A novelist is an author or writer of novels, though novelists write in other genres of both fiction and non-fiction. Some novelists are professional novelists, thus make a living writing novels and other fiction, while others aspire to support themselves in this way or write as an avocation. Most novelists struggle to get their debut novel published, but once published they continue to be published, although few become literary celebrities, thus gaining prestige or a considerable income from their work. Novelists come from a variety of backgrounds and social classes, this shapes the content of their works. Public reception of a novelist's work, the literary criticism commenting on it, the novelists' incorporation of their own experiences into works and characters can lead to the author's personal life and identity being associated with a novel's fictional content. For this reason, the environment within which a novelist works and the reception of their novels by both the public and publishers can be influenced by their demographics or identity.
Some novelists have creative identities derived from their focus on different genres of fiction, such as crime, romance or historical novels. While many novelists compose fiction to satisfy personal desires and commentators ascribe a particular social responsibility or role to novel writers. Many authors use such moral imperatives to justify different approaches to novel writing, including activism or different approaches to representing reality "truthfully". Novelist is a term derivative from the term "novel" describing the "writer of novels"; the Oxford English Dictionary recognizes other definitions of novelist, first appearing in the 16th and 17th centuries to refer to either "An innovator. However, the OED attributes the primary contemporary meaning of "a writer of novels" as first appearing in the 1633 book "East-India Colation" by C. Farewell citing the passage "It beeing a pleasant observation to note the order of their Coaches and Carriages.. As if it had bin the spoyles of a Tryumph leading Captive, or a preparation to some sad Execution" According to the Google Ngrams, the term novelist first appears in the Google Books database in 1521.
The difference between professional and amateur novelists is the author's ability to publish. Many people take up novel writing as a hobby, but the difficulties of completing large scale fictional works of quality prevent the completion of novels. Once authors have completed a novel, they will try to get it published; the publishing industry requires novels to have accessible profitable markets, thus many novelists will self-publish to circumvent the editorial control of publishers. Self-publishing has long been an option for writers, with vanity presses printing bound books for a fee paid by the writer. In these settings, unlike the more traditional publishing industry, activities reserved for a publishing house, like the distribution and promotion of the book, become the author's responsibility; the rise of the Internet and electronic books has made self publishing far less expensive and a realistic way for authors to realize income. Novelists apply a number of different methods to writing their novels, relying on a variety of approaches to inspire creativity.
Some communities encourage amateurs to practice writing novels to develop these unique practices, that vary from author to author. For example, the internet-based group, National Novel Writing Month, encourages people to write 50,000-word novels in the month of November, to give novelists practice completing such works. In the 2010 event, over 200,000 people took part – writing a total of over 2.8 billion words. Novelists don't publish their first novels until in life. However, many novelists begin writing at a young age. For example, Iain Banks began writing at eleven, at sixteen completed his first novel, "The Hungarian Lift-Jet", about international arms dealers, "in pencil in a larger-than-foolscap log book". However, he was thirty before he published his first novel, the controversial The Wasp Factory in 1984; the success of this novel enabled Banks to become a full-time novelist. An important writers' juvenilia if not published, is prized by scholars because it provides insight into an author's biography and approach to writing.
Novelists publish as early as their teens. For example, Patrick O'Brian published his first novel, Caesar: The Life Story of a Panda-Leopard, at the age of 15, which brought him considerable critical attention. Barbara Newhall Follett's The House Without Windows, was accepted and published in 1927 when she was 13 by the Knopf publishing house and earned critical acclaim from the New York Times, the Saturday Review, H. L. Mencken; these works will achieve popular success as well. For example, though Christopher Paolini's Eragon, was not a great critical success, but its popularity among readers placed it on the New York Times Children's Books Best Seller list for 121 weeks. First-time novelists of any age find themselves unable to get works published, because of a number of reasons reflecting the inexperience of the author and the economic realities of publishers. Authors mus
David Adams Richards
David Adams Richards, CM, ONB is a Canadian writer and member of the Canadian Senate. Born in Newcastle, New Brunswick, Richards left St. Thomas University in Fredericton, three credits shy of completing a BA. After publishing a poetry chapbook in 1972 he won the Norma Bailey Award, a literary prize for unpublished writing by Canadian university students, in 1974 for an excerpt from his novel manuscript The Coming of Winter, the novel was published that year as his fiction debut. Over his career as a writer, Richards has published novels, stage plays, short stories and non-fiction work, his fiction addresses the lives and experiences of poor and working class residents of the Miramichi region of New Brunswick, exploring spiritual and philosophical themes influenced by Richards' Roman Catholic faith. Richards has been a writer-in-residence at various universities and colleges across Canada, including the University of New Brunswick. On August 30, 2017, the appointment of Richards to the Senate of Canada on the advice of Prime Minister Justin Trudeau was announced.
On April 25, 2018, Richards resigned from the Independent Senators Group to sit as a non-caucusing independent senator. Richards stressed that he had not felt pressured by the ISG, saying that he left because he wants a high degree of personal autonomy, citing how he never joined the Writers' Union of Canada or PEN Canada as an author. Richards said that since Trudeau had appointed him as an independent, he felt it was his duty to be as independent as possible. Richards has received numerous awards including two Gemini Awards for scriptwriting for Small Gifts and For Those Who Hunt the Wounded Down, the Alden Nowlan Award for Excellence in the Arts, the Canadian Authors Association Award for his novel Evening Snow Will Bring Such Peace. Richards is one of only three writers to have won in both the fiction and non-fiction categories of the Governor General's Award, he won the 1988 fiction award for Nights Below Station Street and the 1998 non-fiction award for Lines on the Water: A Fisherman's Life on the Miramichi.
He was a co-winner of the 2000 Giller Prize for Mercy Among the Children. The Writers' Federation of New Brunswick administers an annual David Adams Richards Prize for Fiction. In 2009, he was made a Member of the Order of Canada "for his contributions to the Canadian literary scene as an essayist and writer of fiction and non-fiction". In 2011, Richards received the Matt Cohen Prize. Richards' papers are housed at the University of New Brunswick. In 2014, Halifax singer-songwriter Dan MacCormack released an album of songs inspired by Richards' novels, called Symphony of Ghosts; the title was taken from a line in Mercy Among the Children. The Coming of Winter Blood Ties Lives of Short Duration Road to the Stilt House Nights Below Station Street Evening Snow Will Bring Such Peace For Those Who Hunt the Wounded Down Hope in the Desperate Hour The Bay of Love and Sorrows Mercy Among the Children River of the Broken-Hearted The Friends of Meager Fortune The Lost Highway Incidents in the Life of Markus Paul Crimes Against My Brother Principles to Live By Small Heroics The Dungarvon Whooper Water Carrier and Earth Hockey Dreams Dancers at Night Dane A Lad From Brantford and Other Essays Hockey Dreams: Memories of a Man Who Couldn't Play Lines on the Water: A Fisherman's Life on the Miramichi Extraordinary Canadians: Lord Beaverbrook God is.
Facing the Hunter: Reflections on a Misunderstood Way of Life "Non-Judgmental Truth: An Interview with David Adams Richards" by Craig Proctor, Blood & Aphorisms In 1971, he married the former Peggy McIntyre. They have two sons, John Thomas Richards and Anton Richards, reside in Fredericton as of December 2012. Official website Richards' item at English-Canadian writers, Aathabasca University, by Vivian Zenari. Several hyperlinks
Wayne Johnston (writer)
Wayne Johnston is a Canadian novelist. His fiction deals with the province of Newfoundland and Labrador in a historical setting. In 2011 Johnston was awarded the Writers' Trust Engel/Findley Award in recognition of his overall contribution to Canadian Literature. Johnston was born in Goulds and graduated from Memorial University of Newfoundland in 1978 with a degree in English literature, he worked for three years as a newspaper reporter with the St. John's Daily News. In 1981, he moved to Ottawa, began to pursue writing full-time, in part by graduate work, he graduated with an MA in English from the University of New Brunswick in 1984. His first novel, The Story of Bobby O'Malley—which was written while he was a graduate student—won him early critical notice, the W. H. Smith/Books in Canada First Novel Award in 1985; the novel was adapted for the stage in 2006 by J. M. Sullivan, his second novel, The Time of Their Lives, won the Air Canada/Canadian Authors Association Award for Most Promising Young Canadian Writer in 1988.
His novel The Divine Ryans won the 1991 Thomas Head Raddall Award, was subsequently adapted to the screen. Academy Award nominated actor Pete Postlethwaite starred in the 1999 movie version of The Divine Ryans - Johnston wrote the screenplay, won best screenplay in the Atlantic Film Festival and was nominated for an Actra Award. Johnston's breakthrough novel, 1998's The Colony of Unrequited Dreams - shortlisted for both the Giller Prize and the Governor General's Award for fiction - was acclaimed for its historical portrayal of legendary Newfoundland politician Joey Smallwood, it was featured on the first page of the New York Times Book Review when it was released in the United States, was an international best seller. The Colony of Unrequited Dreams won or was nominated for sixteen national and international awards, including the Commonwealth Prize and the Dublin Impac Prize, it won the New York Public Libraries Prize for Best Novel and was chosen by the Los Angeles Times as one of the Ten Best Books of the year in 1999.
It is being adapted for the screen in an American-Australian-Canadian production. The novel was chosen for the 2003 edition of CBC Radio's Canada Reads competition, where it was championed by notable politician Justin Trudeau, won the People's Choice Award. Johnston's The Custodian of Paradise, published in 2006, told the story of Sheilagh Fielding, a fictional character introduced in Colony of Unrequited Dreams. In 2002, Johnston published The Navigator of New York, a historical novel about the race by explorers to reach the North Pole. A World Elsewhere, published in 2011, was a number one Canadian best seller. Johnston was awarded the Writers' Trust Engel/Findley Award in recognition of his contribution to Canadian Literature in 2011. On April 9, 2014, Johnston was shortlisted for the Stephen Leacock Memorial Medal for Humour in Canadian Literature for his novel The Son of a Certain Woman. Johnston has published non-fiction: his Baltimore's Mansion, is a memoir about his father and grandfather.
It won the inaugural Charles Taylor Prize for literary non-fiction. Several of Johnston's books have been published in the United States, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands and China. For the spring of 2002, Johnston was the Writer-in-Residence at Hollins University in Roanoke, Virginia, he returned to Hollins University in 2004 to fill the Distinguished Chair in Creative Writing, which he held till 2009. His convocation address to the University of Alberta was subsequently published as "The Old Lost Land of Newfoundland: Family, Memory and Myth" in the Henry Kreisel Lecture Series. Johnston has delivered a number of other prominent lectures, including the John Adams lecture in Amsterdam. 1998 New York Public Libraries Prize for Best Novel for The Colony of Unrequited Dreams 1999 Winner of The Charles Taylor Prize for Baltimore's Mansion Johnston received a Doctor of Letters from the University of New Brunswick in 2003, from Memorial University of Newfoundland in 2006. The Story of Bobby O'Malley The Time of Their Lives The Divine Ryans Human Amusements The Colony of Unrequited Dreams The Navigator of New York The Custodian of Paradise A World Elsewhere The Son of a Certain Woman First Snow, Last Light Baltimore's Mansion Catechism The Montreal Canadiens Author Biography "Wayne Johnston", The Canadian Encyclopedia "Walter Johnston Interview", THE COMMENTARY.
CA, November 2006
North Vancouver (city)
The City of North Vancouver is a waterfront municipality on the north shore of Burrard Inlet, directly across from Vancouver, British Columbia. It is the smallest of the three North Shore municipalities, the most urbanized as well. Although it has significant industry of its own, including shipping, chemical production, film production, the city is considered to be a suburb of Vancouver; the city is served by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, British Columbia Ambulance Service, the North Vancouver City Fire Department. Moodyville, is the oldest settlement on Burrard Inlet, predating Vancouver. Logging came to the virgin forests of Douglas Fir in North Vancouver, as sailing ships called in to load. A water-powered sawmill was set up in the 1860s by Sewell Moody. Subsequently, post offices, schools and a village sprang up. In time, the municipality of North Vancouver was incorporated in 1891. In the 1880s, Arthur Heywood-Lonsdale and a relation James Pemberton Fell, made substantial investments through their company, Lonsdale Estates, in 1882 he financed the Moodyville investments.
Several locations in the North Vancouver area are named after his family. The cost of developing the raw mountainous terrain was high and the ocean foreshore was swamp; the distances and streams that swelled in to destructive debris torrents with the annual snow melt and heavy rainfall washed out the many bridges that were required. Not long after the District was formed, an early land developer and second reeve of the new council, James Cooper Keith underwrote a loan to commence construction of a road which undulated from West Vancouver to Deep Cove amid the slashed sidehills and burnt stumps; the road, sometimes under different names and not always contiguous, is still one of the most important east-west thoroughfare carrying traffic across the North Shore. Development was slow at the outset; the population of the District in the 1901 census was only 365 people. Keith joined Edwin Mahon and together they controlled North Vancouver Land & Improvement Company. Soon the pace of development around the foot of Lonsdale began to pick up.
The first school was opened in 1902. The District was able to build a municipal hall in 1903 and have meetings in North Vancouver; the first bank and first newspaper arrived in 1905. In 1906 the BC Electric Railway Company opened up a street car line that extended from the ferry wharf up Lonsdale to 12th Street. By 1911 the streetcar system extended east to Lynn Valley; the owners of businesses who operated on Lonsdale, as part of an initiative lead by Keith and Mahon, brought a petition to District Council in 1905 calling for a new, compact city to be carved out of the unwieldy district. During the ensuing two years there was sometimes heated debate; some thought the new City should have a new name such as Hillmont or Parkhill. Burrard became the favourite of the new names but majority view was that North Vancouver remain in order to remain associated with the rising credibility of Vancouver in financial markets and as a place to attract immigrants; some thought the boundary of the new City should reflect geography and extend from Lynn Creek or Seymour River west to the Capilano River and extend three miles up the mountainside.
That the boundary of the City which came into existence in 1907 just happened to match that of the lands owned by the North Vancouver Land & Improvement Company and Lonsdale Estate was no accident. Since the motivation for creating the City was to reserve local tax revenue for the work of putting in services for the property owned by the major developers, there was little reason to take on any of the burden beyond the extent of their holdings. Residents in west part of the District of North Vancouver now had less reason to be connected with what remained and they petitioned to create the District of West Vancouver in 1912; the eastern boundary of that new municipality is for the most part the Capilano River and a community, distinguished from the two North Vancouvers has since developed. The City of North Vancouver continued to grow around the foot of Lonsdale Avenue. Serviced by the North Vancouver Ferries, it proved a popular area. Commuters used the ferries to work in Vancouver. Street cars and early land speculation, spurred interest in the area.
Streets, city blocks and houses were built around lower Lonsdale. Wallace Shipyards, the Pacific Great Eastern Railway provided an industrial base, the late arrival of the Second Narrows railway bridge in 1925 controlled development. Sawmills and small farms continued in the interwar years, yet the nearby mountains proved to be a permanent attraction. Ski areas were set up on Mount Seymour; the North Vancouver mountains have many drainages: Capilano River, MacKay and Lynn Creeks, Seymour River. The Depression again bankrupted the city, while the Second World War turned North Vancouver into the Clydeside of Canada with a large shipbuilding program. Housing the shipyard workers provided a new building boom, which continued on through the post-war years. By that time, North Vancouver became a popular housing area; the area around lower Lonsdale Avenue features several open community spaces, including Waterfront Park, Lonsdale Quay, Ship Builders Square and the Burrard Dry Dock Pier. The City of North Vancouver is separated from Vancouver by the Burrard
Joan Thomas is a Canadian novelist and book reviewer, whose debut novel Reading By Lightning won the 2009 Commonwealth Writers' Prize for Best First Book as well as the Amazon.ca First Novel Award. Her second novel, Curiosity was nominated for the Scotiabank Giller Prize, the Margaret Laurence Award for Fiction, the McNally Robinson Book of the Year Award. Both novels were longlisted for the International IMPAC Dublin Literary Award. Thomas, based in Winnipeg worked as a freelance journalist and book reviewer for The Globe and Mail, the Winnipeg Free Press and Prairie Fire, as a book editor for Turnstone Press, she won a National Magazine Award in 1996 for her journalism. Her third novel The Opening Sky was shortlisted for the Governor General's Award for English-language fiction, the Carol Shields Book Award, the Margaret Laurence Award for Fiction, it won the McNally Robinson Book of the Year Award, was named a CBC book of the year. In 2014, Thomas was awarded the Writers' Trust Engel/Findley Award for a mid-career writer.
Reading By Lightning, 2008 Curiosity, 2010 The Opening Sky, 2014
Toronto is the provincial capital of Ontario and the most populous city in Canada, with a population of 2,731,571 in 2016. Current to 2016, the Toronto census metropolitan area, of which the majority is within the Greater Toronto Area, held a population of 5,928,040, making it Canada's most populous CMA. Toronto is the anchor of an urban agglomeration, known as the Golden Horseshoe in Southern Ontario, located on the northwestern shore of Lake Ontario. A global city, Toronto is a centre of business, finance and culture, is recognized as one of the most multicultural and cosmopolitan cities in the world. People have travelled through and inhabited the Toronto area, situated on a broad sloping plateau interspersed with rivers, deep ravines, urban forest, for more than 10,000 years. After the broadly disputed Toronto Purchase, when the Mississauga surrendered the area to the British Crown, the British established the town of York in 1793 and designated it as the capital of Upper Canada. During the War of 1812, the town was the site of the Battle of York and suffered heavy damage by United States troops.
York was incorporated in 1834 as the city of Toronto. It was designated as the capital of the province of Ontario in 1867 during Canadian Confederation; the city proper has since expanded past its original borders through both annexation and amalgamation to its current area of 630.2 km2. The diverse population of Toronto reflects its current and historical role as an important destination for immigrants to Canada. More than 50 percent of residents belong to a visible minority population group, over 200 distinct ethnic origins are represented among its inhabitants. While the majority of Torontonians speak English as their primary language, over 160 languages are spoken in the city. Toronto is a prominent centre for music, motion picture production, television production, is home to the headquarters of Canada's major national broadcast networks and media outlets, its varied cultural institutions, which include numerous museums and galleries and public events, entertainment districts, national historic sites, sports activities, attract over 25 million tourists each year.
Toronto is known for its many skyscrapers and high-rise buildings, in particular the tallest free-standing structure in the Western Hemisphere, the CN Tower. The city is home to the Toronto Stock Exchange, the headquarters of Canada's five largest banks, the headquarters of many large Canadian and multinational corporations, its economy is diversified with strengths in technology, financial services, life sciences, arts, business services, environmental innovation, food services, tourism. When Europeans first arrived at the site of present-day Toronto, the vicinity was inhabited by the Iroquois, who had displaced the Wyandot people, occupants of the region for centuries before c. 1500. The name Toronto is derived from the Iroquoian word tkaronto, meaning "place where trees stand in the water"; this refers to the northern end of what is now Lake Simcoe, where the Huron had planted tree saplings to corral fish. However, the word "Toronto", meaning "plenty" appears in a 1632 French lexicon of the Huron language, an Iroquoian language.
It appears on French maps referring to various locations, including Georgian Bay, Lake Simcoe, several rivers. A portage route from Lake Ontario to Lake Huron running through this point, known as the Toronto Carrying-Place Trail, led to widespread use of the name. In the 1660s, the Iroquois established two villages within what is today Toronto, Ganatsekwyagon on the banks of the Rouge River and Teiaiagon on the banks of the Humber River. By 1701, the Mississauga had displaced the Iroquois, who abandoned the Toronto area at the end of the Beaver Wars, with most returning to their base in present-day New York. French traders abandoned it in 1759 during the Seven Years' War; the British defeated the French and their indigenous allies in the war, the area became part of the British colony of Quebec in 1763. During the American Revolutionary War, an influx of British settlers came here as United Empire Loyalists fled for the British-controlled lands north of Lake Ontario; the Crown granted them land to compensate for their losses in the Thirteen Colonies.
The new province of Upper Canada was being needed a capital. In 1787, the British Lord Dorchester arranged for the Toronto Purchase with the Mississauga of the New Credit First Nation, thereby securing more than a quarter of a million acres of land in the Toronto area. Dorchester intended the location to be named Toronto. In 1793, Governor John Graves Simcoe established the town of York on the Toronto Purchase lands, naming it after Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany. Simcoe decided to move the Upper Canada capital from Newark to York, believing that the new site would be less vulnerable to attack by the United States; the York garrison was constructed at the entrance of the town's natural harbour, sheltered by a long sand-bar peninsula. The town's settlement formed at the eastern end of the harbour behind the peninsula, near the present-day intersection of Parliament Street and Front Street. In 1813, as part of the War of 1812, the Battle of York ended in the town's capture and plunder by United States forces.
The surrender of the town was negotiated by John Strachan. American soldiers destroyed much of the garrison and set fire to the parliament buildings during their five-day occupation; because of the sacking of York, British troops retaliated in the war with the Burning of Wa
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012