William Morse "Bill" Davidson, J. D. was an American businessman. He was President, Chairman and CEO of Guardian Industries, one of the world's largest manufacturers of architectural and automotive glass, he was owner of several North American professional sports teams and a member of the Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame. He was the chairman of Palace Sports and Entertainment, principal owner of the Detroit Pistons of the NBA, the Detroit Shock of the WNBA, the co-owner of the Detroit Fury of the Arena Football League, the former owner of the Tampa Bay Lightning of the NHL and Detroit Vipers of the IHL, his Pistons won the 1989, 1990, 2004 NBA Finals. A Detroit native, Davidson was born to a Jewish family on December 5, 1922. Davidson entered the University of Michigan in 1940, where he was a member of the track and field team. Davidson joined the U. S. Navy and played Armed Forces Football during World War II. Following the war, Davidson garnered his law degree from Wayne State University Law School in 1949.
After three years of law practice, he rescued a wholesale drug company and a surgical supply company from bankruptcy. Davidson would take over his family's Guardian Glass Co. in 1957, the same year the company declared bankruptcy. Guardian Glass would be the precursor to his company Guardian Industries, one of the largest glass suppliers in the world. Davidson discouraged second-guessing and was seen as aggressive. Not without controversy, Guardian was sued at least six times between 1965 and 1988. In 1989, Guardian was ordered to pay its competitor Johns Manville $38 million for stealing fibreglass-making technology. Guardian now stands as one of the world's giants of glass manufacturing with facilities in Asia, Europe and South America in addition to its sprawling North American interests. Being acquainted with football, Davidson wanted to acquire a football franchise. In 1974, Davidson and college classmate Oscar Feldman enlisted ex-Detroit Lions great Joe Schmidt to be part of a group bidding on the Tampa expansion franchise.
The expansion fee soon grew too high for the group's liking, it bowed out of the bidding. Two months Davidson learned that Pistons owner Fred Zollner was thinking of putting the team up for sale. Zollner had founded the Pistons in Fort Wayne, Indiana in 1941 and moved them to Detroit in 1957. However, the Pistons had never turned a profit since the move to Detroit. Davidson and Zollner had known each other for some time, since they both had vacation homes in Golden Beach, Florida. Zollner reached a deal to sell the Pistons to Davidson for $6 million, which closed in late 1974. At the time, the Pistons played at 10,000-seat Cobo Arena in downtown Detroit. Davidson was displeased with this location, but opted not to join the Detroit Red Wings at the under-construction Joe Louis Arena. Instead, he relocated the team to the Pontiac Silverdome in 1978 and to The Palace of Auburn Hills, the first NBA arena financed with private funds, in 1988. To help pay the $90 million construction cost, the Bob Sosnick-designed arena featured lower-level suites a never-seen-before feature.
His Pistons were at the league's forefront with respect to amenities. The franchise has a state-of-the-art practice facility designed for the Pistons. During the offseason, team members are able to use the facilities while working on personal off-season conditioning goals. Against the advice of friends, Davidson was the first owner to buy an airplane for his team, nicknamed Roundball One. Roundball Two, a newer, multimillion-dollar aircraft refurbished with 42 luxury seats and a state-of-the-art video system, was purchased in the summer of 1998. Davidson was the first to encourage globalizing the marketing of the NBA, he has served as Chairman of the Board of Governors and was active on several committees, including the one that selected former NBA Commissioner Larry O'Brien in 1975. In 2009, the value of the Pistons franchise was estimated to be over $430 million. Seen at the team's home games, Davidson had said that he would never sell the Pistons and the franchise would remain in his family after he died.
In 1999, Davidson put in an unsuccessful bid to purchase the Tampa Bay Lightning and gain a controlling interest in their home arena, the Ice Palace. He lost to insurance tycoon Art Williams, but only months Williams sold the team to Davidson and Palace Sports at a huge loss; when Davidson acquired the Lightning franchise in 1999, the price was $100 million. Tampa Bay won the Stanley Cup under Davidson's ownership in 2004. On August 7, 2007 Davidson sold the Lightning franchise. Davidson was honored by the Pistons in 2006 when he was given a banner next to the team's retired numbers, his name was placed on the Palace floor along with Pistons legends Dave Bing, Bill Laimbeer, Vinnie Johnson, Chuck Daly, Joe Dumars, Isiah Thomas and Bob Lanier. In 2008, Davidson was elected to the Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame as a contributor for his successes as an owner of the Pistons and Shock, he was an inaugural inductee into the Jewish Sports Hall of Fame. At the time of his death, Davidson lived in Michigan with his wife, Karen.
He had two children and Marla, three stepdaughters, including actress E
The Sims 2: Nightlife is the second expansion pack for The Sims 2, released on September 13, 2005 and September 16, 2005. It was released for Mac OS X on March 27, 2006; the expansion pack centers on the new downtown area, which has various activities, such as bowling, karaoke and dancing, as well as a photo booth, includes a dating minigame which allows player to engage in their Sims' relationships in greater depth. Most elements from this expansion were incorporated into The Sims 3: Late Night for The Sims 3; the game is reminiscent of an expansion pack from the original The Sims game entitled The Sims: Hot Date, which focused on new social interactions and locations for Sims to visit, such as a dance club or romantic restaurant. Nightlife follows in a similar theme; some of the items are similar to the ones found in The Sims: House Party and The Sims: Superstar. New additions include inventories, new interactions, over 125 new objects, including cars. NPCs that a player's Sim dates can now leave gifts or hate letters at the Sim's home, depending on the success of particular dates.
Some of the new NPCs include a Gypsy Matchmaker and Vampires. Nightlife adds a new aspiration called the Pleasure Aspiration; this new aspiration is assigned in the same way as any of the other five aspirations. Sims with this aspiration crave enjoyment in many different ways, whilst they fear embarrassment. Sims may receive wants such as'juggle' and'jump on lounge'. Nightlife adds another Aspiration as well: the Grilled Cheese Aspiration; the ReNuYu SensoOrb, an object which enables any Sim to change their aspiration, can fail like other Aspiration Reward objects when the Sim's Aspiration Meter is low. When this happens, the Sim using it receives the Grilled Cheese Aspiration, all his or her wants and fears will be superseded with ones revolving around grilled cheese sandwiches, such as "Make Grilled Cheese Sandwich" or "Be rejected for Talk about Grilled Cheese Sandwich." If The Sims 2: University is installed, the Sim's Lifetime Want will change. In Nightlife, players can own their own cars instead of relying on the carpool to get to work or the bus to get to school.
There are several colors available. In addition and garages can be built into the Sim's lot. New, more customized swimming pools can be designed. Included is a new diagonal shaped swimming pool tool. However, the pool ladder and diving board may only be attached to pool tiles square on the lot; the lot mode has been expanded in Nightlife, so that it is possible to view the neighborhood from a lot. Players may leave one lot to play another without having to go back to the neighborhood mode. Two new radio stations come with the expansion and Classical stations. Nightlife adds the option to add a downtown sub-neighborhood to each proper neighborhood; the pre-made downtown is called Downtown, contains several shops, restaurants and other community lots, as well as home lots. These places are perfect for group gatherings, it does not include pre-made Sims, though. The Sims 2: Nightlife introduces the concept of fury. Of limited duration, this affects which social interactions are accepted, it is most to occur when a spouse is caught cheating with another Sim.
If another Sim becomes furious at the player's Sim, their Sim will be subjected to vandalism, such as having their newspaper stolen, or their trash can kicked over. Fury can be caused by the player, if he/she decides to be mean to the other Sim. Fury can be resolved by waiting for the furious timer to stop paying the sim; the Seasons expansion pack allows fury to be eliminated by the consumption of strawberry juice. The Sims 2: Nightlife introduces NPC Vampires. If a Sim builds a strong relationship with a vampire, which they can meet in community lots, they can ask to be bitten and thus, become stricken with Vampirisim. Vampires have sharp teeth, red eyes, pale skin, have no reflection in mirrors, can turn into a bat and fly. Vampires' needs do not decay at all during the night, allowing them to enjoy the nightlife that little bit more and making socializing and money making at night that little bit easier. Vampire Sims are immortal and will not age, although Teen vampires will age if sent to college and again upon graduation.
The main weakness of a vampire is that during the day, their needs decay faster than those of normal Sims. If a Vampire tries to go out of the house during the day, their needs will drop down to zero fast, they will combust and die. A vampire can avoid these dangers by sleeping in a coffin during the day, a new object introduced in the expansion pack. Vampirism can be cured with a potion; the Sims 2: Nightlife is the first expansion pack that includes private cars. The expansion pack includes 5 car models with different paintjobs such as: a hatchback, a pickup truck, a minivan, a sedan car, a sports car; the player can install an alarm in the car, take the kids to school, drive to work, go to community lots. The official website has included a garage set that allows players with any combination of games to have cars plus the Ford car company has made some of their cars available to The Sims 2 Nightlife owners through The Sims 2 Website; the Sims 2: Nightlife received a "Platinum" sales award from the Entertainment and Leisure Software Publishers Association, indicating sales of at least 300,000 copies in the United Kingdom.
Around 1,300 species of freshwater crabs are distributed throughout the tropics and subtropics, divided among eight families. They show direct development and maternal care of a small number of offspring, in contrast to marine crabs, which release thousands of planktonic larvae; this limits the dispersal abilities of freshwater crabs, so they tend to be endemic to small areas. As a result, a large proportion are threatened with extinction. More than 1,300 described species of freshwater crabs are known, out of a total of 6,700 species of crabs across all environments; the total number of species of freshwater crabs, including undescribed species, is thought to be up to 65% higher up to 2,155 species, although most of the additional species are unknown to science. They belong to eight families, each with a limited distribution, although various crabs from other families are able to tolerate freshwater conditions or are secondarily adapted to fresh water; the phylogenetic relationships between these families is still a matter of debate, so how many times the freshwater lifestyle has evolved among the true crabs is unknown.
The eight families are: Superfamily TrichodactyloideaTrichodactylidae Superfamily Potamoidea Potamidae Potamonautidae Deckeniidae – treated as part of Potamonautidae Platythelphusidae – treated as part of PotamonautidaeSuperfamily GecarcinucoideaGecarcinucidae Parathelphusidae – nowadays treated as a junior synonym of GecarcinucidaeSuperfamily Pseudothelphusoidea Pseudothelphusidae The fossil record of freshwater organisms is poor, so few fossils of freshwater crabs have been found. The oldest is Tanzanonautes tuerkayi, from the Oligocene of East Africa, the evolution of freshwater crabs is to postdate the break-up of the supercontinent Gondwana. Members of the family Aeglidae and Clibanarius fonticola are restricted to fresh water, but these "crab-like" crustaceans are members of the infraorder Anomura; the external morphology of freshwater crabs varies little, so the form of the gonopod is of critical importance for classification. Development of freshwater crabs is characteristically direct, where the eggs hatch as juveniles, with the larval stages passing within the egg.
The broods comprise only a few hundred eggs, each of, quite large, at a diameter around 1 mm. The colonisation of fresh water has required crabs to alter their water balance. In addition to their gills, freshwater crabs have a "pseudolung" in their gill chamber that allows them to breathe in air; these developments have preadapted freshwater crabs for terrestrial living, although freshwater crabs need to return to water periodically to excrete ammonia. Freshwater crabs are found throughout the subtropical regions of the world, they live in a wide range of water bodies, from fast-flowing rivers to swamps, as well as in tree boles or caves. They are nocturnal, emerging to feed at night; some species provide important food sources for various vertebrates. A number of freshwater crabs are secondary hosts of flukes in the genus Paragonimus, which causes paragonimiasis in humans; the majority of species are narrow endemics. This is at least attributable to their poor dispersal abilities and low fecundity, to habitat fragmentation caused by the world's human population.
In West Africa, species that live in savannas have wider ranges than species from the rainforest. Every species of freshwater crab described so far has been assessed by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. For instance, all but one of Sri Lanka's 50 freshwater crab species are endemic to that country, more than half are critically endangered. Neil Cumberlidge. "Freshwater Crab Biology". Northern Michigan University. Archived from the original on July 20, 2011