Vanderbilt University is a private research university in Nashville, Tennessee. Founded in 1873, it was named in honor of New York shipping and rail magnate Cornelius Vanderbilt, who provided the school its initial $1-million endowment despite having never been to the South. Vanderbilt hoped that his gift and the greater work of the university would help to heal the sectional wounds inflicted by the Civil War. Vanderbilt enrolls 12,800 students from all 50 U. S. states and over 100 foreign countries in four undergraduate and six graduate and professional schools. The university is in the process of converting its residence halls into an academic residential college system. Several research centers and institutes are affiliated with the university, including the Robert Penn Warren Center for the Humanities, the Freedom Forum First Amendment Center, Dyer Observatory. Vanderbilt University Medical Center part of the university, became a separate institution in 2016. With the exception of the off-campus observatory, all of the university's facilities are situated on its 330-acre campus in the heart of Nashville, 1.5 miles from downtown.
Despite its urban surroundings, the campus itself is a national arboretum and features over 300 different species of trees and shrubs. The Fugitives and Southern Agrarians were based at the university in the first half of the 20th century and helped revive Southern literature among others; the Jean and Alexander Heard Library, the campus library system, contains over 8 million items across ten libraries and stands as one of the nation's top research libraries. Vanderbilt Television News Archive holds the most extensive collection of television news coverage in the world, with over 40,000 hours of content. BioVU, Vanderbilt's DNA databank, is one of the largest of its kind in the world, running over 200 ongoing projects and holding over 225,000 samples. Additionally, Vanderbilt's Institute for Space and Defense Electronics, the largest of its type in the world, provides integral support to several companies and governmental units, including Boeing, NASA, the United States Department of Defense.
Vanderbilt has many distinguished alumni and affiliates, including 45 current and former members of the United States Congress, 17 U. S. Ambassadors, 13 governors, ten billionaires, seven Nobel Prize laureates, two Vice Presidents of the United States, two U. S. Supreme Court Justices. Other notable alumni include Rhodes Scholars, Pulitzer Prize winners, Academy Award winners, Grammy Award winners, MacArthur Fellows, CEOs of Fortune 500 companies, heads of state and other leaders in foreign government, musicians, professional athletes, Olympians. Vanderbilt has more than 139,000 alumni, with 40 alumni clubs established worldwide. Vanderbilt is a founding member of the Southeastern Conference and has been the conference's only private school for a half-century. In the years prior to the American Civil War of 1861–1865, the Methodist Episcopal Church South had been considering the creation of a regional university for the training of ministers in a location central to its congregations. Following lobbying by Nashville bishop Holland Nimmons McTyeire, church leaders voted to found "The Central University of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South" in Nashville in 1872.
However, lack of funds and the ravaged state of the Reconstruction Era South delayed the opening of the college. The following year, McTyeire stayed at the New York City residence of Cornelius Vanderbilt, whose second wife was Frank Armstrong Crawford Vanderbilt, a cousin of McTyeire's wife, Amelia Townsend McTyeire. Cornelius Vanderbilt, the wealthiest man in the United States at the time, was considering philanthropy as he was at an advanced age, he had been planning to establish a university on New York, in honor of his mother. However, McTyeire convinced him to donate $500,000 to endow Central University in order to "contribute to strengthening the ties which should exist between all sections of our common country."The endowment was increased to $1 million and would be only one of two philanthropic causes financially supported by Vanderbilt. Though he never expressed any desire that the university be named after himself, McTyeire and his fellow trustees rechristened the school in his honor.
Vanderbilt died in 1877 without seeing the school named after him. They acquired land owned by Texas Senator John Boyd inherited by his granddaughter and her husband, Confederate Congressman Henry S. Foote, who had built Old Central, a house still standing on campus; the first building, Main Building known as Kirkland Hall, was designed by William Crawford Smith, a Confederate veteran who designed the Parthenon. In the fall of 1875, about 200 students enrolled at Vanderbilt, in October the university was dedicated. Bishop McTyeire was named Chairman of the Board of Trust for life by Vanderbilt as a stipulation of his endowment. McTyeire named Landon Garland, his mentor from Randolph-Macon College in Virginia and then-Chancellor of the University of Mississippi, as chancellor; as chancellor, he shaped the school's structure and hired the school's faculty, many of whom were renowned scholars in their respective fields. However, most of this faculty left after disputes including over pay rates; when the first fraternity chapter, Phi Delta Theta, was established on campus in 1876, it was shut down by the faculty, only to be reestablished as a secret society in 1877.
Meanwhile, Old Gym
Zapatista Army of National Liberation
The Zapatista Army of National Liberation referred to as the Zapatistas, is a far-left libertarian-socialist political and militant group that controls a large amount of territory in Chiapas, the southernmost state of Mexico. Since 1994 the group has been in a declared war against the Mexican state, against military and corporate incursions into Chiapas; this war has been defensive. In recent years, the EZLN has focused on a strategy of civil resistance; the Zapatistas' main body is made up of rural indigenous people, but it includes some supporters in urban areas and internationally. The EZLN's main spokesperson is Subcomandante Insurgente Galeano known as Subcomandante Marcos. Unlike other Zapatista spokespeople, Marcos is not an indigenous Maya; the group takes its name from Emiliano Zapata, the agrarian reformer and commander of the Liberation Army of the South during the Mexican Revolution, sees itself as his ideological heir. Nearly all EZLN villages contain murals with images of Zapata, Ernesto "Che" Guevara, Subcomandante Marcos.
While EZLN ideology reflects libertarian socialism, the Zapatistas have rejected and defied political classification, retaining its distinctiveness due in part to the importance of indigenous Mayan beliefs to the Zapatistas. The EZLN aligns itself with the wider alter-globalization, anti-neoliberal social movement, seeking indigenous control over their local resources land. Since their 1994 uprising was countered by the Mexican army, the EZLN has abstained from military offensives and adopted a new strategy that attempts to garner Mexican and international support; the Zapatistas describe themselves as a decentralized organization. The pseudonymous Subcommandante Marcos is considered its leader despite his claims that the group has no single leader. Political decisions are decided in community assemblies. Military and organizational matters are decided by the Zapatista area elders who compose the General Command. Ejército Zapatista de Liberación Nacional was founded on November 17, 1983, by non-indigenous members of the FLN guerrilla group from Mexico's urban north and by indigenous inhabitants of the remote Las Cañadas/Selva Lacandona regions in eastern Chiapas, by members of former rebel movements.
Over the years, the group grew, building on social relations among the indigenous base and making use of an organizational infrastructure created by peasant organizations and the Catholic church. The Zapatista Army went public on January 1, 1994, the day when the North American Free Trade Agreement came into effect. On that day, they issued their First Revolutionary Laws from the Lacandon Jungle; the declaration amounted to a declaration of war on the Mexican government, which they considered so out of touch with the will of the people as to make it illegitimate. The EZLN stressed that it opted for armed struggle due to the lack of results achieved through peaceful means of protest, their initial goal was to instigate a revolution against the rise of neoliberalism throughout Mexico, but since no such revolution occurred, they used their uprising as a platform to call the world's attention to their movement to protest the signing of the EU, which the EZLN believed would increase the gap between rich and poor people in Chiapas—a prediction affirmed by subsequent developments.
Gaining attention on a global level through their convention called the Intercontinental Encounter for Humanity and Against Neoliberalism, attended by 3,000 activists worldwide, the Zapatistas were able to help initiate a united platform for other anti-neoliberal groups. This project did not detract from the Zapatistas' national activism efforts, but rather expanded their existent ideologies; the EZLN called for greater democratization of the Mexican government, controlled by the Partido Revolucionario Institucional for 65 years, for land reform mandated by the 1917 Constitution of Mexico but ignored by the PRI. The EZLN did not demand independence from Mexico, but rather autonomy in the form of land access and use of natural resources extracted from Chiapas, as well as protection from despotic violence and political inclusion of Chiapas' indigenous communities. On the morning of January 1, 1994, an estimated 3,000 armed Zapatista insurgents seized towns and cities in Chiapas, including Ocosingo, Las Margaritas, Huixtán, Rancho Nuevo and Chanal.
They freed the prisoners in the jail of San Cristóbal de las Casas and set fire to several police buildings and military barracks in the area. The guerrillas enjoyed brief success, but Mexican army forces counterattacked the next day, fierce fighting broke out in and around the market of Ocosingo; the Zapatista forces retreated from the city into the surrounding jungle. Armed clashes in Chiapas ended on January 12, with a ceasefire brokered by the Catholic diocese in San Cristóbal de las Casas under Bishop Samuel Ruiz, a well known liberation theologian who had taken up the cause of the indigenous people of Chiapas; the Zapatistas retained some of the land for a little over a year, but in February 1995 the Mexican army overran that territory in a surprise breach of ceasefire. Following this offensive, the Zapatista villages were abandoned, the rebels fled to the mo
Indiana University is a multi-campus public university system in the state of Indiana, United States. Indiana University has a combined student body of more than 110,000 students, which includes 46,000 students enrolled at the Indiana University Bloomington campus. Indiana University has a total of nine different campuses; each one of the campuses is an four-year degree-granting institution. The flagship campus of Indiana University is located in Bloomington. Indiana University Bloomington is the location of Indiana University; the Bloomington campus is home to numerous premier Indiana University schools, including the College of Arts and Sciences, the Jacobs School of Music, an extension of the Indiana University School of Medicine the School of Informatics and Engineering, which includes the former School of Library and Information Science, School of Optometry, the O'Neil School of Public and Environmental Affairs, the Maurer School of Law, the School of Education, the Kelley School of Business.
In addition to its flagship campus, Indiana University comprises seven lesser extensions throughout Indiana: Indiana University – Purdue University Indianapolis is an urban expansion, co-locating degree programs of Indiana University alongside those of Purdue University and extending public higher education to the capitol. Located just west of downtown Indianapolis, it is the central location of several Indiana University schools, including the School of Medicine, the IU School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, the School of Dentistry, the School of Nursing, the School of Social Work, the Indiana University administrated Herron School of Art and Design, the Robert H. McKinney School of Law. Indiana University East is located in Richmond. Indiana University Fort Wayne, the system's newest campus, is located in Fort Wayne, it was established in 2018 after the dissolution of the former entity Indiana University – Purdue University Fort Wayne, an extension similar to that of IUPUI under the administration of Purdue University.
IU Fort Wayne took over IPFW's academic programs in health sciences, with all other IPFW academic programs taken over by the new entity, Purdue University Fort Wayne. Indiana University Kokomo is located in Kokomo. Indiana University Northwest is located in Gary. Indiana University South Bend is located in South Bend. Indiana University Southeast is located in New Albany. Indiana University – Purdue University Columbus is located in Columbus. According to the National Association of College and University Business Officers, the value of the endowment of the Indiana University and affiliated foundations in 2016 is over $1.986 billion. The annual budget across all campuses totals over $3 Billion; the Indiana University Research and Technology Corporation is a not-for-profit agency that assists IU faculty and researchers in realizing the commercial potential of their discoveries. Since 1997, university clients have been responsible for more than 1,800 inventions, nearly 500 patents, 38 start-up companies.
In the 2016 Fiscal Year alone, the IURTC was issued 53 U. S. patents and 112 global patents. Richard G. Johnson - Acting Science Adviser to Ronald Reagan, physics professor at University of Bern, manager of the Space Sciences Laboratory of University of California - Berkeley. Trigger Alpert - Jazz bassist for the Glenn Miller Orchestra Joshua Bell - Grammy award-winning violinist and conductor Hoagy Carmichael - Composer, singer and bandleader John T. Chambers - Chairman and former CEO of Cisco Systems Nicole Chevalier - Operatic soprano Alton Dorian Clark - Hip-hop recording artist and record producer Pamela Coburn, soprano Suzanne Collins - Author of The Underland Chronicles and The Hunger Games trilogy Mark Cuban - Owner of the NBA's Dallas Mavericks John Cynn - Professional Poker Player. 2018 World Series of Poker Champion. Mary Czerwinski - Computer scientist at Microsoft Research and Fellow of the Association for Computing Machinery Thomas P. Dooley - author and research scientist Judith Lynn Ferguson, author of 65 cookery related books, cookery editor of Woman's Realm women's magazine, Head of Diploma Course at Le Cordon Bleu- London Matt Fields - Fashion Designer - Founder of street wear brand Dope Couture George Goehl - Community organizer and executive director of People's Action Michael D. Higgins - 9th President of Ireland Lissa Hunter - Artist Jamie Hyneman - Host of the television series MythBusters Narendra Jadhav - Economist and writer Jason Jordan - Professional wrestler Nina Kasniunas - Political scientist and professor E.
W. Kelley - Businessman. News Jay Schottenstein - CEO of Schottenstein Stores Kyle Schwarber - Professional baseball player Tavis Smiley - Host of The Tavis Smiley Show. S. Ambassador to Saudi Arabia Brad Stephens - former Austra
Calumet is a village in Calumet Township, Houghton County, in the U. S. state of Michigan's Upper Peninsula, once at the center of the mining industry of the Upper Peninsula. Known as Red Jacket, the village includes the Calumet Downtown Historic District, listed on the National Register of Historic Places; the village may itself be included within the Calumet Historic District, a larger area, NRHP-listed and, a National Historic Landmark District. It is bordered on the north by Calumet Township, on the south by the unincorporated towns of New Town and Blue Jacket, on the east by Blue Jacket and Calumet Township, on the west by Yellow Jacket and Calumet Township; the population was 726 at the 2010 census. Calumet's nickname is Copper Town U. S. A. What is now Calumet was settled in 1864 under the name of "Red Jacket", named for a Native American Chief of the Seneca tribe; until 1895 the name "Calumet" was used by the nearby town of Michigan. Red Jacket grew due to the copper mines in the area, it was incorporated as a town in 1867.
The copper mines were rich. In addition to copper mining and smelting, the region supported the dairy industry and truck farming. Many immigrants settled there in the late 19th century. By 1900, Red Jacket had a population of 4,668, Calumet Township, which contained Red Jacket and nearby mining towns, had a population of 25,991. However, in 1913, Red Jacket suffered from the Copper Country Strike of 1913-1914, the population began to decline. In the same year, the town was the site of the Italian Hall Disaster. Striking miners and their families were gathered on Christmas Eve for a party in Italian Hall, when the cry of "fire" precipitated a stampede that crushed or suffocated seventy-three victims, the majority of them children; the identity of the person who started the stampede has never been determined. Folk singer Woody Guthrie's song, "1913 Massacre", is based on this event. Loss of wartime demand caused the copper price to drop following World War I. With the decreased demand for copper, thousands left Red Jacket in the 1920s, many moving to Detroit, Michigan where the automobile industry was booming.
During the Great Depression all mines were shut down. As a result, many miners and their families left to find work. In 1950, the population of Calumet was 1,256 people. Small-time mining continued in the area during World War II until it was shut down by a labor strike in 1968; the Calumet Historic District is another area of interest, listed like the Calumet Downtown Historic District on the National Register of Historic Places. In 1984, Calumet's name was borrowed by Hollywood. Calumet was moved from Michigan to Colorado, where it was invaded by Soviet paratroopers in the film Red Dawn. One of the film's producers grew up on the Keweenaw Peninsula. Hunk Anderson, head football coach of Notre Dame and Chicago Bears George Brunet, baseball pitcher, attended high school in Calumet Ben Johnson, ice hockey player. Calumet is at an elevation of 1,209 feet above sea level. Parts of the Keweenaw National Historical Park are located inside the village limits; the village of Calumet now sits on over 2,000 miles of underground mine shafts and stopes, empty for many decades.
Houghton County Memorial Airport serves Houghton County and the surrounding communities. One of the biggest parts of the food culture of not only Calumet, but the entire Copper Country is the pasty; this was a main part of copper miners' diets. A pasty is a mixture of meat, rutabaga and onions wrapped in a crust made of flour and lard. Traditionally Cornish, they have sparked local events such as the Pasty Fest, where there are eating contests, events, a tug of war event where the losers take a dive into an inflatable pool filled with ketchup; the Calumet Theatre is a theater and opera house, constructed in 1900. In 1898, the copper mining industry was booming, the town had an enormous surplus in its treasury; the town council decided to spend some of the surplus on a theater. The theater hosted a large number of famous actors and opera singers. With the close of the mines, the theater became a movie theater and fell into general disrepair for many years. In 1975, the town began a large project to repair and restore the theater, now used for many local and touring productions.
The theatre was added to the National Register of Historic Places on August 5, 1971. The Theatre is home to The Red Jacket Jamboree, an old-time radio variety show heard on Public Radio Stations; every two years there is an all school reunion, for graduates of Calumet High School. Many activities occur at this time, including parade. Debuting in 2005, The Great Deer Chase Mountain Bike Race takes place every August in Calumet; the Race is held at Swedetown Trails. Pasty Fest is a one day event that takes place e
John Edward Frohnmayer is a retired attorney from the U. S. state of Oregon. He was the fifth chairman of the National Endowment for the Arts, a program of the United States government, he was appointed by President George H. W. Bush in 1989, served until 1992. Frohnmayer earned his undergraduate degree from Stanford University, where he sang with the Stanford Mendicants, an a cappella singing group, he earned a master's degree in Christian ethics from the University of Chicago and a law degree from the University of Oregon School of Law, where he was editor-in-chief of the Law Review in 1972. He was a decorated officer in the United States Navy, in which he served from 1966-1980, he chaired the Oregon Arts Commission from 1980–1984. President George H. W. Bush appointed Frohnmayer to chair the National Endowment for the Arts in 1989; the NEA was in the midst of controversies surrounding its funding of various projects, notably those of Robert Mapplethorpe, which would lead to Congressional action and a United States Supreme Court decision in 1998, National Endowment for the Arts v. Finley.
Frohnmayer's focus on art education was overshadowed by the contentious partisan politics surrounding the agency. Under pressure from the Religious Right, Pat Buchanan in particular, Frohnmayer was asked to resign in 1992. Frohnmayer published two books in the 1990s: Leaving Town Alive, an account of his experience at the NEA, Out of Tune: Listening to the First Amendment, a text for high school and college courses, he is an Affiliate Professor of Liberal Arts at Oregon State University. His brother, David B. Frohnmayer, was the 15th president of the University of Oregon. On September 12, 2007, Frohnmayer announced that he would run for the United States Senate representing Oregon, running as a candidate of the Independent Party of Oregon. For the seat held by Republican Gordon Smith, he dropped out of the race on June 2008, citing fundraising problems. Smith lost the Senate election to Jeff Merkley, a Democrat, cross-nominated by the Independent Party after Frohnmayer quit the race. NEA Four MarAbel B.
Frohnmayer Music Building Frohnmayer, John. Leaving Town Alive: Confessions of an arts warrior. Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 978-0-395-65571-9. Frohnmayer, John. Out of Tune:Listening to the First Amendment. North American Press. ISBN 978-1-55591-932-0. John Frohnmayer for Senate Campaign Web Site Chronology of the NEA Appearances on C-SPAN
University of Michigan
The University of Michigan simply referred to as Michigan, is a public research university in Ann Arbor, Michigan. The university is Michigan's oldest; the school was moved to Ann Arbor in 1837 onto 40 acres of. Since its establishment in Ann Arbor, the university campus has expanded to include more than 584 major buildings with a combined area of more than 34 million gross square feet spread out over a Central Campus and North Campus, two regional campuses in Flint and Dearborn, a Center in Detroit; the university is a founding member of the Association of American Universities. Considered one of the foremost research universities in the United States with annual research expenditures approaching $1.5 billion, Michigan is classified as one of 115 Doctoral Universities with Very High Research by the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education. As of October 2018, 50 MacArthur Fellows, 25 Nobel Prize winners, 6 Turing Award winners and 1 Fields Medalist have been affiliated with University of Michigan.
Its comprehensive graduate program offers doctoral degrees in the humanities, social sciences, STEM fields as well as professional degrees in architecture, medicine, pharmacy, social work, public health, dentistry. Michigan's body of living alumni comprises more than 540,000 people, one of the largest alumni bases of any university in the world. Michigan's athletic teams compete in Division I of the NCAA and are collectively known as the Wolverines, they are members of the Big Ten Conference. More than 250 Michigan athletes or coaches have participated in Olympic events, winning more than 150 medals; the University of Michigan was established in Detroit on August 26, 1817 as the Catholepistemiad, or University of Michigania, by the governor and judges of Michigan Territory. Judge Augustus B. Woodward invited The Rev. John Monteith and Father Gabriel Richard, a Catholic priest, to establish the institution. Monteith became its first president and held seven of the professorships, Richard was vice president and held the other six professorships.
Concurrently, Ann Arbor had set aside 40 acres in the hopes of being selected as the state capital. But when Lansing was chosen as the state capital, the city offered the land for a university. What would become the university moved to Ann Arbor in 1837 thanks to Governor Stevens T. Mason; the original 40 acres was the basis of the present Central Campus. This land was once inhabited by the Ojibwe and Bodewadimi Native tribes and was obtained through the Treaty of Fort Meigs. In 1821, the university was renamed the University of Michigan; the first classes in Ann Arbor were held in 1841, with six freshmen and a sophomore, taught by two professors. Eleven students graduated in the first commencement in 1845. By 1866, enrollment had increased to 1,205 students. Women were first admitted in 1870, although Alice Robinson Boise Wood had become the first woman to attend classes in 1866-7. James Burrill Angell, who served as the university's president from 1871 to 1909, aggressively expanded U-M's curriculum to include professional studies in dentistry, engineering and medicine.
U-M became the first American university to use the seminar method of study. Among the early students in the School of Medicine was Jose Celso Barbosa, who in 1880 graduated as valedictorian and the first Puerto Rican to get a university degree in the United States, he returned to Puerto Rico to practice medicine and served in high-ranking posts in the government. From 1900 to 1920, the university constructed many new facilities, including buildings for the dental and pharmacy programs, natural sciences, Hill Auditorium, large hospital and library complexes, two residence halls. In 1920 the university reorganized the College of Engineering and formed an advisory committee of 100 industrialists to guide academic research initiatives; the university became a favored choice for bright Jewish students from New York in the 1920s and 1930s, when the Ivy League schools had quotas restricting the number of Jews to be admitted. Because of its high standards, U-M gained the nickname "Harvard of the West."
During World War II, U-M's research supported military efforts, such as U. S. Navy projects in proximity fuzes, PT boats, radar jamming. After the war, enrollment expanded and by 1950, it reached 21,000, of which more than one third were veterans supported by the G. I. Bill; as the Cold War and the Space Race took hold, U-M received numerous government grants for strategic research and helped to develop peacetime uses for nuclear energy. Much of that work, as well as research into alternative energy sources, is pursued via the Memorial Phoenix Project. In the 1960 Presidential campaign, U. S. Senator John F. Kennedy jokingly referred to himself as "a graduate of the Michigan of the East, Harvard University" in his speech proposing the formation of the Peace Corps speaking to a crowd from the front steps of the Michigan Union. Lyndon B. Johnson gave his speech outlining his Great Society program as the lead speaker during U-M's 1964 spring commencement ceremony. During the 1960s, the university campus was the site of numerous protests against the Vietnam War and university administration.
On March 24, 1965, a group of U-M faculty members and 3,000 students held the nation's first faculty-led "teach-in" to protest against American policy in