United States House of Representatives
The United States House of Representatives is the lower chamber of the United States Congress which, along with the Senate, composes the legislature of the United States. The composition and powers of the House are established by Article One of the United States Constitution, since its inception in 1789, all representatives are elected popularly. The total number of voting representatives is fixed by law at 435, the House is charged with the passage of federal legislation, known as bills, after concurrence by the Senate, are sent to the President for consideration. The presiding officer is the Speaker of the House, who is elected by the members thereof and is traditionally the leader of the controlling party. He or she and other leaders are chosen by the Democratic Caucus or the Republican Conferences. The House meets in the wing of the United States Capitol. Under the Articles of Confederation, the Congress of the Confederation was a body in which each state was equally represented. All states except Rhode Island agreed to send delegates, the issue of how to structure Congress was one of the most divisive among the founders during the Convention.
The House is referred to as the house, with the Senate being the upper house. Both houses approval is necessary for the passage of legislation, the Virginia Plan drew the support of delegates from large states such as Virginia and Pennsylvania, as it called for representation based on population. The smaller states, favored the New Jersey Plan, the Constitution was ratified by the requisite number of states in 1788, but its implementation was set for March 4,1789. The House began work on April 1,1789, when it achieved a quorum for the first time, during the first half of the 19th century, the House was frequently in conflict with the Senate over regionally divisive issues, including slavery. The North was much more populous than the South, and therefore dominated the House of Representatives, the North held no such advantage in the Senate, where the equal representation of states prevailed. Regional conflict was most pronounced over the issue of slavery, One example of a provision repeatedly supported by the House but blocked by the Senate was the Wilmot Proviso, which sought to ban slavery in the land gained during the Mexican–American War.
Conflict over slavery and other issues persisted until the Civil War, the war culminated in the Souths defeat and in the abolition of slavery. Because all southern senators except Andrew Johnson resigned their seats at the beginning of the war, the years of Reconstruction that followed witnessed large majorities for the Republican Party, which many Americans associated with the Unions victory in the Civil War and the ending of slavery. The Reconstruction period ended in about 1877, the ensuing era, the Democratic and the Republican Party held majorities in the House at various times. The late 19th and early 20th centuries saw an increase in the power of the Speaker of the House
United States Senate
The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress which, along with the House of Representatives, the lower chamber, composes the legislature of the United States. The composition and powers of the Senate are established by Article One of the United States Constitution. S. From 1789 until 1913, Senators were appointed by the legislatures of the states represented, following the ratification of the Seventeenth Amendment in 1913. The Senate chamber is located in the wing of the Capitol, in Washington. It further has the responsibility of conducting trials of those impeached by the House, in the early 20th century, the practice of majority and minority parties electing their floor leaders began, although they are not constitutional officers. This idea of having one chamber represent people equally, while the other gives equal representation to states regardless of population, was known as the Connecticut Compromise, there was a desire to have two Houses that could act as an internal check on each other.
One was intended to be a Peoples House directly elected by the people, the other was intended to represent the states to such extent as they retained their sovereignty except for the powers expressly delegated to the national government. The Senate was thus not designed to serve the people of the United States equally, the Constitution provides that the approval of both chambers is necessary for the passage of legislation. First convened in 1789, the Senate of the United States was formed on the example of the ancient Roman Senate, the name is derived from the senatus, Latin for council of elders. James Madison made the comment about the Senate, In England, at this day, if elections were open to all classes of people. An agrarian law would take place. If these observations be just, our government ought to secure the permanent interests of the country against innovation, landholders ought to have a share in the government, to support these invaluable interests, and to balance and check the other.
They ought to be so constituted as to protect the minority of the opulent against the majority, the senate, ought to be this body, and to answer these purposes, the people ought to have permanency and stability. The Constitution stipulates that no constitutional amendment may be created to deprive a state of its equal suffrage in the Senate without that states consent, the District of Columbia and all other territories are not entitled to representation in either House of the Congress. The District of Columbia elects two senators, but they are officials of the D. C. city government. The United States has had 50 states since 1959, thus the Senate has had 100 senators since 1959. In 1787, Virginia had roughly ten times the population of Rhode Island, whereas today California has roughly 70 times the population of Wyoming and this means some citizens are effectively two orders of magnitude better represented in the Senate than those in other states. Seats in the House of Representatives are approximately proportionate to the population of each state, before the adoption of the Seventeenth Amendment in 1913, Senators were elected by the individual state legislatures
Robert Warren Bob Schaffer is a Republican former member of the United States House of Representatives from the State of Colorado in the 105th Congress and the two succeeding Congresses. In 2004, Schaffer lost in the election to be the Republican nominee for a U. S. Senate seat. He was the Republican nominee for Colorados other Senate seat in the 2008 election, Schaffer was born in Cincinnati and raised Roman Catholic. He attended Archbishop Moeller High School, the son of public-school teachers, Schaffer worked his way through college as a farm hand. In 1984, he graduated from the University of Dayton with a B. A. in Political Science and he was awarded an honorary doctorate in Management from Colorado Technical University. Schaffer served for nine years as a Colorado State Senator in the Colorado General Assembly, Schaffer was only 25 years old in 1987 when he was appointed to finish Colorado State Senator Jim Beattys term, making Schaffer the youngest to serve in Colorados Senate. As a Colorado Senator, he was Chairman of the Finance Committee, the State Veterans and Military Affairs Committee, Schaffer was the Vice-Chairman of the Senate Education Committee.
Schaffer was awarded the National Republican Legislator of the Year for 1995 by the National Republican Legislators Association, in 1993, Schaffer made headlines when he removed a display from the Capitol—that was in clear view of visiting children—that contained pamphlets describing unsafe sexual practices. Schaffer was first elected to the U. S. Congress in November 1996 representing Colorados 4th congressional district, succeeding Wayne Allard, Schaffer served three terms in Congress, fulfilling the three-term pledge he made during his first Congressional campaign. Schaffer upheld his pledge in spite of pleas from national Republicans, Schaffer lead no less than four congressional delegations to Ukraine, and offered an ultimately unsuccessful balanced budget resolution and amendment. He was described as fiscally and socially conservative and to the right of the center of the party and his education policy work focused on school-choice and local control, and Schaffer was remembered for being able to help his Republican colleagues form their arguments when debating this issue.
He was succeeded by Marilyn Musgrave in January 2003, Schaffer’s congressional colleagues recount his tenure in congress as an education-policy expert. Schaffer currently serves as the principal of Liberty Common High School. Under his leadership, each graduating class at Liberty Common has posted the highest average composite ACT score in Colorado, with the class of 2015 breaking the state record. Schaffer was vice-president for business development at Aspect Energy, LLC. where he was involved in a variety of energy and education projects, working primarily in wind energy. Schaffer has been chairman of the Leadership Program of the Rockies, Schaffer was an opinion columnist for the now-defunct Northern Colorado Courier. Since 2003, Schaffer has been chairman of Leadership Program of the Rockies, http, //www. coloradoan. com/story/opinion/2016/09/08/bob-schaffer-liberty-common-congress-colorado-coloradoan/90002122/ In March 2005, Schaffer was elected Republican National Committeeman for Colorado.
He successfully ran for the seat in 2006, against Democrat Tom Griggs, in January,2009, Schaffer was made chairman of the Colorado State Board of Education with a unanimous decision of the four Republican and thee Democrat board members
Stephen F. Austin State University
Stephen F. Austin State University is a public university located in Nacogdoches, United States. Founded as a college in 1923, the university was named after one of Texass founding fathers. Its campus resides on part of the homestead of Thomas Jefferson Rusk, Stephen F. Austin is one of four independent public universities in Texas. In 2015, Stephen F. Austin accepted 62% of applications, Stephen F. Austin State University is accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools to award bachelors and doctoral degrees. The Stephen F. Austin Lumberjacks are members of the Southland Conference, the Lumberjacks football team competes in the NCAA Division I Football Championship Subdivision. The Lumberjacks basketball team has made four appearances in the NCAA Division I Tournament, SFA has served students from 46 states outside of Texas and 42 countries outside the United States. Stephen F. Austin offers more than 120 areas of study, including more than 80 undergraduate majors, nearly 60 graduate degrees, Stephen F.
Austin offers classes through six colleges, and houses one of only two schools of forestry in the State of Texas. The Forestry and the Agriculture school at Stephen F. Austin is nationally recognized, during the 2014–2015 academic year, there were 2,690 degrees awarded. Of those degrees,2,108 were undergraduate,558 were post-graduate, since 2007, Stephen F. Austin has served as the headquarters of the Association for Business Communication. Stephen F. Austin ranked #76 in the 2011 U. S. News & World Report edition of Best Colleges, nelson Rusche College of Business James I. All of SFAs athletic teams participate in the Southland Conference which hosts teams from the states of Texas, Arkansas, Stephen F. Austins color are Purple and White. Stephen F. Austin sports teams participate in NCAA Division I for football in the Southland Conference, SFAs football team earned a berth into the FCS playoffs in 2009, which was the first for the university since 1995. The team earned a berth in 2010, marking the first time in the programs history that the team had reached the playoffs in consecutive seasons.
The 2010 season marked the first time that the school had won a conference championship since 1989. Stephen F. Austins only bowl appearance was the 1973 Poultry Bowl, the mens basketball team reached its first NCAA tournament in 2009 after winning the Southland Conference regular season and tournament. They lost 59–44 to Syracuse University, in their second appearance in 2014, they upset Virginia Commonwealth in overtime, 77–75. In their third appearance in 2016, they upset 3rd seeded West Virginia 70–56, in the second round against 6th seeded Notre Dame they lost 77–76 on a buzzer beater by Notre Dames Rex Pflueger. The annual Parents Day is one of the largest student run programs on the campus of SFA, Parents and family members of students visit the campus every fall for a day of activities and school spirit
Federal government of the United States
The Federal Government of the United States is the national government of the United States, a republic in North America, composed of 50 states, one district, Washington, D. C. and several territories. The federal government is composed of three branches, legislative and judicial, whose powers are vested by the U. S. Constitution in the Congress, the President, and the courts, including the Supreme Court. The powers and duties of these branches are defined by acts of Congress. The full name of the republic is United States of America, no other name appears in the Constitution, and this is the name that appears on money, in treaties, and in legal cases to which it is a party. The terms Government of the United States of America or United States Government are often used in documents to represent the federal government as distinct from the states collectively. In casual conversation or writing, the term Federal Government is often used, the terms Federal and National in government agency or program names generally indicate affiliation with the federal government.
Because the seat of government is in Washington, D. C, Washington is commonly used as a metonym for the federal government. The outline of the government of the United States is laid out in the Constitution, the government was formed in 1789, making the United States one of the worlds first, if not the first, modern national constitutional republics. The United States government is based on the principles of federalism and republicanism, some make the case for expansive federal powers while others argue for a more limited role for the central government in relation to individuals, the states or other recognized entities. For example, while the legislative has the power to create law, the President nominates judges to the nations highest judiciary authority, but those nominees must be approved by Congress. The Supreme Court, in its turn, has the power to invalidate as unconstitutional any law passed by the Congress and these and other examples are examined in more detail in the text below. The United States Congress is the branch of the federal government.
It is bicameral, comprising the House of Representatives and the Senate, the House currently consists of 435 voting members, each of whom represents a congressional district. The number of each state has in the House is based on each states population as determined in the most recent United States Census. All 435 representatives serve a two-year term, each state receives a minimum of one representative in the House. There is no limit on the number of terms a representative may serve, in addition to the 435 voting members, there are six non-voting members, consisting of five delegates and one resident commissioner. In contrast, the Senate is made up of two senators from each state, regardless of population, there are currently 100 senators, who each serve six-year terms
In finance, a bond is an instrument of indebtedness of the bond issuer to the holders. The most common types of bonds include municipal bonds and corporate bonds, interest is usually payable at fixed intervals. Very often the bond is negotiable, that is, the ownership of the instrument can be transferred in the secondary market and this means that once the transfer agents at the bank medallion stamp the bond, it is highly liquid on the second market. Thus, a bond is a form of loan or IOU, the holder of the bond is the lender, the issuer of the bond is the borrower, and the coupon is the interest. Bonds provide the borrower with funds to finance long-term investments, or, in the case of government bonds. Certificates of deposit or short term commercial paper are considered to be money market instruments and not bonds, the main difference is in the length of the term of the instrument. Bonds and stocks are both securities, but the difference between the two is that stockholders have an equity stake in the company, whereas bondholders have a creditor stake in the company.
Being a creditor, bondholders have priority over stockholders and this means they will be repaid in advance of stockholders, but will rank behind secured creditors in the event of bankruptcy. Another difference is that usually have a defined term, or maturity, after which the bond is redeemed. An exception is a bond, such as a consol, which is a perpetuity, that is. Bonds are issued by authorities, credit institutions, companies. The most common process for issuing bonds is through underwriting, when a bond issue is underwritten, one or more securities firms or banks, forming a syndicate, buy the entire issue of bonds from the issuer and re-sell them to investors. The security firm takes the risk of being unable to sell on the issue to end investors. Primary issuance is arranged by bookrunners who arrange the bond issue, have contact with investors and act as advisers to the bond issuer in terms of timing. The bookrunner is listed first among all participating in the issuance in the tombstone ads commonly used to announce bonds to the public.
The bookrunners willingness to underwrite must be discussed prior to any decision on the terms of the issue as there may be limited demand for the bonds. In contrast, government bonds are issued in an auction. In some cases, both members of the public and banks may bid for bonds, in other cases, only market makers may bid for bonds
The Colorado Senate is the upper house of the Colorado General Assembly, the state legislature of the US state of Colorado. It is composed of 35 members elected from districts, with each district having a population of about 123,000 as of the 2000 census. Senators are elected to terms, and are limited to two consecutive terms in office. The Colorado Senate convenes at the State Capitol in Denver, the first meeting of the Colorado General Assembly took place from November 1,1876, through March 20,1877. Lafayette Head was the first state senate president, fred Anderson was the first state senate president elected after the amendment. The Colorado Senate has 35 members, elected to four-year terms, State senators are term-limited to two consecutive terms. Term-limited former members can run again after a four-year break, vacancies in legislative offices are generally filled by political party vacancy committees, rather than by-elections. With the notable exceptions listed below, the Colorado Senate operates in a quite similar to the United States Senate.
Regular sessions are held annually and begin no than the second Wednesday in January, regular sessions last no more than 120 days. Special sessions may be called at any time by the governor of Colorado or upon written request of two-thirds of the members of each house, some committees of the General Assembly work between sessions and have limited power to take action without General Assembly approval between legislative sessions. Most bills adopted by the General Assembly include a safety clause, colorados legislature does not have an analog to the filibuster in the United States Senate requiring a supermajority for approval of any matter. The state lieutenant governor does not have the power to preside or break tie votes in either house of the General Assembly, new executive branch rules are reviewed annually by the legislature and the legislature routinely invalidates some of them each year. The General Assembly does not have a role in the appointment or retention of state judges, many state agencies and programs are subject to sunset review and are automatically abolished if the General Assembly does not reauthorize them.
In 1885, the Colorado Senate appointed its first chaplain, Methodist circuit riding missionary, the governor submits a proposed budget to the Joint Budget Committee each year in advance of the years legislative session. Colorados fiscal year is from July 1 to June 30, a state budget, called the LONG Bill is prepared each year by the Joint Budget Committee of the General Assembly. The House and the Senate alternate the job of introducing the long bill, colorados state legislature is required to obtain voter approval in order to incur significant debt, to raise taxes, or to increase state constitutional spending limitations. It is required to comply with a state constitutional spending mandate for K-12 education, the governor has line item veto power over appropriations. Based on the 2010 census, each state senator represents 143,691 constituents, the 2014 Colorado elections resulted in the Republican Party winning their first majority in a decade
In the 1976 presidential election, Dole was the Republican Party nominee for Vice President and incumbent President Gerald Fords running mate. He ran unsuccessfully for the Republican presidential nomination in 1980 and 1988, in 1996, Dole secured the Republican nomination for President of the United States, but lost the general election to incumbent President Bill Clinton. Dole is currently a member of the council of the Victims of Communism Memorial Foundation and special counsel at the Washington. Dole is married to former U. S. cabinet member and former U. S, Senator Elizabeth Hanford Dole of North Carolina. Dole was born on July 22,1923, in Russell, Doles father, who had moved the family to Russell shortly before Robert was born, earned money by running a small creamery. One of Doles fathers customers was the father of future Senator Arlen Specter, during the Great Depression, which severely impacted Kansas and its residents, the Dole family moved to the basement of their home and eventually rented out the upper floors to raise money.
As a boy, Dole worked as a jerk in the local drug store. Dole graduated from Russell High School in the spring of 1941, Dole had been a star high school athlete in Russell, and Kansas basketball coach Phog Allen traveled to Russell to recruit him to play for the Jayhawks basketball team. While at KU, Dole played for the team, the track team. In football, Dole played at the end position, earning varsity letters in 1942 and 1944, while in college, Dole joined the Kappa Sigma Fraternity, and in 1970 was bestowed with the Fraternitys Man of the Year honor. Doles pre-med studies at KU were interrupted by World War II, after the war, Dole returned to become a law student. Dole attended the University of Arizona from 1948 to 1951 and earned both his law degree and BA degrees from Washburn University in 1952, Dole was initiated as a Freemason of Russell Lodge No. 177, Kansas on April 19,1955, Dole grew up in a house at 1035 North Maple in Russell and it remained his official residence throughout his political career.
In 1942, Dole joined the United States Armys Enlisted Reserve Corps to fight in World War II, Dole was transported to the United States, where his recovery was slow, interrupted by blood clots and a life-threatening infection. After large doses of penicillin had not succeeded, Dole overcame the infection with the administration of streptomycin and he nevertheless remained despondent, not ready to accept the fact that my life would be changed forever. He was encouraged to see Hampar Kelikian, an orthopedist in Chicago who had working with veterans returning from war. Dr. K, as Dole came to call him, operated on him seven times, free of charge, and had, in Doles words. Dole recovered from his wounds at the Percy Jones Army Hospital, Dole was decorated three times, receiving two Purple Hearts for his injuries, and the Bronze Star with combat V for valor for his attempt to assist a downed radioman
University of Texas at Austin
Founded in 1881 as The University of Texas, its campus is in Austin, Texas—approximately 1 mile from the Texas State Capitol. The institution has the nations seventh-largest single-campus enrollment, with over 50,000 undergraduate and graduate students and over 24,000 faculty, UT Austin was inducted into the American Association of Universities in 1929, becoming only the third university in the American South to be elected. It is a center for academic research, with research expenditures exceeding $550 million for the 2014–2015 school year. J. Pickle Research Campus and the McDonald Observatory, among university faculty are recipients of the Nobel Prize, Pulitzer Prize, the Wolf Prize, the Emmy Award, the Turing Award, and the National Medal of Science, as well as many other awards. UT Austin student athletes compete as the Texas Longhorns and are members of the Big 12 Conference and its Longhorn Network is the only sports network featuring the college sports of a single university. The first mention of a university in Texas can be traced to the 1827 constitution for the Mexican state of Coahuila y Tejas.
Although Title 6, Article 217 of the Constitution promised to establish education in the arts and sciences. On April 18,1838, An Act to Establish the University of Texas was referred to a committee of the Texas Congress. On January 26,1839, the Texas Congress agreed to set aside fifty leagues of land towards the establishment of a publicly funded university, in addition,40 acres in the new capital of Austin were reserved and designated College Hill. In 1845, Texas was annexed into the United States, the states Constitution of 1845 failed to mention higher education. On February 11,1858, the Seventh Texas Legislature approved O. B,102, an act to establish the University of Texas, which set aside $100,000 in United States bonds toward construction of the states first publicly funded university. The legislature designated land reserved for the encouragement of railroad construction toward the universitys endowment, Texas secession from the Union and the American Civil War delayed repayment of the borrowed monies.
At the end of the Civil War in 1865, The University of Texas endowment was just over $16,000 in warrants, the more valuable lands reverted to the fund to support general education in the state. The legislature additionally appropriated $256,272.57 to repay the funds taken from the university in 1860 to pay for frontier defense, the 1883 grant of land increased the land in the Permanent University Fund to almost 2.2 million acres. Under the Act of 1858, the university was entitled to just over 1,000 acres of land for every mile of railroad built in the state. On March 30,1881, the legislature set forth the structure and organization. By popular election on September 6,1881, Austin was chosen as the site, having come in second in the election was designated the location of the medical department. On November 17,1882, on the original College Hill, smite the earth, smite the rocks with the rod of knowledge and fountains of unstinted wealth will gush forth
Supply-side economics is a macroeconomic theory that argues economic growth can be most effectively created by investing in capital and by lowering barriers on the production of goods and services. It was started by economist Robert Mundell during the Ronald Reagan administration, typical policy recommendations of supply-side economists are lower marginal tax rates and less government regulation. The term supply-side economics was thought, for time, to have been coined by journalist Jude Wanniski in 1975. Its use connotes the ideas of economists Robert Mundell and Arthur Laffer, the Laffer curve is one of the main theoretical constructs of supply-side economics. However, the Laffer curve only measures the rate of taxation, not tax incidence, in addition, some studies have shown that tax cuts done in the US in the past several decades seldom recoup revenue losses and have minimal impact on GDP growth. It drew on a range of economic thought, particularly the Chicago School. Classical Liberals opposed taxes because they opposed government, taxation being the latters most obvious form and their claim was that each man had a right to himself and his property and therefore taxation was immoral and of questionable legal grounding.
Supply-side economists, on the hand, argued that the alleged collective benefit provided the main impetus for tax cuts. As in classical economics, supply-side economics proposed that production or supply is the key to economic prosperity, john Maynard Keynes, the founder of Keynesianism, summarized Says Law as supply creates its own demand. He turned Says Law on its head in the 1930s by declaring that demand creates its own supply. S, monetary policy under Nixon in the 1970s. Wanniski advocated lower tax rates and a return to some kind of gold standard, in 1983, economist Victor Canto, a disciple of Arthur Laffer, published The Foundations of Supply-Side Economics. This theory focuses on the effects of tax rates on the incentive to work and save. While the latter focus on changes in the rate of growth in the long run. This led the supply-siders to advocate large reductions in income and capital gains tax rates to encourage allocation of assets to investment. Jude Wanniski and many advocate an zero capital gains rate.
The increased aggregate supply would result in increased demand, hence the term Supply-Side Economics. Supply-side economics holds that increased taxation steadily reduces economic trade between economic participants within a nation and that it discourages investment, taxes act as a type of trade barrier or tariff that causes economic participants to revert to less efficient means of satisfying their needs. As such, higher taxation leads to lower levels of specialization, the idea is said to be illustrated by the Laffer curve