NCAA Division I Men's Basketball Tournament
The NCAA Division I Men's Basketball Tournament known and branded as NCAA March Madness, is a single-elimination tournament played each spring in the United States featuring 68 college basketball teams from the Division I level of the National Collegiate Athletic Association, to determine the national championship. The tournament was created in 1939 by the National Association of Basketball Coaches, was the idea of Ohio State coach Harold Olsen. Played during March, it has become one of the most famous annual sporting events in the United States; the tournament teams include champions from 32 Division I conferences, 36 teams which are awarded at-large berths. These "at-large" teams are chosen by an NCAA selection committee announced in a nationally televised event on the Sunday preceding the "First Four" play-in games held in Dayton and dubbed Selection Sunday; the 68 teams are divided into four regions and organized into a single-elimination "bracket", which pre-determines, when a team wins a game, which team it will face next.
Each team is "seeded", or ranked, within its region from 1 to 16. After the First Four, the tournament occurs during the course of three weekends, at pre-selected neutral sites across the United States. Teams, seeded by rank, proceed through a single-game elimination bracket beginning with a "first four" consisting of 8 low-seeded teams playing in 4 games for a position in the first round the Tuesday and Wednesday before the first round begins, a first round consisting of 64 teams playing in 32 games over the course of a week, the "Sweet Sixteen" and "Elite Eight" rounds the next week and weekend and – for the last weekend of the tournament – the "Final Four" round; the Final Four is played during the first weekend of April. These four teams, one from each region, compete in a preselected location for the national championship; the tournament has been at least televised since 1969. The games are broadcast by CBS, TBS, TNT, truTV under the trade-name NCAA March Madness. Since 2011, all games are available for viewing nationwide and internationally.
As television coverage has grown, so too has the tournament's popularity. Millions of Americans fill out a bracket, attempting to predict the outcome of 63 games of the tournament. With 11 national titles, UCLA has the record for the most NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Championships; the University of Kentucky is second, with eight national titles. The University of North Carolina is third, with six national titles, Duke University and Indiana University are tied for fourth with five national titles; the University of Connecticut is sixth with four national titles. The University of Kansas & Villanova are tied for 7th with three national titles. Since 1985, when the tournament expanded to 64 teams, Duke has won five championships; the NCAA has changed the tournament format several times since its inception, most being an increase of the number of teams. This section describes the tournament as it has operated since 2011. A total of 68 teams qualify for the tournament played during April. Thirty-two teams earn automatic bids as their respective conference champions.
Of the 32 Division I "all-sports" conferences, all 32 hold championship tournaments to determine which team receives the automatic qualification. The Ivy League was the last Division I conference. If two or more Ivies shared a regular-season championship, a one-game playoff was used to decide the tournament participant. Since 2017, the league conducts their own postseason tournament; the remaining 36 tournament slots are granted to at-large bids, which are determined by the Selection Committee in a nationally televised event on the Sunday preceding the First Four play-in tournament and dubbed Selection Sunday by the media and fans, by a group of conference commissioners and school athletic directors who are appointed into service by the NCAA. The committee determines where all sixty-eight teams are seeded and placed in the bracket; the tournament is divided into four regions and each region has at least sixteen teams, but four additional teams are added per the decision of the Selection Committee.
The committee is charged with making each of the four regions as close as possible in overall quality of teams from wherever they come from. The names of the regions vary from year to year, are broadly geographic. From 1957 to 1984, the "Mideast" corresponding to the Southeastern region of the United States, designation was used. From 1985 to 1997, the Mideast region was known as "Southeast" and again changed to "South" starting from 1998; the selected names correspond to the location of the four cities hosting the regional finals. From 2004 to 2006, the regions were named after their host cities, e.g. the Phoenix Regional in 2004, the Chicago Regional in 2005, the Minneapolis Regional in 2006, but reverted to the traditional geographic designations beginning in 2007. For example, during 2012, the regions were named South, Midwest (St. Louis, Mis
Bloomfield Hills, Michigan
Bloomfield Hills is a city located in Metro Detroit's northern suburbs in Oakland County in the U. S. state of Michigan, 20.2 miles northwest of downtown Detroit. The city is completely surrounded by Bloomfield Township; as of the 2010 census, the city population was 3,869. On June 28, 1820, Oakland County was divided into two townships: Pontiac Township and Bloomfield Township, the latter covering the southern part of the county that would include West Bloomfield Township, Royal Oak and Southfield. What is now Bloomfield Hills was a farming area until the turn of the 20th century when wealthy Detroit residents bought up the land; the settlement became a village in 1927, in 1932 residents voted to become a city to avoid being incorporated into growing Birmingham. Bloomfield Hills is the location of the National Historic Landmark Cranbrook Educational Community and other historic sites listed on the national register of historic places. In popular culture, Bloomfield Hills was the setting for the 2005 film The Upside of Anger.
In the 2002 film 8 Mile, Eminem mentions Cranbrook Kingswood while making fun of "Doc" because he attended Cranbrook, not considered cool or impressive in the atmosphere portrayed in the film. Bloomfield Hills is the hometown of Trance; some scenes in Out of Sight with Jennifer Lopez and George Clooney were filmed at a private residence in Bloomfield Hills. Jimmy Hoffa was last seen at the former Machus Red Fox restaurant in adjacent Bloomfield Township; the novel Gilda Joyce: The Ladies of the Lake is set in a private school in Bloomfield. The area is the home of landmark churches including Kirk in the Hills Presbyterian on Long Lake Rd and Christ Church Cranbrook Episcopal, consecrated in 1928 as part of George Booth's plan for the Cranbrook Educational Community; the Congregational Church of Birmingham United Church of Christ was founded in Birmingham but moved to its present location in at 1000 Cranbrook Road in Bloomfield Hills in 1966. St. Hugo of the Hills Roman Catholic Church' was funded by Theodore F. MacManus and his wife in memory of their deceased children and Hubert.
St. Hugo of the Hills Catholic Church was built from 1931–1936, with approval from Bishop Michael J. Gallagher, was designed by Arthur DesRossiers. Other churches include St. George Greek Orthodox, Bloomfield Hills Baptist, Beautiful Savior Lutheran Church on Adams Road, Detroit Michigan Temple of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Birmingham Unitarian Church on Woodward Avenue. Acme Group, consisting of Acme Mills, Great Lakes Filters, Fairway Products, is headquartered in Bloomfield Hills. Other companies headquartered in Bloomfield Hills, MI include TriMas Corp.. Larson Realty Group, Princeton Enterprises, PulteGroup, Inc. TIP Capital, Bloomfield Hills Bancorp, BlackEagle Partners, Gregory J. Schwartz & Co. Inc. Alidade Capital, O2 Investment Partners. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 5.04 square miles, of which 4.96 square miles is land and 0.08 square miles is water. As of the 2005–2009 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates, there were 3,774 people, 1,570 households, about 1,382 families residing in the city.
The population density was 796.4 per square mile. There were 1,628 housing units at an average density of 329.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 89.1% White, 5.4% Asian, 4.3% Black, 0.8% from other races, 0.4% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.2% of the population. As of the census of 2010, there were 3,869 people, 1,489 households, 1,116 families residing in the city; the population density was 780.0 inhabitants per square mile. There were 1,659 housing units at an average density of 334.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 87.3% White, 6.7% Asian, 4.1% African American, 0.1% Native American, 0.3% from other races, 1.6% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.5% of the population. There were 1,489 households of which 25.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 67.7% were married couples living together, 4.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 2.4% had a male householder with no wife present, 25.1% were non-families.
21.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 13% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.44 and the average family size was 2.84. The median age in the city was 54.1 years. 19.9% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 49.0% male and 51.0% female. As of the census of 2000, There were 1,520 households out of which 26.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 71.9% were married couples living together, 3.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 23.2% were non-families. 21.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.45 and the average family size was 2.84. In the city, the population was spread out with 19.7% under the age of 18, 3.8% from 18 to 24, 13.8% from 25 to 44, 39.0% from 45 to 64, 23.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 52 years. For every 100 females, there were 89.8 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.8 males. The median income for a househo
Radio is the technology of signalling or communicating using radio waves. Radio waves are electromagnetic waves of frequency between 300 gigahertz, they are generated by an electronic device called a transmitter connected to an antenna which radiates the waves, received by a radio receiver connected to another antenna. Radio is widely used in modern technology, in radio communication, radio navigation, remote control, remote sensing and other applications. In radio communication, used in radio and television broadcasting, cell phones, two-way radios, wireless networking and satellite communication among numerous other uses, radio waves are used to carry information across space from a transmitter to a receiver, by modulating the radio signal in the transmitter. In radar, used to locate and track objects like aircraft, ships and missiles, a beam of radio waves emitted by a radar transmitter reflects off the target object, the reflected waves reveal the object's location. In radio navigation systems such as GPS and VOR, a mobile receiver receives radio signals from navigational radio beacons whose position is known, by measuring the arrival time of the radio waves the receiver can calculate its position on Earth.
In wireless remote control devices like drones, garage door openers, keyless entry systems, radio signals transmitted from a controller device control the actions of a remote device. Applications of radio waves which do not involve transmitting the waves significant distances, such as RF heating used in industrial processes and microwave ovens, medical uses such as diathermy and MRI machines, are not called radio; the noun radio is used to mean a broadcast radio receiver. Radio waves were first identified and studied by German physicist Heinrich Hertz in 1886; the first practical radio transmitters and receivers were developed around 1895-6 by Italian Guglielmo Marconi, radio began to be used commercially around 1900. To prevent interference between users, the emission of radio waves is regulated by law, coordinated by an international body called the International Telecommunications Union, which allocates frequency bands in the radio spectrum for different uses. Radio waves are radiated by electric charges undergoing acceleration.
They are generated artificially by time varying electric currents, consisting of electrons flowing back and forth in a metal conductor called an antenna. In transmission, a transmitter generates an alternating current of radio frequency, applied to an antenna; the antenna radiates the power in the current as radio waves. When the waves strike the antenna of a radio receiver, they push the electrons in the metal back and forth, inducing a tiny alternating current; the radio receiver connected to the receiving antenna detects this oscillating current and amplifies it. As they travel further from the transmitting antenna, radio waves spread out so their signal strength decreases, so radio transmissions can only be received within a limited range of the transmitter, the distance depending on the transmitter power, antenna radiation pattern, receiver sensitivity, noise level, presence of obstructions between transmitter and receiver. An omnidirectional antenna transmits or receives radio waves in all directions, while a directional antenna or high gain antenna transmits radio waves in a beam in a particular direction, or receives waves from only one direction.
Radio waves travel through a vacuum at the speed of light, in air at close to the speed of light, so the wavelength of a radio wave, the distance in meters between adjacent crests of the wave, is inversely proportional to its frequency. In radio communication systems, information is carried across space using radio waves. At the sending end, the information to be sent is converted by some type of transducer to a time-varying electrical signal called the modulation signal; the modulation signal may be an audio signal representing sound from a microphone, a video signal representing moving images from a video camera, or a digital signal consisting of a sequence of bits representing binary data from a computer. The modulation signal is applied to a radio transmitter. In the transmitter, an electronic oscillator generates an alternating current oscillating at a radio frequency, called the carrier wave because it serves to "carry" the information through the air; the information signal is used to modulate the carrier, varying some aspect of the carrier wave, impressing the information on the carrier.
Different radio systems use different modulation methods: AM - in an AM transmitter, the amplitude of the radio carrier wave is varied by the modulation signal. FM - in an FM transmitter, the frequency of the radio carrier wave is varied by the modulation signal. FSK - used in wireless digital devices to transmit digital signals, the frequency of the carrier wave is shifted periodically between two frequencies that represent the two binary digits, 0 and 1, to transmit a sequence of bits. OFDM - a family of complicated digital modulation methods widely used in high bandwidth systems such as WiFi networks, digital television broadcasting, digital audio broadcasting to transmit digital data using a minimum of radio spectrum bandwidth. OFDM has higher spectral efficiency and more resistance to fading than AM or FM. Multiple radio carrier waves spaced in frequency are transmitted within the radio channel, with each carrier modulated with bits from the incoming bitstream
Harbor Springs, Michigan
Harbor Springs is a city and resort community in Emmet County in the U. S. state of Michigan. The population was 1,194 at the 2010 census. Harbor Springs is in a sheltered bay on the north shore of the Little Traverse Bay on Lake Michigan; the Little Traverse Lighthouse is a historic lighthouse on the Harbor Point peninsula, which shelters the deepest natural harbor on the Great Lakes. M-119 connects with US 31 7 miles east and south at Bay View, Petoskey, 4 miles away on the south side of the harbor; the area is known for its historic summer resorts, such as Wequetonsing, founded by Illinois businessmen and lawyers Henry Stryker, III, Henry Brigham McClure. They were both connected with the Jacob Bunn industrial dynasty of Illinois; the European-American settlement started with a mission by French Catholic Jesuits. In 1847, L'Arbre Croche had the largest concentration of Native Americans in Michigan. French traders renamed Little Traverse, when they arrived in the area. After more settlers came to the area from the eastern United States, they changed the name of the village to Harbor Springs, incorporating it in 1880.
The federally recognized Little Traverse Bay Bands of Odawa Indians are descendants of the numerous Odawa bands that occupied this area. They have their tribal offices in Harbor Springs, a gaming resort in Petoskey, their reservation lands encompasses 336 square miles of land in Charlevoix and Emmet counties. One of the city's more prominent European-American residents was Ephraim Shay, known for his invention of the Shay locomotive; the hexagonal-shaped house he built in downtown Harbor Springs still stands today and is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. The local elementary school is named after him. Another building of interest is the Douglas House on the shore of Lake Michigan. Designed by noted architect Richard Meier and completed in 1973, this house is one of 150 structures listed in 2007 as America's Favorite Architecture by the American Institute of Architects. Harbor Springs was the location of the Club Ponytail, a famous music hall destroyed by fire in 1969. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 1.30 square miles, all of it land.
Harbor Springs is a few miles from Michigan, on the other side of the bay. The climate is described as Humid Continental by abbreviated as Dfb; as of the census of 2010, there were 1,194 people, 558 households, 294 families residing in the city. The population density was 918.5 inhabitants per square mile. There were 1,122 housing units at an average density of 863.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 92.0% White, 0.3% African American, 4.8% Native American, 0.8% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 0.1% from other races, 2.0% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.7% of the population. There were 558 households of which 19.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 38.4% were married couples living together, 10.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.3% had a male householder with no wife present, 47.3% were non-families. 43.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 23.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 1.93 and the average family size was 2.66.
The median age in the city was 55.8 years. 15.7% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 43.8% male and 56.2% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,567 people, 683 households, 383 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,208.9 per square mile. There were 1,086 housing units at an average density of 837.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 91.70% White, 0.19% African American, 5.87% Native American, 0.19% Asian, 2.04% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.57% of the population. There were 683 households out of which 23.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.0% were married couples living together, 7.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 43.8% were non-families. 39.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 18.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.14 and the average family size was 2.88. In the city, the population was spread out with 20.4% under the age of 18, 4.6% from 18 to 24, 22.8% from 25 to 44, 28.3% from 45 to 64, 23.8% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 47 years. For every 100 females, there were 81.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 74.4 males. The median income for a household in the city was $35,341, the median income for a family was $46,750. Males had a median income of $29,236 versus $27,167 for females; the per capita income for the city was $21,876. About 5.3% of families and 6.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 6.5% of those under age 18 and 9.8% of those age 65 or over. The nearest airports with scheduled passenger service are in Pellston Regional Airport and Traverse City Cherry Capital Airport. Harbor Springs Municipal Airport is a public general aviation with no scheduled commercial flights. US 31, while not directly serving Harbor Springs, is accessible at the southern end of M-119 four miles southeast near Bay View. M-119 travels around the north side of Little Traverse Bay, through downtown Harbor Springs, to a terminus at Cross Village. C-77 is a north-south rou
Petoskey is a city and coastal resort community in the U. S. state of Michigan. The population was estimated at close to 5,670 at the 2010 census, it is the county seat of Emmet County. The Little Traverse Bay area was long inhabited including the Odawa people; the name "Petoskey" is said to mean "where the light shines through the clouds" in the language of the Odawa. However it is more that the town was named for the Joseph Petoskey family of Poland; the original Petoskey family posterity still reside in the town. Yet the romantic myth that the town was named for the Odawa chief is good for tourism. After the 1836 Treaty of Washington, Odawa Chief Ignatius Petosega took the opportunity to purchase lands near the Bear River. Petosega's father was Antoine Carre, a French Canadian fur trader and his mother was Odawa. By the 1850s, several religious groups had established missions near the Little Traverse Bay. A Mormon offshoot had been based at Beaver Island, the Jesuit missionaries had been based at L'arbor Croche and Michilimackinac, with a Catholic presence in Harbor Springs known as "Little Traverse".
Andrew Porter, a Presbyterian missionary, arrived at the village of Bear River in 1852. Amos Fox and Hirem Obed Rose were pioneer entrepreneurs who had made money both during the California Gold Rush and at Northport selling lumber and goods to passing ships. Based at Northport and Fox expanded their business interests to Charlevoix and Petoskey in the 1850s. Rose made additional money by being a part of a business partnership that extended the railroad from Walton Junction to Traverse City. H. O. Rose, along with Archibald Buttars, established a general merchandise business in Petoskey. After the partnership split, Mr. Rose relocated to Petoskey and in 1873 started Petoskey's first dock; when the Grand Rapids and Indiana Railroad was about to be extended into the Bay View area, Mr Rose purchased much land in that area as well as trolley cars to enable transport from Petoskey to Bay View. Rose contributed to many firsts of Petoskey, including the first dock, the first general store, extensive lime quarries, erection of the Arlington Hotel, lumbering enterprises, first president of the village, harbor improvements in 1893, officiating at early commemorative public events.
Rose's influence on the city are commemorated by the naming of the H. O. Rose room at the Perry Hotel. In the late 19th century, Petoskey was the location where 50,000 passenger pigeon birds were killed daily in massive hunts, leading to their complete extinction in the early 20th century. A state historical marker commemorates the events, including the last great nesting at Crooked Lake in 1878. One hunter was reputed to have killed "a million birds" and earned $60,000, the equivalent of $1 million today. Petoskey is famous for a high concentration of Petoskey stones, the state stone of Michigan. Notable natives are information theorist Claude Shannon, Civil War historian Bruce Catton and actress Megan Boone, star of the NBC television series The Blacklist; the city is the boyhood home of singer-songwriter Sufjan Stevens. This city was the northern terminus of the West Michigan Railway; the Petoskey stone is named after Odawa Chief Ignatius Petosega. With members descended from the numerous bands in northern Michigan, the Little Traverse Bay Band is a federally recognized tribe that has its headquarters at nearby Harbor Springs, Michigan.
It owns and operates a gaming casino in Petoskey. Part of Northern Michigan, Petoskey is on the southeast shore of the Little Traverse Bay of Lake Michigan at the mouth of the Bear River. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 5.29 square miles, of which 5.09 square miles is land and 0.20 square miles is water. As of the census of 2010, there were 5,670 people, 2,538 households, 1,319 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,113.9 inhabitants per square mile. There were 3,359 housing units at an average density of 659.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 91.7% White, 0.7% African American, 4.7% Native American, 0.4% Asian, 0.5% from other races, 2.1% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.9% of the population. There were 2,538 households of which 24.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 36.7% were married couples living together, 11.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 3.5% had a male householder with no wife present, 48.0% were non-families.
39.2% of all households were made up of individuals, 12.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.10 and the average family size was 2.81. The median age in the city was 39.8 years. 19.4% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 47.3% male and 52.7% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 6,080 people, 2,700 households, 1,447 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,210.9 per square mile. There were 3,342 housing units at an average density of 665.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 94.18% White, 0.33% African American, 3.17% Native American, 0.81% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.20% from other races, 1.30% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.17% of the population. There were 2,700 households out of which 27.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 39.8% were married couples living tog
Sport includes all forms of competitive physical activity or games which, through casual or organised participation, aim to use, maintain or improve physical ability and skills while providing enjoyment to participants, in some cases, entertainment for spectators. Hundreds of sports exist, from those between single contestants, through to those with hundreds of simultaneous participants, either in teams or competing as individuals. In certain sports such as racing, many contestants may compete or consecutively, with one winner; some sports allow a "tie" or "draw". A number of contests may be arranged in a tournament producing a champion. Many sports leagues make an annual champion by arranging games in a regular sports season, followed in some cases by playoffs. Sport is recognised as system of activities which are based in physical athleticism or physical dexterity, with the largest major competitions such as the Olympic Games admitting only sports meeting this definition, other organisations such as the Council of Europe using definitions precluding activities without a physical element from classification as sports.
However, a number of competitive, but non-physical, activities claim recognition as mind sports. The International Olympic Committee recognises both chess and bridge as bona fide sports, SportAccord, the international sports federation association, recognises five non-physical sports: bridge, draughts, Go and xiangqi, limits the number of mind games which can be admitted as sports. Sport is governed by a set of rules or customs, which serve to ensure fair competition, allow consistent adjudication of the winner. Winning can be crossing a line first, it can be determined by judges who are scoring elements of the sporting performance, including objective or subjective measures such as technical performance or artistic impression. Records of performance are kept, for popular sports, this information may be announced or reported in sport news. Sport is a major source of entertainment for non-participants, with spectator sport drawing large crowds to sport venues, reaching wider audiences through broadcasting.
Sport betting is in some cases regulated, in some cases is central to the sport. According to A. T. Kearney, a consultancy, the global sporting industry is worth up to $620 billion as of 2013; the world's most accessible and practised sport is running, while association football is its most popular spectator sport. The word "sport" comes from the Old French desport meaning "leisure", with the oldest definition in English from around 1300 being "anything humans find amusing or entertaining". Other meanings include. Roget's defines the noun sport as an "activity engaged in for relaxation and amusement" with synonyms including diversion and recreation; the singular term "sport" is used in most English dialects to describe the overall concept, with "sports" used to describe multiple activities. American English uses "sports" for both terms; the precise definition of what separates a sport from other leisure activities varies between sources. The closest to an international agreement on a definition is provided by SportAccord, the association for all the largest international sports federations, is therefore the de facto representative of international sport.
SportAccord uses the following criteria, determining that a sport should: have an element of competition be in no way harmful to any living creature not rely on equipment provided by a single supplier not rely on any "luck" element designed into the sport. They recognise that sport can be physical mind, predominantly motorised co-ordination, or animal-supported; the inclusion of mind sports within sport definitions has not been universally accepted, leading to legal challenges from governing bodies in regards to being denied funding available to sports. Whilst SportAccord recognises a small number of mind sports, it is not open to admitting any further mind sports. There has been an increase in the application of the term "sport" to a wider set of non-physical challenges such as video games called esports due to the large scale of participation and organised competition, but these are not recognised by mainstream sports organisations. According to Council of Europe, European Sports Charter, article 2.i, "'Sport' means all forms of physical activity which, through casual or organised participation, aim at expressing or improving physical fitness and mental well-being, forming social relationships or obtaining results in competition at all levels."
There are opposing views on the necessity of competition as a defining element of a sport, with all professional sport involving competition, governing bodies requiring competition as a prerequisite of recognition by the International Olympic Committee or SportAccord. Other bodies advocate widening the definition of sport to include all physical activity. For instance, the Council of Eu
Television, sometimes shortened to tele or telly, is a telecommunication medium used for transmitting moving images in monochrome, or in color, in two or three dimensions and sound. The term can refer to a television set, a television program, or the medium of television transmission. Television is a mass medium for advertising and news. Television became available in crude experimental forms in the late 1920s, but it would still be several years before the new technology would be marketed to consumers. After World War II, an improved form of black-and-white TV broadcasting became popular in the United States and Britain, television sets became commonplace in homes and institutions. During the 1950s, television was the primary medium for influencing public opinion. In the mid-1960s, color broadcasting was introduced in most other developed countries; the availability of multiple types of archival storage media such as Betamax, VHS tape, local disks, DVDs, flash drives, high-definition Blu-ray Discs, cloud digital video recorders has enabled viewers to watch pre-recorded material—such as movies—at home on their own time schedule.
For many reasons the convenience of remote retrieval, the storage of television and video programming now occurs on the cloud. At the end of the first decade of the 2000s, digital television transmissions increased in popularity. Another development was the move from standard-definition television to high-definition television, which provides a resolution, higher. HDTV may be transmitted in various formats: 1080p, 720p. Since 2010, with the invention of smart television, Internet television has increased the availability of television programs and movies via the Internet through streaming video services such as Netflix, Amazon Video, iPlayer and Hulu. In 2013, 79 % of the world's households owned; the replacement of early bulky, high-voltage cathode ray tube screen displays with compact, energy-efficient, flat-panel alternative technologies such as LCDs, OLED displays, plasma displays was a hardware revolution that began with computer monitors in the late 1990s. Most TV sets sold in the 2000s were flat-panel LEDs.
Major manufacturers announced the discontinuation of CRT, DLP, fluorescent-backlit LCDs by the mid-2010s. In the near future, LEDs are expected to be replaced by OLEDs. Major manufacturers have announced that they will produce smart TVs in the mid-2010s. Smart TVs with integrated Internet and Web 2.0 functions became the dominant form of television by the late 2010s. Television signals were distributed only as terrestrial television using high-powered radio-frequency transmitters to broadcast the signal to individual television receivers. Alternatively television signals are distributed by coaxial cable or optical fiber, satellite systems and, since the 2000s via the Internet; until the early 2000s, these were transmitted as analog signals, but a transition to digital television is expected to be completed worldwide by the late 2010s. A standard television set is composed of multiple internal electronic circuits, including a tuner for receiving and decoding broadcast signals. A visual display device which lacks a tuner is called a video monitor rather than a television.
The word television comes from Ancient Greek τῆλε, meaning'far', Latin visio, meaning'sight'. The first documented usage of the term dates back to 1900, when the Russian scientist Constantin Perskyi used it in a paper that he presented in French at the 1st International Congress of Electricity, which ran from 18 to 25 August 1900 during the International World Fair in Paris; the Anglicised version of the term is first attested in 1907, when it was still "...a theoretical system to transmit moving images over telegraph or telephone wires". It was "...formed in English or borrowed from French télévision." In the 19th century and early 20th century, other "...proposals for the name of a then-hypothetical technology for sending pictures over distance were telephote and televista." The abbreviation "TV" is from 1948. The use of the term to mean "a television set" dates from 1941; the use of the term to mean "television as a medium" dates from 1927. The slang term "telly" is more common in the UK; the slang term "the tube" or the "boob tube" derives from the bulky cathode ray tube used on most TVs until the advent of flat-screen TVs.
Another slang term for the TV is "idiot box". In the 1940s and throughout the 1950s, during the early rapid growth of television programming and television-set ownership in the United States, another slang term became used in that period and continues to be used today to distinguish productions created for broadcast on television from films developed for presentation in movie theaters; the "small screen", as both a compound adjective and noun, became specific references to television, while the "big screen" was used to identify productions made for theatrical release. Facsimile transmission systems for still photographs pioneered methods of mechanical scanning of images in the early 19th century. Alexander Bain introduced the facsimile machine between 1843 and 1846. Frederick Bakewell demonstrated a working laboratory version in 1851. Willoughby Smith discovered the photoconductivity of the element selenium in 1873; as a 23-year-old German university student, Paul Julius Gottlieb Nipkow proposed and patented the Nipkow disk in 1884.
This was a spinning disk with a spiral pattern of holes in it, so each hole scanned a line of the image. Although he never built a working model