The Washington Post
The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper published in Washington, D. C. with a particular emphasis on national politics and the federal government. It has the largest circulation in the Washington metropolitan area, its slogan "Democracy Dies in Darkness" began appearing on its masthead in 2017. Daily broadsheet editions are printed for the District of Columbia and Virginia; the newspaper has won 47 Pulitzer Prizes. This includes six separate Pulitzers awarded in 2008, second only to The New York Times' seven awards in 2002 for the highest number awarded to a single newspaper in one year. Post journalists have received 18 Nieman Fellowships and 368 White House News Photographers Association awards. In the early 1970s, in the best-known episode in the newspaper's history, reporters Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein led the American press' investigation into what became known as the Watergate scandal, their reporting in The Washington Post contributed to the resignation of President Richard Nixon.
In years since, the Post's investigations have led to increased review of the Walter Reed Army Medical Center. In October 2013, the paper's longtime controlling family, the Graham family, sold the newspaper to Nash Holdings, a holding company established by Jeff Bezos, for $250 million in cash; the Washington Post is regarded as one of the leading daily American newspapers, along with The New York Times, the Los Angeles Times, The Wall Street Journal. The Post has distinguished itself through its political reporting on the workings of the White House and other aspects of the U. S. government. Unlike The New York Times and The Wall Street Journal, The Washington Post does not print an edition for distribution away from the East Coast. In 2009, the newspaper ceased publication of its National Weekly Edition, which combined stories from the week's print editions, due to shrinking circulation; the majority of its newsprint readership is in the District of Columbia and its suburbs in Maryland and Northern Virginia.
The newspaper is one of a few U. S. newspapers with foreign bureaus, located in Beirut, Beijing, Bogotá, Hong Kong, Jerusalem, London, Mexico City, Nairobi, New Delhi and Tokyo. In November 2009, it announced the closure of its U. S. regional bureaus—Chicago, Los Angeles and New York—as part of an increased focus on "political stories and local news coverage in Washington." The newspaper has local bureaus in Virginia. As of May 2013, its average weekday circulation was 474,767, according to the Audit Bureau of Circulations, making it the seventh largest newspaper in the country by circulation, behind USA Today, The Wall Street Journal, The New York Times, the Los Angeles Times, the Daily News, the New York Post. While its circulation has been slipping, it has one of the highest market-penetration rates of any metropolitan news daily. For many decades, the Post had its main office at 1150 15th Street NW; this real estate remained with Graham Holdings when the newspaper was sold to Jeff Bezos' Nash Holdings in 2013.
Graham Holdings sold 1150 15th Street for US$159 million in November 2013. The Washington Post continued to lease space at 1150 L Street NW. In May 2014, The Washington Post leased the west tower of One Franklin Square, a high-rise building at 1301 K Street NW in Washington, D. C; the newspaper moved into their new offices December 14, 2015. The Post has its own exclusive zip code, 20071. Arc Publishing is a department of the Post, which provides the publishing system, software for news organizations such as the Chicago Tribune and the Los Angeles Times; the newspaper was founded in 1877 by Stilson Hutchins and in 1880 added a Sunday edition, becoming the city's first newspaper to publish seven days a week. In 1889, Hutchins sold the newspaper to Frank Hatton, a former Postmaster General, Beriah Wilkins, a former Democratic congressman from Ohio. To promote the newspaper, the new owners requested the leader of the United States Marine Band, John Philip Sousa, to compose a march for the newspaper's essay contest awards ceremony.
Sousa composed "The Washington Post". It became the standard music to accompany the two-step, a late 19th-century dance craze, remains one of Sousa's best-known works. In 1893, the newspaper moved to a building at 14th and E streets NW, where it would remain until 1950; this building combined all functions of the newspaper into one headquarters – newsroom, advertising and printing – that ran 24 hours per day. In 1898, during the Spanish–American War, the Post printed Clifford K. Berryman's classic illustration Remember the Maine, which became the battle-cry for American sailors during the War. In 1902, Berryman published another famous cartoon in the Post—Drawing the Line in Mississippi; this cartoon depicts President Theodore Roosevelt showing compassion for a small bear cub and inspired New York store owner Morris Michtom to create the teddy bear. Wilkins acquired Hatton's share of the newspaper in 1894 at Hatton's death. After Wilkins' death in 1903, his sons John and Robert ran the Post for two years before selling it in 1905 to John Roll McLean, owner of the Cincinnati Enquirer.
During the Wilson presidency, the Post was credited with the "most famous newspaper typo" in D. C. history according to Reason magazine. When John McLean died in 1916, he put the newspap
National Cartoonists Society
The National Cartoonists Society is an organization of professional cartoonists in the United States. It presents the National Cartoonists Society Awards; the Society was born in 1946. They decided to meet on a regular basis. NCS members work in many branches of the profession, including advertising, newspaper comic strips and syndicated single-panel cartoons, comic books, editorial cartoons, gag cartoons, graphic novels, greeting cards and book illustration. Only has the National Cartoonists Society embraced web comics. Membership is limited to established professional cartoonists, with a few exceptions of outstanding persons in affiliated fields; the NCS is not a labor union. The organization's stated primary purposes are "to advance the ideals and standards of professional cartooning in its many forms", "to promote and foster a social and intellectual interchange among professional cartoonists of all types" and "to stimulate and encourage interest in and acceptance of the art of cartooning by aspiring cartoonists and the general public."
The National Cartoonists Society had its origins during World War II when cartoonists Gus Edson, Otto Soglow, Clarence D. Russell, Bob Dunn and others did chalk talks at hospitals for the USO in 1943. Edson recalled, “We played two spots. Fort Hamilton and Governor’s Island, and we quit the USO.” They were lured away by former Rockette Toni Mendez. When she learned of these chalk talks, she recruited the cartoonists to do shows for the Hospital Committee of the American Theatre Wing. Beginning with a performance emceed by humor columnist Bugs Baer at Halloran Hospital on Staten Island, these shows were produced and directed by Mendez; the group expanded to junkets on military transport planes, flying to military bases along the southeastern seaboard. On one of those flights, Russell proposed a club to Rube Goldberg and others so the group could still get together after WWII ended. Mendez recalled: He said, "Everybody has a club or an association or some kind—lumber jacks, rug weavers garbage collectors—so I don’t see why we can’t have one, too."
All during the flight, Rube kept saying, "No—leave us alone. C. D. turned to me and he said, "And no girls. Only boys." And he went down the aisle of the plane, repeating that this club would be just for boys. The Society was organized on a Friday evening, March 1, 1946, when 26 cartoonists gathered at 7pm in the Barberry Room on East 52nd Street in Manhattan. After drinks and dinner, they voted to determine a name for their new organization, it was known as The Cartoonists Society. Goldberg was elected president with Russell Patterson as vice president, C. D. Russell as secretary and Milton Caniff, treasurer. Soglow was added as second vice president. Mendez functioned as the Society's trouble-shooter and became an agent representing more than 50 cartoonists; the 26 founding members came from the group of 32 members who had paid dues by March 13, including strip cartoonists Wally Bishop, Martin Branner, Ernie Bushmiller, Milton Caniff, Gus Edson, Ham Fisher, Harry Haenigsen, Fred Harman, Bill Holman, Jay Irving, Stan MacGovern, Al Posen, Clarence Russell, Otto Soglow, Jack Sparling, Raeburn Van Buren, Dow Walling and Frank Willard.
Among the early 32 members were syndicated panel cartoonists Dave Breger, George Clark, Bob Dunn and Jimmy Hatlo. Yardley. More members joined by mid-May 1946, including Harold Gray and the Society’s first animator, Paul Terry, followed in the summer by letterer Frank Engli, Bela Zaboly, Al Capp and Ray Bailey. By March 1947, the NCS had 112 members, including Bud Fisher, Don Flowers, Bob Kane, Fred Lasswell, George Lichty, Zack Mosley, Alex Raymond, Cliff Sterrett and Chic Young, plus editorial cartoonists Reg Manning and Fred O. Seibel and sports cartoonist Willard Mullin. Marge Devine Duffy, a secretary in King Features public relations department, had been helping Russell handle correspondence to the NCS, in 1948, she was installed as the official NCS secretary and given the title Scribe of the Society, her name was on all the Society’s publications, her address was the permanent mailing address of the NCS for more than 30 years. As the organizing secretary, she handled agendas and publicity.
“She ran the damn thing,” Caniff recalled. “A real autocrat, everyone was delighted to have her be an autocrat because that’s what we needed.”In the fall of 1949, the NCS cooperated with Treasury Department to sell savings bonds, engaging in a nationwide tour to 17 major cities with a team of 10 to 12 cartoonists and a traveling display, 20,000 Years of Comics, a 95-foot pictorial history of the comic strip. Despite the contributions of Duffy and Mendez, there were no female
Houston is the most populous city in the U. S. state of Texas and the fourth most populous city in the United States, with a census-estimated population of 2.312 million in 2017. It is the most populous city in the Southern United States and on the Gulf Coast of the United States. Located in Southeast Texas near Galveston Bay and the Gulf of Mexico, it is the seat of Harris County and the principal city of the Greater Houston metropolitan area, the fifth most populous metropolitan statistical area in the United States and the second most populous in Texas after the Dallas-Fort Worth MSA. With a total area of 627 square miles, Houston is the eighth most expansive city in the United States, it is the largest city in the United States by total area, whose government is not consolidated with that of a county or borough. Though in Harris County, small portions of the city extend into Fort Bend and Montgomery counties. Houston was founded by land speculators on August 30, 1836, at the confluence of Buffalo Bayou and White Oak Bayou and incorporated as a city on June 5, 1837.
The city is named after former General Sam Houston, president of the Republic of Texas and had won Texas' independence from Mexico at the Battle of San Jacinto 25 miles east of Allen's Landing. After serving as the capital of the Texas Republic in the late 1830s, Houston grew into a regional trading center for the remainder of the 19th century; the arrival of the 20th century saw a convergence of economic factors which fueled rapid growth in Houston, including a burgeoning port and railroad industry, the decline of Galveston as Texas' primary port following a devastating 1900 hurricane, the subsequent construction of the Houston Ship Channel, the Texas oil boom. In the mid-20th century, Houston's economy diversified as it became home to the Texas Medical Center—the world's largest concentration of healthcare and research institutions—and NASA's Johnson Space Center, where the Mission Control Center is located. Houston's economy has a broad industrial base in energy, manufacturing and transportation.
Leading in healthcare sectors and building oilfield equipment, Houston has the second most Fortune 500 headquarters of any U. S. municipality within its city limits. The Port of Houston ranks first in the United States in international waterborne tonnage handled and second in total cargo tonnage handled. Nicknamed the "Space City", Houston is a global city, with strengths in culture and research; the city has a population from various ethnic and religious backgrounds and a large and growing international community. Houston is the most diverse metropolitan area in Texas and has been described as the most racially and ethnically diverse major metropolis in the U. S, it is home to many cultural institutions and exhibits, which attract more than 7 million visitors a year to the Museum District. Houston has an active visual and performing arts scene in the Theater District and offers year-round resident companies in all major performing arts; the Allen brothers—Augustus Chapman and John Kirby—explored town sites on Buffalo Bayou and Galveston Bay.
According to historian David McComb, "he brothers, on August 26, 1836, bought from Elizabeth E. Parrott, wife of T. F. L. Parrott and widow of John Austin, the south half of the lower league granted to her by her late husband, they paid $5,000 total, but only $1,000 of this in cash. They lobbied the Republic of Texas Congress to designate Houston as the temporary capital, agreeing to provide the new government with a capital building. About a dozen persons resided in the town at the beginning of 1837, but that number grew to about 1,500 by the time the Texas Congress convened in Houston for the first time that May. Houston was granted incorporation with James S. Holman becoming its first mayor. In the same year, Houston became the county seat of Harrisburg County. In 1839, the Republic of Texas relocated its capital to Austin; the town suffered another setback that year when a yellow fever epidemic claimed about one life out of every eight residents. Yet it persisted as a commercial center, forming a symbiosis with Galveston.
Landlocked farmers brought their produce to Houston, using Buffalo Bayou to gain access to Galveston and the Gulf of Mexico. Houston merchants profited from selling staples to farmers and shipping the farmers' produce to Galveston; the great majority of slaves in Texas came with their owners from the older slave states. Sizable numbers, came through the domestic slave trade. New Orleans was the center of this trade in the Deep South. Thousands of enslaved blacks lived near the city before the American Civil War. Many of them near the city worked on sugar and cotton plantations, while most of those in the city limits had domestic and artisan jobs. In 1840, the community established a chamber of commerce in part to promote shipping and navigation at the newly created port on Buffalo Bayou. By 1860, Houston had emerged as a commercial and railroad hub for the export of cotton. Railroad spurs from the Texas inland converged in Houston, where they met rail lines to the ports of Galveston and Beaumont.
During the American Civil War, Houston served as a headquarters for General John Magruder, who used the city as an organization point for the Battle of Galveston. After the Civil War, Houston businessmen initia
Stephen F. Austin State University
Stephen F. Austin State University is a public university located in Nacogdoches, United States. Founded as a teachers' college in 1923 as a result of legislation authored by State Senator Wilfred Roy Cousins, Sr. the university was subsequently renamed after one of Texas's founding fathers, Stephen F. Austin, its campus resides on part of the homestead of Thomas Jefferson Rusk. Stephen F. Austin is one of four independent public universities in Texas. Stephen F. Austin State University is accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools to award bachelor's, master's, doctoral degrees; the Stephen F. Austin Lumberjacks are members of the Southland Conference and compete in Division I for all varsity sports; the Lumberjacks football team competes in the NCAA Division I Football Championship Subdivision. The Lumberjacks basketball team has made five appearances in the NCAA Division I Tournament, with two upset first-round wins in 2014 and 2016. Though the university is located in the rural East Texas college town of Nacogdoches, the vast majority of SFA students come from Greater Houston, the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex, other cities throughout Texas.
SFA has served students from 46 states outside Texas and 42 countries outside the United States. Stephen F. Austin offers more than 120 areas of study, including more than 80 undergraduate majors, nearly 60 graduate degrees, three doctoral programs. Stephen F. Austin offers classes through one independent school; the Arthur Temple College of Forestry and Agriculture is nationally recognized, houses one of only two schools of forestry in the State of Texas. During the 2014–2015 academic year, there were 2,690 degrees awarded. Of those degrees, 2,108 were undergraduate, 558 were post-graduate, 24 were doctoral. In addition to the main campus, located on 430 acres, the university maintains a 642-acre agricultural research center for beef and swine production and an equine center. Since 2007, Stephen F. Austin has served as the headquarters of the Association for Business Communication, it is the home of the National Center for Pharmaceutical Crops, which in 2011 discovered a potential cancer-fighting agent from the extract of giant salvinia, one of the world's most notorious invasive species.
Nelson Rusche College of Business Gerald W. Schlief School of Accountancy James I. Perkins College of Education College of Fine Arts School of Art School of Music School of Theatre Arthur Temple College of Forestry and Agriculture College of Liberal and Applied Arts School of Social Work College of Sciences and Mathematics School of Nursing Richard and Lucille DeWitt School of Nursing School of Honors The Graduate School Alton W. Birdwell Paul Boynton Ralph W. Steen William R. Johnson Donald Bowen William J. Brophy Dan Angel Roland Smith Tito Guerrero Baker Pattillo Steve Westbrook, In tribute to the forestry industry, a major component of the area's economy, the men's athletic teams are called Lumberjacks, women's teams are known as Ladyjacks. All of SFA's athletic teams participate in the Southland Conference which hosts teams from the states of Texas and Arkansas. Stephen F. Austin's colors are White. Stephen F. Austin sports teams participate in NCAA Division I for football in the Southland Conference.
SFA's football team earned a berth into the FCS playoffs in 2009, the first for the university since 1995. The team earned a playoff berth in 2010, marking the first time in the program's history that the team had reached the playoffs in consecutive seasons; the 2010 season marked the first time that the school had won an outright conference championship since 1989. Stephen F. Austin's only bowl appearance was the 1973 Poultry Bowl, in which the team defeated Gardner–Webb 31–10; the men's basketball team reached its first NCAA tournament in 2009 after winning the Southland Conference regular season and tournament. They lost 59–44 to Syracuse University. In their second appearance in 2014, they upset Virginia Commonwealth in overtime, 77–75. In their third appearance in 2016, they upset 3rd seeded West Virginia 70–56. In the second round against 6th seeded Notre Dame they lost 77–76 on a buzzer beater by Notre Dame's Rex Pflueger; the annual Parent's Day is one of the largest student run programs on the campus of SFA.
Parents and family members of students visit the campus every fall for a day of activities and school spirit. Parents Day is sponsored by the Residence Hall Association in conjunction with the Housing and Residence Life Departments; the University's main rivals are Northwestern State University. SFA Rugby Fest is a popular event. Many schools in the region show up to play in this tournament; every year at Homecoming a bonfire is lit by members of Alpha Phi Omega and of the organization that has the most points earned in a series of competitions leading up to the Homecoming celebration. The bonfire is built by the members of Alpha Phi Omega. Preceding the lighting of the bonfire, a "Torchlight Parade" is held, where students walk through campus with lights to the Homecoming Pep Rally; the Student Activities Association distributes Homecom
Spring is a census-designated place within the extraterritorial jurisdiction of Houston in Harris County, United States, part of the Houston–The Woodlands–Sugar Land metropolitan area. The population was 54,298 at the 2010 census. While the name "Spring" is popularly applied to a large area of northern Harris County and a smaller area of southern Montgomery County, the original town of Spring, now known as Old Town Spring, is located at the intersection of Spring-Cypress and Hardy roads and encompasses a small area of 1 km2; the large geographic area now known as Spring was inhabited by the Orcoquiza Native Americans. In 1836, the Texas General Council of the Provisional Government placed what is now the town of Spring in the Harrisburg municipality. In 1838, William Pierpont placed a trading post on Spring Creek. In 1840, the town of Spring had 153 residents. By the mid-1840s, many German immigrants, including Gus Bayer and Carl Wunsche, moved to the area and began farming. People from Louisiana and other parts of the post-Civil War Southern U.
S. settled in Spring. The main cash crops in Spring were sugar cotton. In 1871, the International and Great Northern Railroad, built through Spring, which caused Spring to expand. In 1873, Spring received a post office. By 1884, Spring had 150 residents, two steam saw and grist mills, two cotton gins, three churches, several schools. In 1901 -- 1903, the International-Great Northern Railroad opened. Spring, now with a roundhouse, became a switchyard with fourteen trackyards; the population increased to 1,200 by 1910. The Spring State Bank opened in 1912. In 1923, the roundhouse relocated to Houston; the bank was robbed several times in the 1930s. The bank consolidated with Tomball Bank in 1935. By 1947, Spring had 700 residents. In the 1970s, Houston's suburbs began to expand to the north, more subdivisions and residential areas opened in the Spring area; some older houses in the town of Spring received housed shops. The Old Town Spring Association opened in 1980 to promote the Old Town Spring shopping area, which consists of the restored houses.
In 1984 and 1989, the Spring area had 15,000 residents. By 1989, Old Town Spring became a tourist area. In 1990, the Spring area had 33,111 residents. From 1969 to 1992, the Goodyear airship America was based in Spring from its large hangar visible just off Interstate 45. Takeoffs and landings were a major attraction and motorists continually pulled off to the interstate's shoulders to watch. In 1992 the America was moved to Akron and the massive hangar was torn down. In 2016, the hangar's concrete foundation was still visible at the intersection of Holzwarth Road and Meadow Edge Lane west of Lowe's Home Improvement Center; the 1992 Log Cabin Republicans convention was held in Spring. Spring is located at 30°3′15″N 95°23′13″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 23.6 square miles, of which 23.2 square miles is land and 0.35 square miles, or 1.51%, is water. The climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Spring has a humid subtropical climate, abbreviated "Cfa" on climate maps.
As of the census of 2010, there were 54,298 people, 18,050 households, 14,068 families residing in the CDP. The population density was 2,300.8 people per square mile. There were 19,191 housing units at an average density of 813.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the CDP was 63.8% White, 19.5% African American, 0.6% Native American, 3.1% Asian, 0.4% Pacific Islander, 9.3% from other races, 3.3% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino people of any race were 28.4% of the population. As of the census of 2000, there were 36,385 people, 12,302 households, 9,829 families residing in the CDP; the population density was 1,520.0 people per square mile. There were 12,714 housing units at an average density of 531.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the CDP was 83.01% White, 6.99% African American, 0.51% Native American, 1.42% Asian, 0.13% Pacific Islander, 5.62% from other races, 2.31% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino people of any race were 16.06% of the population. There were 12,302 households out of which 46.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 62.9% were married couples living together, 12.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 20.1% were non-families.
15.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 2.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.96 and the average family size was 3.30. In the CDP, the population was spread out with 31.0% under the age of 18, 8.7% from 18 to 24, 33.8% from 25 to 44, 22.0% from 45 to 64, 4.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32 years. For every 100 females, there were 95.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.4 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $56,662, the median income for a family was $60,934. Males had a median income of $42,134 versus $30,270 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $21,027. About 3.1% of families and 4.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 4.7% of those under age 18 and 4.5% of those age 65 or over. The Spring Fire Department serves areas within the Spring CDP and some areas outside the CDP with Spring addresses; the fire department is headquartered at 656 E. Louetta, in the middle of the CDP.
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC