A barrister is a type of lawyer in common law jurisdictions. Barristers specialise in courtroom advocacy and litigation, their tasks include taking cases in superior courts and tribunals, drafting legal pleadings, researching the philosophy and history of law, giving expert legal opinions. Barristers are recognised as legal scholars. Barristers are distinguished from solicitors, who have more direct access to clients, may do transactional-type legal work, it is barristers who are appointed as judges, they are hired by clients directly. In some legal systems, including those of Scotland, South Africa, Pakistan, India and the British Crown dependencies of Jersey and the Isle of Man, the word barrister is regarded as an honorific title. In a few jurisdictions, barristers are forbidden from "conducting" litigation, can only act on the instructions of a solicitor, who performs tasks such as corresponding with parties and the court, drafting court documents. In England and Wales, barristers may seek authorisation from the Bar Standards Board to conduct litigation.
This allows a barrister to practise in a'dual capacity', fulfilling the role of both barrister and solicitor. In some countries with common law legal systems, such as New Zealand and some regions of Australia, lawyers are entitled to practise both as barristers and solicitors, but it remains a separate system of qualification to practise as a barrister. A barrister, who can be considered as a jurist, is a lawyer who represents a litigant as advocate before a court of appropriate jurisdiction. A barrister presents the case before a judge or jury. In some jurisdictions, a barrister receives additional training in evidence law and court practice and procedure. In contrast, a solicitor meets with clients, does preparatory and administrative work and provides legal advice. In this role, he or she may draft and review legal documents, interact with the client as necessary, prepare evidence, manage the day-to-day administration of a lawsuit. A solicitor can provide a crucial support role to a barrister when in court, such as managing large volumes of documents in the case or negotiating a settlement outside the courtroom while the trial continues inside.
There are other essential differences. A barrister will have rights of audience in the higher courts, whereas other legal professionals will have more limited access, or will need to acquire additional qualifications to have such access; as in common law countries in which there is a split between the roles of barrister and solicitor, the barrister in civil law jurisdictions is responsible for appearing in trials or pleading cases before the courts. Barristers have particular knowledge of case law and the skills to "build" a case; when a solicitor in general practice is confronted with an unusual point of law, they may seek the "opinion of counsel" on the issue. In most countries, barristers operate as sole practitioners, are prohibited from forming partnerships or from working as a barrister as part of a corporation. However, barristers band together into "chambers" to share clerks and operating expenses; some chambers grow to be large and sophisticated, have a distinctly corporate feel. In some jurisdictions, they may be employed by firms of solicitors, banks, or corporations as in-house legal advisers.
In contrast and attorneys work directly with the clients and are responsible for engaging a barrister with the appropriate expertise for the case. Barristers have little or no direct contact with their'lay clients' without the presence or involvement of the solicitor. All correspondence, invoices, so on, will be addressed to the solicitor, responsible for the barrister's fees. In court, barristers are visibly distinguished from solicitors by their apparel. For example, in Ireland and Wales, a barrister wears a horsehair wig, stiff collar, a gown. Since January 2008, solicitor advocates have been entitled to wear wigs, but wear different gowns. In many countries the traditional divisions between barristers and solicitors are breaking down. Barristers once enjoyed a monopoly on appearances before the higher courts, but in Great Britain this has now been abolished, solicitor advocates can appear for clients at trial. Firms of solicitors are keeping the most advanced advisory and litigation work in-house for economic and client relationship reasons.
The prohibition on barristers taking instructions directly from the public has been abolished. But, in practice, direct instruction is still a rarity in most jurisdictions because barristers with narrow specializations, or who are only trained for advocacy, are not prepared to provide general advice to members of the public. Barristers have had a major role in trial preparation, including drafting pleadings and reviewing evidence. In some areas of law, still the case. In other areas, it is common for the barrister to receive the brief from the instructing solicitor to represent a client at trial only a day or two before the proceeding. Part of the reason for this is cost. A barrister is entitled to a'brief fee' when a brief is delivered, this represents the bulk of her/his fee in relation to any trial, they are usually entitled to a'refresher' for each day of the trial after the first. But if a case is settled before the trial, the barrister is not needed and the brief fee would be wast
Midland Avenue Collegiate Institute
Midland Avenue Collegiate Institute is a Toronto District School Board-owned alternative learning complex in Scarborough, Canada as the Midland Avenue Learning Centre consisting of Scarborough Centre for Alternative Studies, South East Year Round Alternative Centre, Caring and Safe Schools Midland program. A regular public high school, it opened in 1962 for the Scarborough Board of Education until its closure in 2000 due to low enrolment. Midland's motto is Semper ad Optimum which transliterates to "Always strive for the best". Named Midland Avenue Secondary School, the school facility laid its cornerstone in 1959 with a time capsule was buried at that time. Built in 1961 on 13 acres behind the railway line, the school was designed by an architectural firm Craig, Madill and Ingleson, it opened its doors in September 4, 1962 under its first principal James Hamilton as Scarborough's eighth collegiate and the first composite secondary school. Aside from Cedarbrae Secondary School as the first trade-academic institution, Midland Avenue Secondary opened for students in the area who attended many secondary schools surrounding it such as Agincourt, R. H. King, Churchill, W. A. Porter and Thomson Collegiates.
Midland Avenue Secondary was itself renamed to Midland Avenue Collegiate Institute in 1965. The sections of the original building such as the commercial and technical wing was added along with the swimming pool built in 1963 and 1964 as well as the library in 1974. During the 1980s, Midland experienced a sharp shift due to an overall lower birth rate of the overall population as with most schools in the Toronto area; the school body had undergone a demographic shift from an influx of new immigration to the nearby area since the early 1990s. This was accompanied and complicated by a drop in attendance from students who lived in the area, who starting in the mid-1980s chose to go other schools in the areaIn 1988, Midland was risking closure as hundreds of students and teachers jammed the meeting in protest. Trustees were scrambling to find a place to put Scarborough Centre for Alternative Studies to that location SBE has decided to transfer the adult school because it didn't want to part with an ordinary high school due to nearby Tabor Park Vocational School was handed over to the Metropolitan Separate School Board by July 1989.
The reason given was that enrolment at Midland was declining as projections up to 1996 showed that about 740 students attended the school. Several incidents happened at Midland such as two female students accused a group of boys of molesting and threatening them in 1990. Meanwhile, in April or May 1994, a student tipped the school administration to a hidden cache of knives and high-powered ammunition and stated that there was a fight planned. Police seized a kitchen knife and an army combat knife. Two teenagers were placed under arrest; the province defunded the adult day school at Midland Avenue in 1999. The time capsule was opened by Nadine Segal, the principal, in 2000; when Scarborough became a part of Toronto in 1998, the Scarborough Board of Education became part of the new, but one of the largest boards on the continent, the Toronto District School Board. Changes in the new funding structure caused the creation of a short-list of 138 schools in Toronto proposed to be closed; the list was a reaction to a creation of a funding formula based on students per square footage of the school, which prompted debate over the issue rather than the actual closure of the schools.
Since the physical building was large with a good state of repair, the population was smaller, it was placed high on the list. This became justification for closing the school; the closing can be summed up due to a School Trustee who did not support the teachers and residents' wishes, a lack of civic participation, a lack of knowledge and participation of new immigrants. According to principal Nadine Seagal, the TDSB argued that since Midland Avenue was under-utilized, with only 650 students in the 216,521-square-foot campus that can hold up to 1,358 students, it should be closed. Staff and students advocated for the school to remain open; as an ultimate consequence, the school was permanently closed at the end of June 2000. The Toronto Catholic District School Board, attempted to consolidate Jean Vanier Catholic Secondary School and Blessed Cardinal Newman Catholic High School at Midland, but it was never materialized; the Midland Avenue C. I. attendance area was reassigned to David and Mary Thomson Collegiate Institute, R. H. King Academy, Winston Churchill Collegiate Institute, SATEC @ W. A. Porter Collegiate Institute and Birchmount Park Collegiate Institute.
Following the closure, in 2001, Midland operated for quite a number of years as the Bond Education Group, a private school leasing the facility from the Toronto District School Board. While public tax dollars goes to education and upkeep of local schools, the public is unaware and not kept informed of what happens to public properties like school buildings, once a school is closed. While many might have thought the building was outright sold, it seems as if it was just leased to the Bond Education Group a ten-year lease. By the end of June 2010, Bond was relocated at 1500 Birchmount Rd; the Toronto District School Board reoccupied parts of building beginning in 2005, establishing South East Year Round Alternative
Brian Raymond Tamaki heads Destiny Church, a Pentecostal Christian organisation in New Zealand which advocates strict adherence to fundamentalist biblical morality, is notable for its position against homosexuality, its patriarchal views and for its calls for a return to biblical conservative family values and morals. In his autobiography Bishop Brian Tamaki: More than meets the eye, Tamaki describes his early life: Born in Te Awamutu in the Waikato region as the eldest in a family of five, Tamaki spent his childhood years on the family farm, called "Te Manuka", in the rural area of Te Kopua, his devoutly religious mother took her sons to the Te Awamutu Methodist Church on Sundays. Tamaki describes his father as an alcoholic. During Tamaki's childhood the family moved from the farm to Te Awamutu and on to Tokoroa in 1970. While in Tokoroa Tamaki became interested in rugby union and a little came to enjoy pig-hunting and participating in a rock-band playing the pub circuit. Two of Tamaki's brothers and Mike, are well-known tourism venture operators in Rotorua.
Tamaki dropped out of secondary school at fifteen, before completing the fourth form and took a labour job in the forestry industry. In his teens he impregnated Hannah Lee and the unwed couple moved to Te Awamutu, where Tamaki worked on a dairy farm owned by his uncle and aunt. Tamaki and Lee had their first child, Jasmine, in December 1978. At 21, Tamaki joined the Ngaruawahia Apostolic Church, he lost his farm job and he and Lee returned to Tokoroa, where he attended the Tokoroa Apostolic Church. Tamaki became involved with the church after pastor Manuel Renata baptised him in December 1979. Since Tamaki and his partner had not married, Renata would not allow him to carry out all the functions of the church. Tamaki and Lee married at the Tokoroa Presbyterian Church on 22 March 1980. Fourteen months they had their second child, a girl named Jamie. In 1982 the Tamakis attended the Apostolic Church's Te Nikau Bible College in Paraparaumu, had their third child, Samuel. Tamaki became an ordained elder, a pastor in the Tokoroa Apostolic Church.
Tamaki went on to establish the Rosetown Community Church in Te Awamutu, the Lake City Church in Rotorua, City Church and Destiny Church in Auckland. On 18 June 2005 kaumatua and Destiny Pastor Manuel Renata ordained Tamaki as bishop of the Destiny Church movement. Tamaki advocates prosperity theology. In mid-April 2018, it was reported that Tamaki had sustained two second-degree burns to his face and body after a botched attempt to burn rubbish. Tamaki announced to members of his congregation that he was recovering and praised his wife and hospital staff for aiding his recovery. In 2003 several members of the Destiny Church started the Destiny New Zealand political party, led by Richard Lewis; the party ran candidates in most electorates in the 2005 general election, but garnered less than 1 percent of the vote – well short of the 5 percent threshold required to enter Parliament without winning an electorate seat. Destiny New Zealand was promoted by a nationwide tour and DVD labelled "A Nation Under Siege".
Tamaki accompanied the tour. The DVD shows Tamaki decrying what he sees as four problems with New Zealand society: "a Government gone evil, a radical homosexual agenda, the media: a modern day witchcraft" and "the retreat of religion in New Zealand". In 2004, Tamaki predicted the Destiny Church would be "ruling the nation" before its tenth anniversary in 2008. Destiny Church claimed a close relationship with New Birth Missionary Baptist Church in Atlanta, USA, the church of Bishop Eddie Long, until at least September 2010. In his autobiography Tamaki wrote a chapter titled "Spiritual Father – a long time coming", in which he described meeting "my spiritual father", Eddie Long, in 2002. In October 2003, Long travelled to New Zealand after Tamaki invited him to address Destiny Church members. Tamaki wrote, "... the ease of our connection and the confirmation of a date was in line with Kingdom principle – when God speaks, do it". Long travelled to New Zealand again subsequently and Tamaki met him each year at church conferences.
At the Nelson meeting of the Destiny New Zealand "A Nation Under Siege" tour, Tamaki attacked the media, the government, the Green Party and Grey Power, referring to the Greens as "pagans", Grey Power as "self centred" and the media as "modern day witchcraft". In 2004 the Sunday Star-Times reported that Mr Tamaki "hijacked" $450,000 from elderly couple Barry and Marian Wilson; the Wilsons lent the money, which they had received from the sale of nautical clothing label Line7 in the mid-'90s, on the understanding that it was to be used to purchase a block of land in Rotorua for the construction of a church. It was reported that after 10 years and countless attempts to contact Mr Tamaki and his wife Hannah, the Wilsons had given up hope of recovering the full amount; the Sunday Star-Times asked Mr Tamaki for a response to a series of questions regarding the loan, but he declined to respond. In 2004 Sunday broadcast a documentary of the Destiny Church. Dr Philip Culbertson of the University of Auckland said: "As far as I can tell it's a cult".
In July 2005 Tamaki had directed "highly offensive abuse" at Newstalk ZB host Mike Yardley while off-air during an interview on 20 July. In his autobiography Tamaki denies. In May 2006 a poll ranked Tamaki the least-trusted of 75 prominent New Zealanders. In June 2006 Tamaki expressed opposition to Sue Bradford's private members Child Discipline Bill, which removed the legal defence of "reasonable force" for p
Toronto is the provincial capital of Ontario and the most populous city in Canada, with a population of 2,731,571 in 2016. Current to 2016, the Toronto census metropolitan area, of which the majority is within the Greater Toronto Area, held a population of 5,928,040, making it Canada's most populous CMA. Toronto is the anchor of an urban agglomeration, known as the Golden Horseshoe in Southern Ontario, located on the northwestern shore of Lake Ontario. A global city, Toronto is a centre of business, finance and culture, is recognized as one of the most multicultural and cosmopolitan cities in the world. People have travelled through and inhabited the Toronto area, situated on a broad sloping plateau interspersed with rivers, deep ravines, urban forest, for more than 10,000 years. After the broadly disputed Toronto Purchase, when the Mississauga surrendered the area to the British Crown, the British established the town of York in 1793 and designated it as the capital of Upper Canada. During the War of 1812, the town was the site of the Battle of York and suffered heavy damage by United States troops.
York was incorporated in 1834 as the city of Toronto. It was designated as the capital of the province of Ontario in 1867 during Canadian Confederation; the city proper has since expanded past its original borders through both annexation and amalgamation to its current area of 630.2 km2. The diverse population of Toronto reflects its current and historical role as an important destination for immigrants to Canada. More than 50 percent of residents belong to a visible minority population group, over 200 distinct ethnic origins are represented among its inhabitants. While the majority of Torontonians speak English as their primary language, over 160 languages are spoken in the city. Toronto is a prominent centre for music, motion picture production, television production, is home to the headquarters of Canada's major national broadcast networks and media outlets, its varied cultural institutions, which include numerous museums and galleries and public events, entertainment districts, national historic sites, sports activities, attract over 25 million tourists each year.
Toronto is known for its many skyscrapers and high-rise buildings, in particular the tallest free-standing structure in the Western Hemisphere, the CN Tower. The city is home to the Toronto Stock Exchange, the headquarters of Canada's five largest banks, the headquarters of many large Canadian and multinational corporations, its economy is diversified with strengths in technology, financial services, life sciences, arts, business services, environmental innovation, food services, tourism. When Europeans first arrived at the site of present-day Toronto, the vicinity was inhabited by the Iroquois, who had displaced the Wyandot people, occupants of the region for centuries before c. 1500. The name Toronto is derived from the Iroquoian word tkaronto, meaning "place where trees stand in the water"; this refers to the northern end of what is now Lake Simcoe, where the Huron had planted tree saplings to corral fish. However, the word "Toronto", meaning "plenty" appears in a 1632 French lexicon of the Huron language, an Iroquoian language.
It appears on French maps referring to various locations, including Georgian Bay, Lake Simcoe, several rivers. A portage route from Lake Ontario to Lake Huron running through this point, known as the Toronto Carrying-Place Trail, led to widespread use of the name. In the 1660s, the Iroquois established two villages within what is today Toronto, Ganatsekwyagon on the banks of the Rouge River and Teiaiagon on the banks of the Humber River. By 1701, the Mississauga had displaced the Iroquois, who abandoned the Toronto area at the end of the Beaver Wars, with most returning to their base in present-day New York. French traders abandoned it in 1759 during the Seven Years' War; the British defeated the French and their indigenous allies in the war, the area became part of the British colony of Quebec in 1763. During the American Revolutionary War, an influx of British settlers came here as United Empire Loyalists fled for the British-controlled lands north of Lake Ontario; the Crown granted them land to compensate for their losses in the Thirteen Colonies.
The new province of Upper Canada was being needed a capital. In 1787, the British Lord Dorchester arranged for the Toronto Purchase with the Mississauga of the New Credit First Nation, thereby securing more than a quarter of a million acres of land in the Toronto area. Dorchester intended the location to be named Toronto. In 1793, Governor John Graves Simcoe established the town of York on the Toronto Purchase lands, naming it after Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany. Simcoe decided to move the Upper Canada capital from Newark to York, believing that the new site would be less vulnerable to attack by the United States; the York garrison was constructed at the entrance of the town's natural harbour, sheltered by a long sand-bar peninsula. The town's settlement formed at the eastern end of the harbour behind the peninsula, near the present-day intersection of Parliament Street and Front Street. In 1813, as part of the War of 1812, the Battle of York ended in the town's capture and plunder by United States forces.
The surrender of the town was negotiated by John Strachan. American soldiers destroyed much of the garrison and set fire to the parliament buildings during their five-day occupation; because of the sacking of York, British troops retaliated in the war with the Burning of Wa
Christian fundamentalism began in the late 19th and early 20th centuries among British and American Protestants as a reaction to theological liberalism and cultural modernism. Fundamentalists argued that 19th-century modernist theologians had misinterpreted or rejected certain doctrines biblical inerrancy, that they viewed as the fundamentals of the Christian faith. Fundamentalists are always described as having a literal interpretation of the Bible. A few scholars label Catholics who reject modern theology in favor of more traditional doctrines as fundamentalists. Scholars debate. In keeping with traditional Christian doctrines concerning biblical interpretation, the role Jesus plays in the Bible, the role of the church in society, fundamentalists believe in a core of Christian beliefs that include the historical accuracy of the Bible and all its events as well as the Second Coming of Jesus Christ. Interpretations of Christian fundamentalism have changed over time. Fundamentalism as a movement manifested in various denominations with various theologies, rather than a single denomination or systematic theology.
It became active in the 1910s after the release of The Fundamentals, a twelve-volume set of essays and polemic, written by conservative Protestant theologians to defend what they saw as Protestant orthodoxy. The movement became more organized in the 1920s within U. S. Protestant churches Baptist and Presbyterian ones. Many such churches adopted a "fighting style" and combined Princeton theology with Dispensationalism. Since 1930, many fundamentalist churches have been represented by the Independent Fundamental Churches of America, which holds to biblical inerrancy; the term fundamentalism was coined by Baptist editor Curtis Lee Laws in 1920 to designate Protestants who were ready "to do battle royal for the fundamentals". The term was adopted by all sides. Laws borrowed it from the title of a series of essays published between 1910 and 1915 called The Fundamentals: A Testimony to the Truth; the term "fundamentalism" entered the English language in 1922, it is capitalized when it is used to refer to the religious movement.
The term fundamentalist is controversial in the 21st century, because it can carry the connotation of religious extremism when such labeling is applied beyond the movement which coined the term or beyond those who self-identify as fundamentalists today. Some who hold certain, but not all beliefs in common with the original fundamentalist movement reject the label "fundamentalism", seeing it as too pejorative, while to others it has become a banner of pride; such Christians prefer to use the term fundamental, as opposed to fundamentalist. The term is sometimes confused with Christian legalism. In parts of the United Kingdom, using the term fundamentalist with the intent to stir up religious hatred is a violation of the Racial and Religious Hatred Act of 2006. Fundamentalism came from multiple streams in British and American theologies during the 19th century. According to authors Robert D. Woodberry and Christian S. Smith, Following the Civil War, tensions developed between Northern evangelical leaders over Darwinism and higher biblical criticism.
Modernists attempted to update Christianity to match their view of science. They denied biblical miracles and argued that God manifests himself through the social evolution of society. Conservatives resisted these changes; these latent tensions erupted to the surface after World War I in what came to be called the fundamentalist/modernist split. However, the split does not mean that there were just two groups and fundamentalists. There were people who considered themselves neo-evangelicals, separating themselves from the extreme components of fundamentalism; these neo-evangelicals wanted to separate themselves from both the fundamentalist movement and the mainstream evangelical movement due to their anti-intellectual approaches. The first important stream was Evangelicalism as it emerged in the revivals of the First and Second Great Awakenings in America and the Methodist movement in England in the period from 1730–1840, they in turn had been influenced by the Pietist movement in Germany. Church historian Randall Balmer explains that: Evangelicalism itself, I believe, is a quintessentially North American phenomenon, deriving as it did from the confluence of Pietism and the vestiges of Puritanism.
Evangelicalism picked up the peculiar characteristics from each strain – warmhearted spirituality from the Pietists, doctrinal precisionism from the Presbyterians, individualistic introspection from the Puritans – as the North American context itself has profoundly shaped the various manifestations of evangelicalism: fundamentalism, neo-evangelicalism, the holiness movement, the charismatic movement, various forms of African-American and Hispanic evangelicalism. A second stream was Dispensationalism, a new interpretation of the Bible developed in the 1830s in England. John Nelson Darby's ideas were disseminated by the notes and commentaries in the used Scofield Reference Bible, published in 1909. Dispensationalism was a millenarian theory that divided all of time into seven different stages, called "dispensations", which were seen as stages of God's revelation. At the end of each stage, according to this theory, God punished the particular peoples who were involved in each dispensation for their failure to fulfill the requirements which they were under during its duration.
Trinity College, Toronto
Trinity College is a college of the University of Toronto, founded in 1851 by Bishop John Strachan. Trinity was intended by Strachan as a college of strong Anglican alignment, after the University of Toronto severed its ties with the Church of England. In 1904, Trinity joined the university as a member of its collegiate federation. Trinity College consists of a secular undergraduate section and a postgraduate divinity school, part of the Toronto School of Theology. Through its diploma granting authority in the field of Divinity, Trinity maintains official university status. Reflecting its English heritage, the college emulates Oxbridge traditions such as the wearing of gowns at dinner, a chapel choir that includes choral scholars, college scarves and blazers. Bishop John Strachan, an Anglican priest and Archdeacon of York, received a royal charter from King George IV in 1827 to establish King's College in Upper Canada; the colonial college was controlled by the Church of England and members of the elite Family Compact.
In 1849, over strong opposition from Strachan, Reformists took control of the college and secularized it to become the University of Toronto. Incensed by this decision, Strachan began raising funds for the creation of Trinity College, a private institution based on strong Anglican lines. Working with Kivas Tully, Charles Barry Cleveland superintended many of their important architectural works in eastern Canada including the Trinity College campus at the University of Toronto; the building featured Gothic Revival design. The cornerstone was laid on April 30, 1851. Trinity was incorporated as an independent university on August 2, 1851, a charter was granted by Queen Victoria the following year; the Cameron property on Queen Street in western Toronto was purchased for £2,000, the college opened to students at the site on January 15, 1852. Beginning in 1837, representatives of the United Church of England and Ireland in Upper Canada met with the Society for Propagation of the Gospel to solicit support for fellowships to enable the education of local clergy.
With a guarantee of support, in 1841 Bishop Strachan requested his chaplains, the Rev. Henry James Grasett and the Rev. Henry Scadding of St. James' Cathedral, the Rev. Alexander Neil Bethune Rector of Cobourg, to prepare a plan for a systematic course in theology for those to be admitted to Holy Orders. On January 10, 1842 the first lecture was given at the Diocesan Theological Institute in Cobourg. In 1852, teaching was transferred to Toronto in the new Faculty of Divinity at Trinity College. Trinity College absorbed the Diocesan Theological Institute in Cobourg in 1852. Trinity College expanded its teaching beyond arts and divinity, by the end of the 19th century its scope had included medicine, music and dentistry; the college admitted its first female students in 1884, St. Hilda's College was created in 1888 as the women's college of Trinity. With Strachan's death in 1867, efforts could begin to unite Trinity College with the University of Toronto. After taking office in 1900, provost Thomas C. S. Macklem supported joining the college with the University of Toronto.
The matter became hotly contested when Trinity's medical faculty merged with the University of Toronto Faculty of Medicine in 1903. After what Macklem described as a "long-drawn and bitter" series of debates, the college voted 121 to 73 in favour of federation with the University of Toronto; the university made a concession to allow Trinity to administer its own examination in religious subjects, which required the university to remove the restriction from its governing charter. On October 1, 1904, Trinity became part of the University of Toronto and relinquished to the university its authority to grant degrees in subjects other than theology, it became clear that the relocation of Trinity closer to the university was necessary, the college abandoned plans for a northward expansion at its Queen Street site. The college acquired its present property near Queen's Park at the university grounds in 1913, but construction of the new college buildings, modeled after the original buildings by Kivas Tully, was not completed until 1925 due to World War I.
The former site of the college became Trinity Bellwoods Park. Towards the end of the 20th century, the place of longstanding institutions and traditions within the college community underwent changes initiated by internal and external parties. Episkopon, a society based in the college since 1858, was dissociated from Trinity in 1992. In 2004, the college board of trustees voted narrowly in favour of ending Trinity's long practice of same-sex residency, beginning in 2005 large portions of Trinity's residences became home to both men and women, although still separated by houses or wings. On April 30, 2002, Canada Post issued "University of Trinity College, 1852–2002" as part of the Canadian Universities series; the stamp was based on a design by Steven Slipp, based on photographs by James Steeves and on an illustration by Bonnie Ross. The 48 ¢ stamps were printed by Ashton-Potter Canada Limited. Trinity College is centrally located on Hoskin Avenue within the University of Toronto, directly north of Wycliffe College and to the west of Queen's Park.
The southern wing of main building, with its cornerstone laid by Bishop James Fielding Sweeny, was completed in 1925 by Darling and Pearson, the architectural firm that designed the university's Convocation Hall and Varsity Arena. The predominant Jacobethan architectural style is apparent in the roofline and the stone towers, while Tudor Revival is featured in the Angel's Roost tower. Architects George and Moorhouse oversaw a major expansion of the college in 1941 prior to war-time restrictions on building materials
Governor-General of New Zealand
The Governor-General of New Zealand is the viceregal representative of the monarch of New Zealand Queen Elizabeth II. As the Queen is concurrently the monarch of fifteen other Commonwealth realms, resides in the United Kingdom, she, on the advice of her Prime Minister of New Zealand, appoints a governor-general to carry out her constitutional and ceremonial duties within the Realm of New Zealand; the current office traces its origins to when the administration of New Zealand was placed under the Colony of New South Wales in 1839 and its governor was given jurisdiction over New Zealand. However, New Zealand would become its own colony the next year with its own governor; the modern "governor-general" and his or her functions came into being in 1917 and the office is mandated by letters patent issued in 1983, constituting "the Governor-General and Commander-in-Chief of the Realm of New Zealand". Constitutional functions of the governor-general include presiding over the Executive Council, appointing ministers and judges, granting Royal Assent to legislation, summoning and dissolving parliament.
These functions are exercised only according to the advice of an elected government. The governor-general has an important ceremonial role: hosting events at Government House in Wellington, travelling throughout New Zealand to open conferences, attend services and commemorations and provide encouragement to individuals and groups who are contributing to their communities; when travelling abroad, the governor-general is seen as the representative of New Zealand. The governor-general represented the British monarch and the British Government. Therefore, many past officeholders were British, including a succession of minor aristocrats from the 1890s onwards. In a gradual process, culminating with the adoption of the Statute of Westminster in 1947, the governor-general has become the independent, personal representative of the New Zealand monarch. In 1972, Sir Denis Blundell became the first New Zealand resident to be appointed to the office. Governors-general are not appointed for a specific term, but are expected to serve for five years.
The current Governor-General is Dame Patsy Reddy, who has served since 28 September 2016. Administrative support for the governor-general is provided by the Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet; the New Zealand monarch appoints the governor-general by commission issued under the Seal of New Zealand. Constitutional convention adopted in 1930, following the Imperial Conference held that year, allowed for the appointment of the governor-general to be made upon the advice of the New Zealand Government, though that right was not exercised directly by a New Zealand prime minister until 1967, with the appointment of the first New Zealand-born Governor-General, Sir Arthur Espie Porritt on the advice of Keith Holyoake; the prime minister's advice has sometimes been the result of a decision by Cabinet. Since 1980, the Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet prepares a short list of candidates for the office. By convention, the leader of the Opposition is consulted on the appointment, however this has not always been the case.
More the introduction of MMP in 1996 and a multi-party system has meant the prime minister consults with each of the party leaders in the House of Representatives. On only one occasion has the prime minister's choice of appointee aroused public anger or complaint, that controversy was short-lived. In 1977, Sir Keith Holyoake, a former National Party Prime Minister and a serving Minister of State, was controversially appointed as Governor-General; the Leader of the Opposition, Bill Rowling, complained he had not been consulted by Prime Minister Robert Muldoon on the appointment of Holyoake, suggested that he would have recommended Sir Edmund Hillary instead. It was suggested by many commentators that it would be inappropriate to entrust the office to a former party leader or anyone, allied with a political party. Since Holyoake's appointment, the prime minister has always confided with the leader of the Opposition during the nomination process, to avoid partisan controversy. Beginning with the appointment of Sir David Beattie in 1980, lawyers and judges have predominated as governors-general.
Following the introduction of MMP, it has been determined that an understanding of constitutional law is an important prerequisite for candidacy to the office. There has been on-and-off speculation. In 2004, National MP Richard Worth, an avowed monarchist, asked the Prime Minister, Helen Clark, whether she had considered nominating the Earl of Wessex to be the next governor-general. Before the governor-general enters office, his or her commission of appointment is publicly read in the presence of the Chief Justice of New Zealand and the members of the Executive Council, he or she must take the Oath of Allegiance, the Oath for the due execution of the office, which the chief justice or other