdt RAFC: Commands the RAFC Cranwell, RAF Barkston Heath, RAF Halton, RAF Syerston, RAF Woodvale, R&S, OACTU, ACS, RTS, STS, the UASs and AEFs. Delivers: TDA for all courses within the span of command. Supports: Stn Cdr RAF Halton in his DH-facing airfield manager role. Senior Regional RAF Representative. Develops: The pipeline and Phase 1 training to meet new capability requirements. Maintains: RAF College Cranwell as the ‘spiritual home’ of the RAF. RAF Halton and RAF Cranwell as Homes of RAF Sport. Commandant DCTT trains and educates aeronautical engineering, electronic & mechanical engineering, marine engineering and communications and information systems personnel in order to meet the Defence requirement.
Comdt DCTT: Commands DCTT, HMS SULTAN, Arborfield and Blandford Garrisons, RAF Cosford, MOD Lyneham, MOD St Athan, DSAE, DSCIS, DSEME and DSMarE. Delivers: Chairmanship of the DCTT CEB.
Marmaduke Thomas St John Pattle known as Pat Pattle, was a South African-born Second World War fighter pilot and flying ace of the Royal Air Force. Pattle was rejected, he joined the RAF in 1936 on a Short Service Commission. Pattle was a pilot by 1937 and was posted to No. 80 Squadron based in Egypt upon the outbreak of war in September 1939. In June 1940, Italy entered the war on the side of the Axis Powers and he began combat operations against the Regia Aeronautica, gaining his first successes during the Italian invasion of Egypt. After the Italian invasion, his squadron was sent to Greece in November 1940, where Pattle achieved most of his victories. Pattle claimed around 20 aircraft shot down and in March 1941 was promoted to squadron leader. After the German intervention, in fourteen days of operations, Pattle claimed victories 24–50. Pattle claimed five or more aircraft destroyed in one day on three occasions, which qualified him for ace in a day status. Pattle achieved his greatest success on 19 April 1941.
The following day, having claimed more aerial victories than any other Western Allied pilot, he took off against orders, while suffering from a high temperature, to engage German aircraft near Athens. He was last seen battling Messerschmitt Bf 110 heavy fighters, his Hurricane crashed into the sea during this dogfight and Pattle was killed. Pattle is sometimes noted as being the highest-scoring British Commonwealth pilot of the war. If all claims made for him are correct, his total could have been more than 51, it could exceed this number. Log-books and semi-official records suggest this figure, while personnel attached to his squadron suspect the figure to be closer to 60. A total of 26 of Pattle's victims were Italian, he is considered to be the highest-scoring ace on both Hurricane fighters. Pattle was born in Butterworth, Cape Province, on 3 July 1914, the son of South African-born parents of English descent, Sergeant-Major Cecil William John "Jack" Pattle and Edith Brailsford. Marmaduke was named after his paternal grandfather, Captain Thomas Marmaduke Pattle, who resigned his commission in the Royal Horse Artillery and emigrated to South Africa from England in 1875.
Thomas became the first military magistrate of Butterworth. Jack Pattle followed his father into the British Army at the age of 15, he fought in the Natal Rebellion. Afterwards, he became a civilian attorney. Jack Pattle met Edith Brailsford in 1909. Brailsford was an English nurse. Jack Pattle and Edith Brailsford married in 1912. Within two years, two sons had been born and Marmaduke; as a child, Marmaduke was academically gifted and a keen boxer and long-distance swimmer. He took a keen interest in mechanical things combustion engines, was building Meccano models of aircraft and other vehicles by the age of 12. In his early teens, he became an avid amateur mechanic, fixing the family motor car and learning to drive. Marmaduke was never a hard worker and did not embark upon an academic career, but was considered to possess above average intelligence. In 1929, he passed the Junior Certificate Exam with first class honours; the certificate qualified him for Victoria Boy's High School from which he graduated in 1931.
Although he had considered a career as a mining engineer, Pattle sent in an application to join the South African Air Force in 1932 and was employed in menial jobs while waiting for a response. For several months, he worked at a petrol station owned by an uncle. In late 1933, he was employed at the Sheba Gold Mine at Baberton, he enjoyed the work so much. Soon afterwards his interest in aviation was stimulated again by the arrival of a logistics aeroplane at the mine, he requested a flight. Pattle changed his mind about engineering and opted to find a career as a pilot. On 22 March 1933 he was invited for an interview for a commission in the Air Force in Pretoria. One of 30 applicants vying for three places, he was rejected for lack of flying experience. Determined to rectify this weakness, he began taking flying lessons. To fund his new ambition, he worked for Sheba Gold Mine, he enjoyed the work so much. His passion for flying subsided, but an impromptu visit by a transport aircraft gave Pattle a close glimpse of it, which rekindled his interest.
At around the same time, the Ministry of Defence created the Special Service Battalion to employ South African youth who were struggling to find work because of the Great Depression. He joined up in 1936 hoping, he undertook basic training and national service on the understanding that he would be given an opportunity to enter the Air Force as an instructor at the end of his four-year service. Pattle worked toward this goal for some time until, in late 1935, by chance, he picked up a copy of the Johannesburg Star newspaper; the paper contained an advertisement by the Royal Air Force, offering five-year short service commissions for cadets throughout the British Empire. The RAF expansion schemes required a great influx of capable personnel into the organisation as rearmament and the need for fighting men heightened. Pattle decided th
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K