American Hockey League
The American Hockey League is a professional ice hockey league based in the United States and Canada that serves as the primary developmental league for the National Hockey League. Since the 2010–11 season, every team in the league has an affiliation agreement with one NHL team; when NHL teams do not have an AHL affiliate, players are assigned to AHL teams affiliated with other NHL teams. Twenty-seven AHL teams are located in the United States and the remaining four are in Canada; the league offices are located in Springfield and its current president is David Andrews. In general, a player must be at least 18 years of age to play in the AHL or not be beholden to a junior ice hockey team; the league limits the number of experienced professional players on a team's active roster during any given game. The AHL allows for practice squad contracts; the annual playoff champion is awarded the Calder Cup, named for Frank Calder, the first President of the NHL. The reigning champions are the Toronto Marlies.
The AHL traces its origins directly to two predecessor professional leagues: the Canadian-American Hockey League, founded in 1926, the first International Hockey League, established in 1929. Although the Can-Am League never operated with more than six teams, the departure of the Boston Bruin Cubs after the 1935–36 season reduced it down to just four member clubs – the Springfield Indians, Philadelphia Ramblers, Providence Reds, New Haven Eagles – for the first time in its history. At the same time, the then-rival IHL lost half of its eight members after the 1935–36 season leaving it with just four member teams: the Buffalo Bisons, Syracuse Stars, Pittsburgh Hornets, Cleveland Falcons. With both leagues down to the bare minimum in membership, the governors of each recognized the need for action to assure their member clubs' long-term survival, their solution was to play an interlocking schedule. While the Can-Am League was based in the Northeast and the IHL in the Great Lakes, their footprints were close enough for this to be a viable option.
The two older leagues' eight surviving clubs began joint play in November 1936 as a new two-division "circuit of mutual convenience" known as the International-American Hockey League. The four Can-Am teams became the I-AHL East Division, with the IHL quartet playing as the West Division; the IHL contributed its former championship trophy, the F. G. "Teddy" Oke Trophy, which would go to the regular-season winners of the merged league's West Division until 1952. The Oke Trophy is now awarded to the regular-season winners of the AHL's Northeast Division. A little more than a month into that first season, the balance and symmetry of the new combined circuit suffered a setback when its membership unexpectedly fell to seven teams; the West's Buffalo Bisons were forced to cease operations on December 6, 1936, after playing just 11 games, because of what proved to be insurmountable financial problems and lack of access to a suitable arena. The makeshift new I-AHL played out the rest of its first season with just seven teams.
At the end of the 1936–37 season, a modified three-round playoff format was devised and a new championship trophy, the Calder Cup, was established. The Syracuse Stars defeated the Philadelphia Ramblers in the final, three-games-to-one, to win the first-ever Calder Cup championship; the Calder Cup continues on today as the AHL's playoff championship trophy. After two seasons of interlocking play, the governors of the two leagues' seven active teams met in New York City on June 28, 1938, agreed that it was time to formally consolidate. Maurice Podoloff of New Haven, the former head of the Can-Am League, was elected the I-AHL's first president; the former IHL president, John Chick of Windsor, became vice-president in charge of officials. The new I-AHL added an eighth franchise at the 1938 meeting to fill the void in its membership left by the loss of Buffalo two years earlier with the admission of the two-time defending Eastern Amateur Hockey League champion Hershey Bears; the Bears remain the only one of these eight original I-AHL/AHL franchises to have been represented in the league without interruption since the 1938–39 season.
The newly merged circuit increased its regular-season schedule for each team by six games from 48 to 54. After the 1939–40 season the I-AHL renamed itself the American Hockey League, it enjoyed both consistent success on the ice and relative financial stability over its first three decades of operation. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, the cost of doing business in professional ice hockey began to rise with NHL expansion and relocation and the 1972 formation of the World Hockey Association, which forced the relocation and subsequent folding of the Cleveland Barons, Baltimore Clippers, Quebec Aces; the number of major-league teams competing for players rose from six to thirty in just seven years. Player salaries at all levels shot up with the increased demand and competition for their services; this did not seem to affect the AHL at first, as it expanded to 12 teams by 1970. However, to help compensate for the rise in player salaries, many NHL clubs cut back on the number of p
Derek Michael Sanderson, nicknamed "Turk", is a Canadian former professional ice hockey centre, now a financial adviser to athletes. Born in Niagara Falls, Sanderson was son of Canadian Army Private Harold A. Sanderson, Caroline Hall Gillespie from Dysart, Scotland, his older sister Karen was born while his father was serving in France in 1944. As a young boy, Sanderson took to hockey, skating countless hours on what was a half-size version of an NHL rink, his father built it, spanning two backyards of small cookie-cutter houses, on lots provided at a small price to servicemen like himself who were returning from the war. He played junior hockey in his hometown with the Niagara Falls Flyers of the Ontario Hockey Association, his time with the Flyers saw him being named to the Second All-Star Team in 1965-66, to the First All-Star Team in 1966-67 and winning the Eddie Powers Memorial Trophy as the top scorer in the OHA in 1966-67. In 1964-65, Sanderson helped the Flyers reach the Memorial Cup finals where they would face off against the Edmonton Oil Kings.
The Flyers would defeat the Oil Kings in five games to become the champions. After spending four years in the OHA, Sanderson turned pro by signing with the Boston Bruins of the National Hockey League in 1965–66, he would make his professional debut that season by playing two games with the Bruins. Sanderson played two games in the CPHL with the Oklahoma City Blazers in 1965-66, recording one goal. In 1967-68, Sanderson joined the Boston Bruins full-time in the NHL, he played in 71 games, contributing 49 points. Sanderson collected 98 PIM in his rookie season, establishing himself as a "tough guy" in the league. At season's end, Sanderson was awarded the Calder Memorial Trophy as the NHL's Rookie of the Year, an honor that Bobby Orr won the previous year, giving the Bruins their second consecutive Calder Memorial Trophy, it remains the only time in Bruins' history. Although he had been a leading scorer in junior hockey, his role on the high-scoring Bruins was to centre their defensive line with wingers Ed Westfall and Don Marcotte.
The line excelled at killing penalties. In 1969-70, the Boston Bruins made it to the Stanley Cup Finals, where they faced off against the St. Louis Blues; the series went to a fourth game where Boston was leading the best-of-seven series three games to none. After three periods, the teams were tied 3-3, the fourth game would need overtime. After only 40 seconds of overtime, Bobby Orr scored the game-winning goal clinching the Bruins' first Stanley Cup in 29 years. Bobby Orr's goal went on to become one of the most famous goals in hockey history. Overlooked though was that Sanderson was the player who passed the puck to Bobby Orr for that goal. During his time in Boston, Sanderson became a celebrity. Sanderson received much publicity for his flamboyant "mod" lifestyle as seen by his owning a Rolls-Royce car. Named by Cosmopolitan Magazine as one of the sexiest men in America, he was the subject of gossip columns, a frequent guest on television talk shows, photographed in the company of numerous beautiful women.
Sanderson would help the Bruins finish first in the league the next two seasons. He helped the Bruins win the Stanley Cup in 1971-72 against the New York Rangers. Renowned for his excellent checking abilities, Sanderson killed penalties. Nearly half a century after his last appearance with Boston, Sanderson still holds the Bruins' team record for most career shorthanded goals in Stanley Cup playoff games with six; as of March 2019, Sanderson ranked third in Bruins' history for career shorthanded regular-season goals with 24, trailing only Brad Marchand and Rick Middleton. In the summer of 1972, Sanderson made headlines around the world of sports when he signed what was the richest contract in professional sports history; the Philadelphia Blazers of the rival league World Hockey Association signed Sanderson to a $2.6 million contract, making him the highest-paid athlete in the world at the time. His time with the Blazers was disastrous, as, plagued with injuries, Sanderson appeared in only eight games, recording six points.
The Blazers management team had had enough and at the end of the season, Sanderson was paid $1 million to return to the Bruins. After being kicked off the Blazers' roster, Sanderson played with the Bruins for two seasons, in which he suited up for only 54 games out of a possible 156; the Bruins, seeing no future for Sanderson, sent him down to the American Hockey League with the Boston Braves for three games before trading him to the New York Rangers in 1974-75. Meanwhile, in a distraction from his hockey career, along with New England Patriots receiver Jim Colclough, the New York Jets star football quarterback Joe Namath, Sanderson opened "Bachelors III", a trendy nightclub on New York City’s Upper East Side. Negative publicity over some of the club's less than reputable patrons led to problems and Sanderson had to get out of what went from a "goldmine" to a money-losing venture; this started a downward spiral in which Sanderson would bounce from team to team, never being able to stay with a team for more than two full seasons because of his addiction to alcohol.
Although Sanderson had a good first season with the Rangers by recording 50 points in 75 games, he was traded eight games in to the St. Louis Blues next season. In St. Louis, Sanderson set career highs in assists and points scored in a season with 43 assists and 67 points, but problems with alcohol and his recurring knee problems led Blues management to trade him in 1976-77 to the Vancouver Canucks. Struggling with his addiction to alcohol, Sanderson managed to sc
Goal (ice hockey)
In ice hockey, a goal is scored when the puck crosses the goal line between the two goal posts and below the goal crossbar. A goal awards one point to the team attacking the goal scored upon, regardless of which team the player who deflected the puck into the goal belongs to. A player on the team attempting to score shoots the puck with their stick towards the goal net opening, a player on the opposing team called a goaltender tries to block the shot to prevent a goal from being scored against their team; the term goal may refer to the structure in which goals are scored. The ice hockey goal is rectangular in shape. A net is attached to the back of the frame to catch pucks that enter the goal and to prevent pucks from entering it from behind; the entire goal is considered an inbounds area of the playing surface, it is legal to play the puck behind the goal. Under NHL rules, the opening of the goal is 72 inches wide by 48 inches tall, the footprint of the goal is 44 inches deep; the object of the game of ice hockey is to score more goals than the opposing team.
Goaltenders and defencemen are concerned with keeping the other team from scoring a goal, while forwards are concerned with scoring goals on the other team. Forwards have to be defensively responsible while defencemen need to press offensively, it is not unknown for goalies to attempt to position the puck for a counterattack, or attempt to shoot against an unguarded net. For a goal to be scored, the puck must cross the goal line between the posts and under the crossbar of the goal frame. A goal is not allowed under any of the following conditions: the puck is sent into the goal from a stick raised above the height of the crossbar the puck is intentionally kicked, batted, or thrown into the net by an attacking player; the puck breaks into two or more pieces prior to any portion of it entering the goal. Additionally, in many leagues, a goal does not count if a player from the attacking team has a skate or stick in the goal crease before the puck; the National Hockey League abolished this rule starting in the 1999-2000 season after the disputed triple-overtime goal in the 1999 Stanley Cup Finals.
Brett Hull of the Dallas Stars scored the series-clinching goal against the Buffalo Sabres. There are those. A goal may be awarded if a player would be awarded a penalty shot, but the opposing team had substituted a skater for a goaltender. I such rare cases, a goal is awarded rather than allowing a penalty shot attempt on an empty goal net; the last player on the goal-scoring team to touch the puck before it goes into the net is credited with scoring that goal. Zero, one, or two other players on the goal-scoring team may credited with an assist for helping their teammate to score the goal. If another player on the goal-scoring team touched the puck to help score the goal before the goal-scoring player touched it without an opposing player intervening that player gets an assist. If yet another player on the goal-scoring team touched the puck before that without an opposing player intervening that player gets an assist. For a hockey player, a goal or an assist credited to them is considered a point.
However, a rule says. This means one player cannot be credited with a goal and an assist for the same goal scored, it means that one player cannot be credited with two assists for the same goal scored. On a hockey team, forwards score the most goals and get the most points, although defensemen can score goals and get assists. In professional play, goaltenders only get an assist, only rarely score a goal when the opposite net is empty; the number of goals scored is a watched statistic. Each year the Rocket Richard Trophy is presented to the NHL player to have scored the most goals; the trophy is named after Maurice Richard, the first player to score 50 goals in a season, at a time when the NHL regular season was only 50 games. The player to have scored the most goals in an NHL season is Wayne Gretzky. Gretzky is the fastest to 50 goals; the overall amount of goal scoring is closely watched. In recent years, goal scoring has decreased. Many believe the game is less entertaining beca
Lakewood Cemetery is a large private, non-sectarian cemetery located in Minneapolis, United States. It is located at 3600 Hennepin Avenue at the southern end of the Uptown area, it is noted for its chapel, on the National Register of Historic Places and was modeled after the Hagia Sophia in Istanbul, Turkey. About 250 acres in size, Lakewood memorializes the dead with more than 100,000 monuments and markers. Long considered one of the most beautiful cemeteries in the country, it was modeled after the rural cemeteries of 19th-century France, such as Père-Lachaise in Paris; when Lakewood was established in 1871 rural cemeteries were becoming more popular as part of a growing trend away from churchyard burials in the heart of the city. In July 1871 Colonel William S. King, local businessman and newspaper publisher, proposed to community leaders of the city that they work together to establish a cemetery "on some of the beautiful locations out near the lakes, where the encroachments of the city would never interfere."
In August of the same year a meeting was held for establishing the Lyndale Cemetery Association. According to the minutes of the original meeting recorded by Thomas Lowry, "that after an examination of various localities they had chosen the land owned by William S. King lying between Lakes Calhoun and Harriet." Colonel King agreed to sell his land for the purpose at a cost of $21,000, "to be paid back over a year at 7 percent interest." The first trustees voted to raise $25,000 to purchase the land and make improvements at a time when the cost of a home in Minneapolis was about $500. The money was raised by selling 250 shares of stock at $100 a piece, two-thirds of, purchased by the trustees themselves; the remaining balance was sold to other local investors. In April 1872 Superintendent A. B. Barton and the board of trustees employed C. W. Folsom, Superintendent of Mount Auburn Cemetery in Cambridge, Massachusetts to develop plans for the new cemetery. In October 1872 the Association reacquired all stocks, sold to the public.
The public dedication of Lakewood was held on September 16, 1872, with "a large number of lots being selected at the close of the exercise by the citizens present." Many of the earliest lots sold in the 1870s-1880s remained unused until 1972 when they were reclaimed for resale to the public. The first person buried in Lakewood Cemetery was Maggie Menzel who died on January 24, 1872 at the age of nineteen. Architect Harry Wild Jones designed the cemetery's chapel which began construction in August 1908. Built of the finest materials, the chapel seats about 200 and is renowned for its beauty and superb acoustics; the dome is 65 feet high with 24 stained glass windows inset its full circumference. Charles R. Lamb of New York orchestrated the design of the chapel's interior mosaic artwork. Six skilled artists of Italy were enlisted to create 10 million tessellae in Venice, which were shipped to Lakewood where those same artists performed the arduous task of assembling them in the chapel's interior.
Completed in 1910, the chapel's total cost of construction was $150,000. Lakewood Chapel was added to the National Register of Historic Places on October 20, 1983. Cremation services have continued to the present day. In 1965-67 a community mausoleum and columbarium was built with enough space for over 5000 crypts and niches. One of the building's more notable features are the 24 eight-foot stained glass windows by Willet Stained Glass Studios of Philadelphia. A large reflecting pool just outside the mausoleum's east side extends toward the garden crypt area and Lakewood's historic chapel nearby. In 2012, a new Garden Mausoleum, designed by HGA Architects of Minneapolis, was opened alongside the reflecting pool, adding a further 879 crypts and 4,620 cremation niches. Since its inception in 1872 Lakewood has continued to operate as a non-profit, non-denominational cemetery providing funeral services to the public. Many Minneapolis streets and monuments bear the names of the Lakewood's original founders — Thomas Lowry, William D. Washburn, Charles M. Loring, to name a few.
The cemetery itself memorializes many notable persons, including former Vice President Hubert H. Humphrey, Civil War General Lewis A. Grant, Senator Paul Wellstone, killed in a plane crash in 2002. Albert Abdallah SR, founder of Abdallah Candies Cedric Adams and radio personality of Minnesota Buzz Arlett, American baseball player, sometimes known as the "Babe Ruth of the minor leagues." Curt Carlson, founder of Radisson Hotels H. David Dalquist, inventor of the Bundt pan, founder of Nordic Ware Ron Daws, one of three USA 1968 Mexico Olympic Marathon racers. S. Secretary of War Barton S. Hays, artist Hubert H. Humphrey, Vice President of the United States, U. S. Senator Muriel Humphrey, Second Lady of the United States, U. S. Senator Isaac Wilson Joyce, Methodist bishop William S. King, Republican U. S. Representative for Minnesota and journalist Robert Koehler, German-bor
The Summit Series, or Super Series, known at the time as the Canada–USSR Series, was an eight-game series of ice hockey between the Soviet Union and Canada, held in September 1972. It was the first competition between the Soviet national team and a Canadian team represented by professional players of the National Hockey League, known as Team Canada, it was the first international ice hockey competition for Canada after Canada had withdrawn from international ice hockey competitions in a dispute with the International Ice Hockey Federation. The series was organized with the intention to create a true best-on-best competition in the sport of ice hockey; the Soviets had become the dominant team in international competitions, which disallowed the professional players of Canada. Canada had had a long history of dominance of the sport prior to the Soviets' rise; the first four games of the series were held in the final four in Moscow. The Soviet Union surprised the Canadian team and most of the Canadian hockey media with an opening game victory, 7–3.
Many Canadian sportswriters had predicted an overwhelming victory for Canada in the series. Canada won the next game 4–1; the series resumed two weeks in Moscow. The Soviets won game five to take a three games to one series lead; the Canadians won the final three games in Moscow to win the series four games to three, with one tie. The final game was won in dramatic fashion, with the Canadians overcoming a two-goal Soviet lead after two periods; the Canadians scored three in the third, the final one scored with 34 seconds left, by Paul Henderson. The series was played during the Cold War, intense feelings of nationalism were aroused in fans in both Canada and the Soviet Union and players on the ice; the games introduced several talented Soviet players to North America, such as Alexander Yakushev, Valeri Kharlamov and goaltender Vladislav Tretiak. Team Canada, the first NHL and professional all-star team formed for international play, was led by Phil Esposito, who led the series in scoring, as well as contributing in other roles.
The Canadian line of Bobby Clarke, Ron Ellis and Henderson, not expected to start for the team, as none were yet stars, played a large role in the Canadian win with Henderson scoring the game-winning goal in each of games six through eight. The series was filled with controversy, starting with the exclusion of top Canadian player Bobby Hull because he had signed a contract to play in the new World Hockey Association, disputes over officiating, dirty play on the part of both teams, the deliberate injury of Kharlamov by Clarke in game six. Hull had been the second leading goal-scorer in the NHL the previous season, with a knee injury forcing superstar defenceman Bobby Orr, the second leading point scorer in the league the previous season to sit out, Canada was arguably playing without two of its best three players. From the beginning of the IIHF Ice Hockey World Championships in 1920, Canada would send a senior amateur club team the previous year's Allan Cup champion, to compete as the Canadian entry.
These teams were university players, or unpaid players playing ice hockey while being employed in some other profession full-time. From the 1920s until the 1950s, Canadian amateur club teams won most of the World Championship and Olympic titles; as a career, Canadian players would play instead in the various professional hockey leagues, the best reaching the NHL. Their professional status made them ineligible to play in the World Championships or Olympics under the rules of the time; the last Canadian amateur club to win the world championship was the Trail Smoke Eaters in the 1961 championship. In the earliest days of the Soviet Union, bandy or "Russian hockey" was played, not "Canadian hockey", the Soviets did not compete in the Olympics or World Championships, which played the Canadian game. Post-World War II, a goal of the Central Committee of the Soviet Union was world supremacy in sport; the decision was made to transfer resources to the Canadian game. Starting in the 1940s, the Soviet Union started a Soviet hockey league playing the Canadian game.
The elite sports societies of the Soviet Union, such as CSKA Moscow and Spartak, soon became the elite teams of the hockey league and supplied the players for the national team. Ostensibly amateurs, paid by the government; the players had other titular professions. This preserved a player's amateur status for Olympic and World Championship eligibility and the players would have a career after their hockey playing days ended. Entering international play in 1954, the Soviet national team under the tutelage of Anatoly Tarasov started to dominate the international competitions, won nine consecutive championships in the 1960s. Canada, in response, developed a national team of its own, but Canada's best players became professionals and the national team featured university players. The Canadian team was looked upon as a failure. By 1969, the Government of Canada had formed Hockey Canada, an organization to co-ordinate Canadian international play with its amateur organizations and the NHL. In July 1969, on a trial basis
Waterloo is a city in Ontario, Canada. It is the smallest of three cities in the Regional Municipality of Waterloo, is adjacent to the city of Kitchener. Kitchener and Waterloo are jointly referred to as "Kitchener–Waterloo", "KW", or the "Twin Cities". While there were several unsuccessful attempts to combine the cities of Kitchener and Waterloo, following the 1973 establishment of the Region of Waterloo there was less motivation to do so. At the time of the 2016 census, the population of Waterloo was 104,986. Waterloo started on land, part of a parcel of 675,000 acres assigned in 1784 to the Iroquois alliance that made up the League of Six Nations; the rare gift of land from Britain to indigenous people took place to compensate for wartime alliance during the American Revolution. Immediately—and with much controversy—the native groups began to sell some of the land. Between 1796 and 1798, 93,000 acres were sold through a Crown Grant to Richard Beasley, with the Six Nations Indians continuing to hold the mortgage on the lands.
The first wave of immigrants to the area comprised Mennonites from Pennsylvania. They bought deeds to land parcels from Beasley and began moving into the area in 1804; the following year, a group of 26 Mennonites pooled resources to purchase all of the unsold land from Beasley and to discharge the mortgage held by the Six Nations Indians. Many of the pioneers arriving from Pennsylvania after November 1803 bought land in a 60,000 acre section of Block Two from the German Company, established by a group of Mennonites from Lancaster County, Pennsylvania; the Tract included most of Block 2 of the previous Grand River Indian Lands. Many of the first farms were least four hundred acres in size; the German Company, represented by Daniel Erb and Samuel Bricker, had acquired the land from previous owner Richard Beasley. The payment to Beasly, in cash, arrived from Pennsylvania in kegs, carried in a wagon surrounded by armed guards; the Mennonites divided the land into smaller lots. Erb called the founder of Waterloo, had come to the area in 1806 from Franklin County, Pennsylvania.
He bought 900 acres of bush land in 1806 from the German Company and founded a sawmill and grist mill. The grist mill operated continuously for 111 years. Other early settlers of what would become Waterloo included Samuel and Elia Schneider who arrived in 1816; until about 1820, settlements such as this were quite small. In 1816 the new township was named after Waterloo, the site of the Battle of Waterloo, which had ended the Napoleonic Wars in Europe. After that war, the new township became a popular destination for German immigrants. By the 1840s, German settlers had overtaken the Mennonites as the dominant segment of the population. Many Germans settled in the small hamlet to the southeast of Waterloo. In their honour, the village was named Berlin in 1833. By 1831, Waterloo had a small post office in the King and Erb Street area, operated by Daniel Snyder, some 11 years before one would open in neighbouring Berlin; the Smith's Canadian Gazetteer of 1846 states that the Township of Waterloo consisted of Pennsylvanian Mennonites and immigrants directly from Germany who had brought money with them.
At the time, many did not speak English. There were eight grist and twenty saw mills in the township. In 1841, the population count was 4424. In 1846 the village of Waterloo had a population of 200, "mostly Germans". There was a sawmill and some tradesmen. By comparison, Berlin had a population of about 400 "mostly German", more tradesmen than the village of Waterloo."Berlin was chosen as the site of the seat for the County of Waterloo in 1853. By 1869, the population was 2000. Waterloo was incorporated as a village in 1857 and became the Town of Waterloo in 1876 and the City of Waterloo in 1948. In 2016, a corduroy road was unearthed in the King St. area of the business district. The road was built by Mennonites using technology acquired in Lancaster County Pennsylvania, between the late 1790s and 1816; the log road was buried in about 1840 and a new road built on top of it. Waterloo's city centre is located near the intersection of Erb streets. Since 1961, the centrepiece has been the Waterloo Town Square shopping centre, which underwent a thorough renovation in 2006.
Much of the mall was torn down and has been replaced by buildings that emphasize street-facing storefronts. Residents refer to the Waterloo city centre as "uptown", while "downtown" is reserved for the Kitchener city centre, as Kitchener had been the dominant centre, Waterloo was a small town on the Kitchener's north side. Waterloo surged into a significant City in the third-quarter of the 20th Century, due in large part to its role as a university city, it has benefited with the growth of Insurance companies. Waterloo has prospered with the relationship between the Tech Sector, which has blossomed, the University of Waterloo whose technology graduates have excelled. Blackberry Research In Motion, is the best example; the city centre was once along Albert Street, near the Marsland Centre and the Waterloo Public Library. The town hall, fire hall, farmers' market were located there. Amidst some controversy, all were demolished
Ice hockey is a contact team sport played on ice in a rink, in which two teams of skaters use their sticks to shoot a vulcanized rubber puck into their opponent's net to score points. The sport is known to be fast-paced and physical, with teams consisting of six players each: one goaltender, five players who skate up and down the ice trying to take the puck and score a goal against the opposing team. Ice hockey is most popular in Canada and eastern Europe, the Nordic countries and the United States. Ice hockey is the official national winter sport of Canada. In addition, ice hockey is the most popular winter sport in Belarus, the Czech Republic, Latvia, Slovakia and Switzerland. North America's National Hockey League is the highest level for men's ice hockey and the strongest professional ice hockey league in the world; the Kontinental Hockey League is much of Eastern Europe. The International Ice Hockey Federation is the formal governing body for international ice hockey, with the IIHF managing international tournaments and maintaining the IIHF World Ranking.
Worldwide, there are ice hockey federations in 76 countries. In Canada, the United States, Nordic countries, some other European countries the sport is known as hockey. Ice hockey is believed to have evolved from simple stick and ball games played in the 18th and 19th century United Kingdom and elsewhere; these games were brought to North America and several similar winter games using informal rules as they were developed, such as "shinny" and "ice polo". The contemporary sport of ice hockey was developed in Canada, most notably in Montreal, where the first indoor hockey game was played on March 3, 1875; some characteristics of that game, such as the length of the ice rink and the use of a puck, have been retained to this day. Amateur ice hockey leagues began in the 1880s, professional ice hockey originated around 1900; the Stanley Cup, emblematic of ice hockey club supremacy, was first awarded in 1893 to recognize the Canadian amateur champion and became the championship trophy of the NHL. In the early 1900s, the Canadian rules were adopted by the Ligue Internationale de Hockey sur Glace, the precursor of the IIHF and the sport was played for the first time at the Olympics during the 1920 Summer Olympics.
In international competitions, the national teams of six countries predominate: Canada, Czech Republic, Russia and the United States. Of the 69 medals awarded all-time in men's competition at the Olympics, only seven medals were not awarded to one of those countries. In the annual Ice Hockey World Championships, 177 of 201 medals have been awarded to the six nations. Teams outside the "Big Six" have won only five medals in either competition since 1953; the World Cup of Hockey is organized by the National Hockey League and the National Hockey League Players' Association, unlike the annual World Championships and quadrennial Olympic tournament, both run by the International Ice Hockey Federation. World Cup games are played under NHL rules and not those of the IIHF, the tournament occurs prior to the NHL pre-season, allowing for all NHL players to be available, unlike the World Championships, which overlaps with the NHL's Stanley Cup playoffs. Furthermore, all 12 Women's Olympic and 36 IIHF World Women's Championships medals were awarded to one of these six countries.
The Canadian national team or the United States national team have between them won every gold medal of either series. In England, field hockey has been called "hockey" and what was referenced by first appearances in print; the first known mention spelled as "hockey" occurred in the 1773 book Juvenile Sports and Pastimes, to Which Are Prefixed, Memoirs of the Author: Including a New Mode of Infant Education, by Richard Johnson, whose chapter XI was titled "New Improvements on the Game of Hockey". The 1573 Statute of Galway banned a sport called "'hokie'—the hurling of a little ball with sticks or staves". A form of this word was thus being used in the 16th century, though much removed from its current usage; the belief that hockey was mentioned in a 1363 proclamation by King Edward III of England is based on modern translations of the proclamation, in Latin and explicitly forbade the games "Pilam Manualem, Pedivam, & Bacularem: & ad Canibucam & Gallorum Pugnam". The English historian and biographer John Strype did not use the word "hockey" when he translated the proclamation in 1720, instead translating "Canibucam" as "Cambuck".
According to the Austin Hockey Association, the word "puck" derives from the Scottish Gaelic puc or the Irish poc. "... The blow given by a hurler to the ball with his camán or hurley is always called a puck." Stick-and-ball games date back to pre-Christian times. In Europe, these games included the Irish game of hurling, the related Scottish game of shinty and versions of field hockey. IJscolf, a game resembling colf on an ice-covered surface, was popular in the Low Countries between the Middle Ages and the Dutch Golden Age, it was played with a wooden curved bat, a wooden or leather ball and two poles, with t