County Wexford is an eastern county in Ireland, bordered by the Irish Sea. It is part of the South-East Region, it is named after the town of Wexford and was based on the historic Gaelic territory of Hy Kinsella, whose capital was Ferns. Wexford County Council is the local authority for the county; the population of the county was 149,722 at the 2016 census. The county is rich in evidence of early human habitation. Portal tombs exist at Newbawn -- and date from the Neolithic period or earlier. Remains from the Bronze Age period are far more widespread. Early Irish tribes formed the Kingdom of Uí Cheinnsealaig, an area, larger than the current County Wexford. County Wexford was one of the earliest areas of Ireland to be Christianised, in the early 5th century. From 819 onwards, the Vikings invaded and plundered many Christian sites in the county. Vikings settled at Wexford town near the end of the 9th century. In 1169, Wexford was the site of the invasion of Ireland by Normans at the behest of Diarmuid Mac Murrough, King of Uí Cheinnsealaig and king of Leinster.
This was followed by the subsequent colonisation of the country by the Anglo-Normans. The native Irish began to regain some of their former territories in the 14th century in the north of the county, principally under Art MacMurrough Kavanagh. Under Henry VIII, the great religious houses were dissolved, 1536–41. On 23 October 1641, a major rebellion broke out in Ireland, County Wexford produced strong support for Confederate Ireland. Oliver Cromwell and his English Parliamentarian Army captured it; the lands of the Irish and Anglo-Normans were confiscated and given to Cromwell's soldiers as payment for their service in the Parliamentarian Army. At Duncannon, in the south-west of the county, James II, after his defeat at the Battle of the Boyne, embarked for Kinsale and to exile in France. County Wexford was the most important area in which the Irish Rebellion of 1798 was fought, during which significant battles occurred at The Battle of Oulart Hill during the 1798 rebellion. Vinegar Hill and New Ross.
The famous ballad "Boolavogue" was written in remembrance of the Wexford Rising. At Easter 1916, a small rebellion occurred on cue with that in Dublin. During World War II, German planes bombed Campile. In 1963 John F. Kennedy President of the United States, visited the county and his ancestral home at Dunganstown, near New Ross. Wexford is the 13th largest of Ireland's thirty-two counties in area, 14th largest in terms of population, it is the largest of Leinster's 12 counties in size, fourth largest in terms of population. The county is located in the south-east corner of the island of Ireland, it is bounded by the sea on two sides—on the south by the Atlantic Ocean and on the east by St. George's Channel and the Irish Sea; the River Barrow forms its western boundary. The Blackstairs Mountains form part of the boundary to the north, as do the southern edges of the Wicklow Mountains; the adjoining counties are Waterford, Kilkenny and Wicklow. County Town: Wexford Market Town: Gorey County Wexford is known as Ireland's "sunny southeast" because, in general, the number of hours of sunshine received daily is higher than in the rest of the country.
This has resulted in Wexford becoming one of the most popular places in Ireland in. The county has a changeable, oceanic climate with few extremes; the North Atlantic Drift, a continuation of the Gulf Stream, moderates winter temperatures. There is a meteorological station located at Rosslare Harbour. January and February are the coldest months, with temperatures ranging from 4–8 °C on average. July and August are the warmest months, with temperatures ranging from 12–18 °C on average; the prevailing winds are from the south-west. Precipitation falls throughout the year. Mean annual rainfall is 800–1,200 millimetres; the county receives less snow than more northerly parts of Ireland. Heavy snowfalls are rare, but can occur; the one exception is Mount Leinster, visible from a large portion of the county, covered with snow during the winter months. Frost is frequent in coastal areas. Low-lying fertile land is the characteristic landscape of the county; the highest point in the county is Mount Leinster at 795 metres, in the Blackstairs Mountains in the north-west on the boundary with County Carlow.
Other high points: Black Rock Mountain, 599 m. It is located within County Wexford. Croghan Mountain on the Wexford-Wicklow border - 606 m Annagh Hill, 454 m, near the Wicklow border Slieveboy, 420 m Notable hills include: Carrigbyrne Hill; the major rivers are the Barrow. At 192 km in length, the river Barrow is the second-longest river on the island of Ireland. Smaller rivers of note are the Owenduff, Corrock, Boro, Owenavorragh and Bann rivers. There are no significant fresh-water lakes in the county. Small seaside lakes or lagoons exist at two locations – one is called Lady's Island Lake and the other Tacumshin Lake; the Wexford Cot is a flat bottomed boat used for fishing on the tidal mudflats in Wexford a canoe shaped
Republic of Ireland national football team
The Republic of Ireland national football team represents Ireland in association football. It is governed by the Football Association of Ireland and stages its home fixtures at the Aviva Stadium in Dublin; the team made their debut at the 1924 Summer Olympics. Between 1924 and 1936, the team competed as the Irish Free State and from until 1950, it was referred to by the FAI as Éire or Ireland. In 1953, FIFA decreed that for competitive matches in tournaments that both Irish teams may enter, the FAI team would be called the Republic of Ireland while the IFA team was to be named Northern Ireland. Northern Ireland was allowed to use the title Ireland by FIFA in the Home International Competition until it was discontinued in 1984; the Republic of Ireland was the first nation from outside the United Kingdom to defeat England at home at a fixture played at Goodison Park, Liverpool, in 1949. The team reached the quarter-final stage of the 1964 European Nations' Cup, where they lost to the eventual winners Spain.
Under the guidance of Jack Charlton, the team enjoyed its most successful era, reaching their highest FIFA world ranking at sixth in August 1993, qualifying for UEFA Euro 1988 in their first appearance at the UEFA European Championship, reaching the quarter-finals of the 1990 FIFA World Cup in their first appearance at the finals, as well as making the last 16 at the 1994 edition. Charlton's successor Mick McCarthy lost out on the next two major tournaments but qualified for the 2002 World Cup, making it to the last 16. Under Giovanni Trapattoni, the team narrowly lost out on qualification for the 2010 World Cup during a controversial play-off, but went on to qualify for Euro 2012; the team failed to qualify for the 2014 World Cup in Brazil, marking the end of Trapattoni's tenure as manager. The Republic of Ireland fell to a record low FIFA ranking of 59th a record low of 70th in June 2014. For the next Euro qualifying campaign under manager Martin O'Neill, the Republic of Ireland finished third behind Germany and Poland, but went on to qualify for Euro 2016 after a 3–1 aggregate win over Bosnia and Herzegovina in the play-offs.
The Boys in Green reached the Round of 16 stage at that tournament and were knocked out by the hosts and eventual runners-up France after losing 2–1. Between 1882 and 1924, Ireland was represented by a single national football team organised by the Belfast-based Irish Football Association. In 1920, Ireland was partitioned into Northern Ireland and the Irish Free State Following the initial political upheavals surrounding Partition, a Dublin-based organisation calling itself the Football Association of the Irish Free State split from the IFA in 1921 and began organising its own league and national football team. In 1923, the FAIFS was recognised by FIFA as the governing body of football in the Irish Free State and at the 1924 Summer Olympics, the Irish Free State made their international debut. On 28 May, at the Stade Olympique, they beat Bulgaria 1–0, with Paddy Duncan scoring the team's first goal; as a result, they qualified for the quarter-finals. On 14 June 1924, the Irish Free State made their home debut against the United States, who had embarked on a brief European tour after competing in the same Summer Olympics.
Ed Brookes scored a hat-trick in a 3–1 home win at Dalymount Park. The Irish Free State did not play their next game until 21 March 1926, an away game against Italy lost 3–0. In subsequent years, the status of the Olympic Games football competition was downgraded and as a result, this game is regarded as the Irish Free State's first official game. On 25 February 1934, the Irish Free State made their FIFA World Cup debut, drawing 4–4 with Belgium at Dalymount Park in a 1934 FIFA World Cup qualifier. Paddy Moore scored all four of the Free State's goals and became the first player to score four goals in a World Cup game. After 1936, they reverted to the designation "Football Association of Ireland" and began to refer to their team as Éire or "Ireland". During this entire period, there were two Irish international football teams, chosen by two rival Associations. Both Associations, the Northern Ireland-based IFA and the Irish Free State-based FAI claimed jurisdiction over the whole of Ireland and considered themselves entitled to select players from the entire island.
At least 38 dual internationals were selected to represent both teams, however the overwhelming majority of these were Southerners who agreed to play for the IFA team, with only a bare handful "crossing the border" in the other direction. A 2–0 win over England at Goodison Park on 21 September 1949 was the first time England suffered a home defeat by a team outside the Home Countries of Scotland and the Ireland team run by the Belfast-based Irish FA. FIFA intervened when both teams entered 1950 World Cup qualification, the first time they had entered the same competition. Four players – Tom Aherne, Reg Ryan, Davy Walsh, Con Martin – played for the two different teams in the same FIFA World Cup tournament. All four players concerned had been born in the Irish Free State and made their full international debut in FAI colours before agreeing to represent the IFA team; this may have alarmed the FAI, since they subsequently lobbied FIFA to prevent the IFA from picking Southern-born players. FIFA's response was to restrict the eligibility of players on the basis of the border, further ruling in 1953 that ne
Bohemian Football Club, more referred to as Bohs, is a professional football club from Dublin, Ireland. Bohemians compete in the Premier Division of the League of Ireland, are the oldest League of Ireland club in continuous existence. Bohs are the third most successful club in League of Ireland football history, having won the League of Ireland title 11 times, the FAI Cup 7 times, the League of Ireland Shield 6 times and the League of Ireland Cup 3 times. Prior to the establishment of the Football Association of Ireland and League of Ireland, Bohemians competed in the Irish Football League and Irish Cup, which were at the time all-Ireland competitions. During that period they finished runners up 5 times, they share the record for most wins in European competition with archrivals Shamrock Rovers and hold the record for Leinster Senior Cup wins with 32 cups claimed. Bohemians were founded on 6 September 1890 in the Phoenix Park Gate Lodge beside the North Circular Road entrance and played its first games in the Park's Polo Grounds.
One of the founding members of the League of Ireland in 1921, after their withdrawal from the Irish Football League. They established themselves as a major force within the first 15 years of the League of Ireland, winning 5 league titles, 2 FAI Cups and 4 Shields, but struggled for decades after that due to their strict amateur status, going 34 seasons without winning a major trophy. Bohemians dropped their amateur ethos in 1969 and proceeded to win 2 League titles, 2 FAI Cups and 2 League cups during the 1970s, they suffered a further decline throughout the 1980s and most of the 1990s before claiming League and Cup doubles in 2001 and 2008, alongside the 2003 and most 2009 title wins. Bohemians play, they are owned 100% by the members of the club. Their club colours are red and black, which they adopted at the 4th AGM in October 1893. Bohemians supporters refer to their club by a number of nicknames including Bohs and The Gypsies, provide one half of a bitter rivalry with Southside club, Shamrock Rovers.
Additional reading: Bohemian F. C. SeasonsBohemians were founded on 6 September 1890, they were members of the Irish Football League from 1902 to 1911 and from 1912 to 1920. During this time the club's greatest success was winning the Irish Cup in 1908, it was a founding member of the League of Ireland in 1921, it is one of only two clubs to have been members of the League of Ireland since its inception, it is the only club to have been ever-present in the top division of the league. In its first season it finished second just two points behind St. James Gate; the club won its first league title in 1924. In 1928 the club won its second league title and completed a double that season by winning its first FAI Cup also; the club was one of the major forces in the early years of the league, going on to win another three league titles and another FAI Cup in the next eight seasons. After this success the club began to struggle finishing at the foot of the league and mounting a title challenge because of an inability to attract or keep top players due to its strict amateur status, a fundamental part of the club since its formation.
The club went 34 seasons without winning a major trophy. In 1969 the club ended its amateur status, the first player to sign professional terms was Tony O'Connell, who signed on 11 March 1969; the club went on to win two league titles, two FAI Cups and two league cups in the 1970s, more trophies than any other club that decade. In 1970 the club entered European competition for the first time where it was beaten in the first qualifying round of the European Cup Winners' Cup; the club went through another trophy-less spell after its 1979 league cup victory, not broken until the club won its fifth FAI Cup in 1992. It was not until 2001 that it regained the league title winning the FAI Cup that season to complete its second double. After adding another league title in 2003, Bohemians triumphed once again in 2008, under Pat Fenlon, winning the double of both the league for the tenth time with four league games still to play, the FAI cup in a penalty shoot-out. In September 2009, Bohemians claimed the League Cup for the third time in the club's history with a 3–1 win over Waterford United in the final.
On 6 November 2009, Bohemians retained the title after a 1–1 draw against Bray Wanderers. They were assured of the league title before the final round of matches as they held a three-point lead and 16-goal difference advantage over their nearest rivals Shamrock Rovers. Captain Owen Heary collected the Premier Division trophy for the club's first back-to-back league win. Bohs narrowly missed out on a hat trick of league titles on goal difference in 2010 in a season which seen them suffer European disappointment at the hands of Welsh club TNS. Bohemians' first permanent home ground was on the Polo Ground in Phoenix Park. Goal posts and other equipment were kept at Gate Lodge on North Circular Road, they remained there until the 1893–94 season when they obtained a private ground on Jones Road now known as Croke Park, the headquarters of the Gaelic Athletic Association. The space took in the ground occupied by the Old Belvedere playing pitches and now occupied by the Cusack Stand. For the first time it was possible for the club to build up some sort of finances, since a charge for admission was made at all important home matches.
They moved to a new home at Whitehall Farm, Glasnevin, in time for the start of the 1895–96 season but in those days, the area was out of the way and without public transpo
Valentine Harris referred to as Val Harris, was an Irish footballer who played Gaelic football for Dublin and soccer for, among others Shelbourne and Ireland. Harris was regarded as one of the finest soccer players of his generation and in 1906 became the first Shelbourne player capped by Ireland, he still remains the club's most capped player. In 1913 he captained the first Ireland team to beat England and in 1914 he was a member of the Ireland team that won the British Home Championship. Harris has been described as an hard player in the mode of Kevin Moran or Paul McGrath and like his Shelbourne and Ireland team mate, Bill Lacey, he was very versatile, covering just about every outfield position during his career. Harris played soccer with junior clubs Pembroke and Emeralds and in 1898 helped Pembroke reach the final of the Leinster Junior Cup, he was an accomplished Gaelic footballer during his teens and won honours at club level with Ringsend GAA team Isles of the Sea. In 1901 he won an All- Ireland medal with Dublin.
Harris is one of several prominent Dublin Gaelic footballers who switched codes to soccer. Others have included Con Martin, Joseph Ledwidge and Kevin Moran. In 1903 Harris made his debut for Shelbourne in the Leinster Senior League. In May 1904 he had a trial with West Bromwich Albion but returned to Shelbourne and made his Irish League debut in a 3–1 defeat to Glentoran on 17 September 1904 at Serpentine Avenue, Dublin. Harris went on to play in four consecutive Irish Cup finals and in the 1906 final was captain when Shelbourne beat Belfast Celtic 2–0 at Dalymount Park, becoming the first Dublin side to lift the trophy, his team mates during this era included, among Joseph Ledwidge and Bill Lacey. After four years at Everton, Harris returned to Shelbourne in August 1914. In 1920 Harris won the Irish Cup for a second time after both Belfast Celtic and Glentoran were expelled. In 1921 Shelbourne became founder members of the League of Ireland and in 1926 the club won the title. Harris remained a prominent member of the Shelbourne team well passed his fortieth birthday and his second spell at the club saw him play alongside Bill Lacey, Bob Fullam, Ed Brookes and Louis Bookman.
During his two spells with Shelbourne, Harris made 71 Irish League appearances, scoring 13 goals, 89 League of Ireland appearances, scoring 6 goals, a further 36 games and 12 goals in the Irish Cup. In March 1908 Harris moved to Everton for £350, the maximum amount allowed at the time, he made his debut for Everton against Woolwich Arsenal and established himself as the team's regular right-half. During his time at Everton he was noted for his consistency and effectiveness and played in six different positions. With Harris in the team, Everton challenged for top honours, twice finishing as League runners-up as well as reaching the semi-final stage in the 1910 FA Cup, his team mates at Everton included fellow Irish internationals Billy Scott and Bill Lacey, who had followed Harris from Shelbourne in February 1909. While at Everton, Harris scored 1 goal, he played a further 14 games and scored a further goal in the FA Cup. Harris made his debut for Ireland as a centre-forward on 17 February 1906 in a 5–0 defeat to England at the Solitude Ground.
His team mates that day included Jack Kirwan. He was the first Shelbourne player to be capped by Ireland and subsequently won a further six caps while at the club. Despite suffering a number of severe injuries related to his robust style of play, Harris was remarkably consistent in his appearances for Ireland and he featured in a run of thirteen consecutive internationals between 1908 and 1912. On 15 February 1913, Harris captained the Ireland team, that included Billy Scott and two-goal hero Billy Gillespie, as they beat England for the first time with a 2–1 win at Windsor Park. In 1914 Ireland won the British Home Championship. Harris and Gillespie were joined in the squad by among others, Patrick O’Connell, Louis Bookman and Bill Lacey. After retiring as player in 1927 Harris became a coach with both the Irish Free State and Shelbourne. In 1932 Harris took charge of the Irish team. Although the team was chosen by selectors, Harris gave the team talk. Before the game Harris declared Pat O'Callaghan put the tricolour flying high here in the 1928 Olympics and it's up to you lads to see it is still flying high this evening.
The words proved inspiring as an Irish team that included Alex Stevenson, Mick O'Brien, Jimmy Kelly and Paddy Moore won 2–0. Harris would coach and managed Shelbourne as they won the 1939 FAI Cup, their first success in that competition. Gaelic footballer Isles of the Sea Dublin Champions 1900, 1901: 2Dublin All- Ireland Champions 1901: 1Soccer player Shelbourne Irish Cup Winners 1906, 1920: 2 Runners Up 1905, 1907, 1908: 3 League of Ireland Winners 1925–26: 1 Runners Up 1922–23, 1923–24: 2 League of Ireland Shield Winners 1922, 1923, 1926: 3 Hospitals Cup Winners 1906 1 Leinster Cup Winners?? Everton First Division Runners Up 1908–09, 1911–12: 2Ireland British Champions: 1 1914Soccer manager Shelbourne FAI Cup Winners 1939 1 Who's Who of Everton: Tony Matthews The Boys in Green – The FAI International Story: Sean Ryan Northern Ireland’s Footballing Greats Picture of Harris Harris with the Shelbourne Team that won the 1906 Irish Cup Shelbourne official site Shelbourne fansite Irish Cup finals Date of Birth at IFFHS http://www.newsfour.ie/2014/08/valentines-days/
English Football League
The English Football League is a league competition featuring professional football clubs from England and Wales. Founded in 1888 as the Football League, the league is the oldest such competition in world football, it was the top-level football league in England from its foundation until 1992, when the top 22 clubs split away to form the Premier League. The three leagues below the Premier League are known as the Championship, League One and League Two, with 24 clubs in each division. Promotion and relegation between these divisions is a central feature of the League and is further extended to allow the top Championship clubs to exchange places with the lowest-placed clubs in the Premier League, the bottom clubs of League Two to switch with the top clubs of the National League, thus integrating the League into the English football league system. Although a competition for English clubs, clubs from Wales – Swansea City and Newport County – take part, while in the past Cardiff City, Merthyr Town and Aberdare Athletic have been members.
The Football League was associated with a title sponsor between 1983 and 2016. As this sponsor changed over the years the league too has been known by various names. Starting with the 2016–17 season, the league has moved away from having a title sponsor, rebranding itself as the English Football League, in much the same way the Premier League is known as the "EPL" internationally; the English Football League is the name of the governing body of the league competition, this body organises two knock-out cup competitions, the EFL Cup and the EFL Trophy. The operations centre of the Football League is in Preston, while its commercial office is in London; the commercial office was based in Lytham St Annes, after its original spell in Preston. The Football League consists of 70 professional association football clubs in England and 2 in Wales, it runs the oldest professional football league competition in the world. It organises two knockout cup competitions, the EFL Cup and EFL Trophy; the Football League was founded in 1888 by Aston Villa director William McGregor with 12 member clubs.
Steady growth and the addition of more divisions meant. Financial considerations led to a major shake-up in 1992 when, in a step to maximise their revenue, the leading members of the Football League broke away to form their own competition, the FA Premier League, renamed in 2007 as the Premier League; the Football League therefore no longer includes the top 20 clubs who belong to this group, although promotion and relegation between the Football League and the Premier League continues. In total, 136 teams have played in the Football League up to 2013; the EFL's 72 member clubs are grouped into three divisions: the EFL Championship, EFL League One, EFL League Two. Each division has 24 clubs, in any given season a club plays each of the others in the same division twice, once at their home stadium and once at that of their opponents; this makes for a total of 46 games played each season. Clubs gain three points for a win, one for a draw, none for a defeat. At the end of the season, clubs at the top of their division may win promotion to the next higher division, while those at the bottom may be relegated to the next lower one.
At the top end of the competition, three Championship clubs win promotion from the Football League to the Premier League, with the bottom three Premier League clubs taking their places. At the lower end, two League Two clubs lose their Football League status with relegation to the National division of the National League, while two teams from that division join League Two of The Football League in their stead. Promotion and relegation are determined by final league positions, but to sustain interest for more clubs over the length of the season one promotion place from each division is decided according to a playoff between four clubs, which takes place at the end of the season, it is therefore possible for a team finishing sixth in the Championship or League One, or seventh in League Two, to be promoted rather than the clubs finishing above them in the standings. Since the 2004–05 season, penalties have existed for clubs entering financial administration during the season. If a club enters administration before 31 March of any given season, they will be deducted 12 points.
It is required that a club exiting administration agree a Creditor's Voluntary Agreement, pay in full any other footballing creditors. Failure to do either of these will result in a second unlimited points deduction; the other main situation in, a club may lose points is by fielding an improperly registered or otherwise ineligible player. If a club is found to have done this any points earned from any match that player participated in will be deducted; the EFL organises two knock-out cup competitions: the EFL Trophy. The EFL Cup was established in 1960 and is open to all EFL and Premier League
Middlesbrough Football Club is a professional association football club based in Middlesbrough, North Yorkshire, England. They are competing in the EFL Championship, the second tier of English football. Formed in 1876, they have played at the Riverside Stadium since 1995, their third ground since turning professional in 1889, they played at the Linthorpe Road ground from 1882 to 1903 and at Ayresome Park for 92 years, from 1903 to 1995. They were one of the founding members of the Premier League in 1992 and became one of the first clubs to be relegated from it following the 1992–93 season; the club came close to folding in 1986 after experiencing severe financial difficulties before it was saved by a consortium led by board member and chairman Steve Gibson. The club's main rivals are Newcastle United. There is a rivalry with fellow Yorkshire club Leeds United. Middlesbrough won the League Cup in the club's first and only major trophy, they were beaten by Spanish side Sevilla. The club's highest league finish to date was third in the 1913–14 season and they have only spent two seasons outside the Football League's top two divisions.
The League Cup win and the UEFA Cup run was part of an 11-year consecutive stay in the Premier League, before a relegation in 2009. Although the club returned in 2016, instant relegation followed; the club's traditional kit is red with white detailing. The various crests throughout the club's history, the most recent of, adopted in 2007, incorporate a lion rampant, they won the FA Amateur Cup in 1895 and again in 1898. The club turned professional in 1889, but reverted to amateur status in 1892, they turned professional permanently in 1899. After three seasons, they won promotion to the First Division, where they would remain for the next 22 years. In 1903, the club moved to their home for the next 92 years. In 1905, the club sanctioned the transfer of Alf Common for £1,000, a record fee. Over the next few years, their form fluctuated rising to sixth in 1907–08 before dropping to 17th two seasons later; the club rose to their highest league finish to date, third, in 1913–14. World War I soon intervened and football was suspended.
Before league football resumed, Middlesbrough won the Northern Victory League, but the team were unable to maintain their previous form and finished the 1919–20 season in mid-table. They remained in the First Division for the next few seasons, but were relegated in 1923–24 after finishing bottom, 10 points adrift of their nearest rivals. Three seasons they won the Division Two title. During that season, debutant George Camsell, who had signed from Third Division North side Durham City the previous season, finished with a record 59 league goals, which included nine hat-tricks, he would continue as top scorer for each of the next 10 seasons. Their tenure back in the top flight lasted only one season, the club were relegated, they were promoted at the first attempt in 1928–29, winning another Second Division title. The club remained in the First Division until 1954; the decade before the war saw the emergence of Wilf Mannion and George Hardwick, both of whom would go on to become England internationals in the years ahead.
Middlesbrough climbed to fourth in the last full season before World War II and were expected to challenge for the title next season, but the war intervened. After the war, the club was unable to recover the form of the previous seasons and hovered around mid-table and exited in the early rounds of the FA Cup. Soon afterwards, the team began to falter suffering relegation in 1953–54; this was the start of a 20-year spell outside the top division, but saw the emergence of one of the club's top goalscorers, Brian Clough, who scored 204 goals in 222 games, before he left for Sunderland. Over that period, Middlesbrough maintained reasonable progress in the Second Division but were never serious contenders for promotion. After a fourth-place finish in 1962–63, the club endured a steady decline and were relegated to the Third Division for the first time in their history in 1966. New manager Stan Anderson returned the club to the second flight at the first attempt. Middlesbrough would not finish below ninth during the next eight seasons.
By 1974, Jack Charlton had guided the team back to the top flight. They ensured promotion as early as 23 March, with eight games of the season left, they became runaway champions, finishing with a record 65 points. Middlesbrough won their first silverware as a professional side in the 1975–76 season, lifting the Anglo-Scottish Cup in its inaugural season after a two-legged final win over Fulham; the club experienced severe financial difficulties during the mid-1980s. Middlesbrough were dropping down the table, finished 19th in the 1984–85 season. In April 1986, the club had to borrow £30,000 from the Professional Footballers' Association to pay wages; the final game of the season saw Middlesbrough relegated to the Third Division again. That summer, the club called in the Provisional Liquidator and shortly afterwards, the club was wound up and the gates to Ayresome Park were padlocked. Without the £350,000 capital required for Football League registration, a new rule, it seemed inevitable that the club would fold permanently.
Steve Gibson, however, a member of the board at the time, brought together a consortium, with 10 minutes to spare before the deadline they completed their registration with the Football League for the 1986–87 season. Following the registration came both a change of club crest and a change of the official company name to Middlesbrough Football and Athletic Club Ltd. Over the next two seasons, Middlesbrough gained successive promotions into Division Two and into Division One; the nex
Tottenham Hotspur F.C.
Tottenham Hotspur Football Club referred to as Tottenham or Spurs, is a professional football club in Tottenham, England, that competes in the Premier League. Tottenham Hotspur Stadium has been the club's home ground since 2019, replacing their former home of White Hart Lane, demolished to make way for the new stadium on the same site, their training ground is on Hotspur Way in Bulls Cross in the London Borough of Enfield. Tottenham have played in a first strip of white shirts and navy blue shorts since the 1898–99 season; the club's emblem is a cockerel standing upon a football, with a Latin motto Audere est Facere. Founded in 1882, Tottenham won the FA Cup for the first time in 1901, the only non-League club to do so since the formation of the Football League in 1888. Tottenham were the first club in the 20th century to achieve the League and FA Cup Double, winning both competitions in the 1960–61 season. After defending the FA Cup in 1962, in 1963 they became the first British club to win a UEFA club competition – the European Cup Winners' Cup.
They were the inaugural winners of the UEFA Cup in 1972, becoming the first British club to win two different major European trophies. They have collected at least one major trophy in each of the six decades from the 1950s to 2000s – an achievement only matched by Manchester United. In total, Spurs have won two league titles, eight FA Cups, four League Cups, seven FA Community Shields, one European Cup Winners' Cup and two UEFA Cups; the club has a long-standing rivalry with nearby club Arsenal, with head-to-head fixtures known as the North London derby. Named Hotspur Football Club, the club was formed on 5 September 1882 by a group of schoolboys led by Bobby Buckle, they were members of the Hotspur Cricket Club and the football club was formed to play sports during the winter months. A year the boys sought help with the club from John Ripsher, the Bible class teacher at All Hallows Church, who became the first president of the club and its treasurer. Ripsher helped and supported the boys through the club's formative years and found premises for the club.
In April 1884 the club was renamed "Tottenham Hotspur Football Club" to avoid confusion with another club, London Hotspur, whose post had been mistakenly delivered to North London. Nicknames for the club include "Spurs" and "the Lilywhites"; the boys played games between themselves and friendly matches against other local clubs. The first recorded match took place on 30 September 1882 against a local team named the Radicals, which Hotspur lost 2–0; the team entered their first cup competition in the London Association Cup, won 5–2 in their first competitive match on 17 October 1885 against a company's works team called St Albans. The club's fixtures began to attract the interest of the local community and attendances at its home matches increased. In 1892, they played for the first time in the short-lived Southern Alliance; the club turned professional on 20 December 1895 and, in the summer of 1896, was admitted to Division One of the Southern League. On 2 March 1898, the club became a limited company, the Tottenham Hotspur Football and Athletic Company.
Soon after, Frank Brettell became the first manager of Spurs, he signed John Cameron, who took over as player-manager when Brettell left a year later. Cameron would have a significant impact on Spurs, helping the club win its first trophy, the Southern League title in the 1899-1900 season; the following year Spurs won the 1901 FA Cup by beating Sheffield United 3–1 in a replay of the final, after the first game ended in a 2-2 draw. In doing so they became the only non-League club to achieve the feat after the formation of The Football League in 1888. In 1908, the club was elected into the Football League Second Division and won promotion to the First Division in their first season, finished runners-up in their first year in the league. In 1912, Peter McWilliam became manager. Spurs were relegated to the Second Division on the resumption of league football after the war, but returned to the First Division as Second Division champions of the 1919–20 season. On 23 April 1921, McWilliam guided Spurs to their second FA Cup win, beating Wolverhampton Wanderers 1–0 in the Cup Final.
Spurs finished second to Liverpool in the league in 1922, but would finish mid-table in the next five seasons. Spurs were relegated in the 1927–28 season after McWilliam left. For most of the 1930s and 40s, Spurs languished in the Second Division, apart from a brief return to the top flight in the 1933–34 and 1934–35 seasons. Former Spurs player Arthur Rowe became manager in 1949. Rowe developed a style of play, known as "push and run", that proved to be successful in his early years as manager, he took the team back to the First Division after finishing top of the Second Division in the 1949–50 season. In his second season in charge, Tottenham won their first top tier league championship title when they finished top of the First Division for the 1950–51 season. Rowe resigned in April 1955 due to a stress-induced illness from managing the club. Before he left, he signed one of Spurs' most celebrated players, Danny Blanchflower, who would win the FWA Footballer of the Year twice while at Tottenham.
Bill Nicholson took over as manager in October 1958. He would become the club's most successful manager, guiding the team to major trophy success three seasons in a row in the early 1960s: the Double in 1961, the FA Cup in 1962 and the Cup Winners' Cup in 1963. Nicholson signed Dave Mackay and John White in 1959, two influential players of the Double-winning team, Jimmy Greaves in 19