Princeton Tigers football
Princeton’s football program—along with the football program at nearby Rutgers University—is the oldest in the world. The schools competed in American footballs first intercollegiate contest in 1869, students from The College of New Jersey traveled to New Brunswick, New Jersey on November 6,1869 to play Rutgers College in a new variant of rugby called football. Rutgers won the inaugural game 6 runs to 4 runs, a week later, Rutgers students traveled to Princeton, New Jersey for a rematch, which Princeton won. Due in part to their invention of the sport, the Tigers were one of the dominant forces in the days of intercollegiate football. The Tigers won their last national championship in 1950 when Dick Kazmaier, the policy further insulated Princeton and the Ivy League from the national spotlight. Despite an undefeated season in 1964, Princeton was not among the top 10 teams in the season-ending AP Poll, the NCAA split Division I collegiate football into two subdivisions in 1978, called I-A for larger schools, and I-AA for the smaller ones.
The NCAA had devised the split, in part, with the Ivy League in mind, unable to play competitively against long-time rival Rutgers anymore, Princeton stopped scheduling them as a football opponent after 1980. Then in 1982 the NCAA created a rule that stated an average attendance must be at least 15,000 to qualify for I-A membership. This forced the hand, as only some of the member schools met the attendance qualification. Choosing to stay rather than stand their ground separately in the increasingly competitive I-A subdivision. Despite often finishing its seasons ranked in the subdivision, Princeton cannot play in the NCAA Division I Football Championship per Ivy League rules. Most recently, Princeton instituted a coaching change as ten-year coach Roger Hughes was replaced by Cincinnati Bengals assistant offensive line coach Bob Surace. Surace was an All-Ivy league center at Princeton and graduated in 1990, beginning in 2018 Princeton will play Penn in their final game, intensifying the already heated rivalry between these two neighboring Ivy League schools.
Conference championships,1957,1963,1964,1966,1969,1989,1992,1995,2006,2013, and 2016. In 1914, Princeton built Palmer Stadium, the college football stadium ever built. Palmer Stadium was modeled after the Greek Olympic stadium and seated 45,750 spectators, in the 1990s the university decided to demolish it for a new stadium rather than undertake a long and expensive renovation process, as Harvard had with its stadium in 1984. During the construction of the new stadium, the Tigers played a season of nine away games, Princeton University Stadium opened on September 19,1998 and seats 27,773. After eight years of grass fields, FieldTurf artificial playing surface was installed for the 2006 football season
President of the United States
The President of the United States is the head of state and head of government of the United States. The president directs the executive branch of the government and is the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces. The president is considered to be one of the worlds most powerful political figures, the role includes being the commander-in-chief of the worlds most expensive military with the second largest nuclear arsenal and leading the nation with the largest economy by nominal GDP. The office of President holds significant hard and soft power both in the United States and abroad, Constitution vests the executive power of the United States in the president. The president is empowered to grant federal pardons and reprieves. The president is responsible for dictating the legislative agenda of the party to which the president is a member. The president directs the foreign and domestic policy of the United States, since the office of President was established in 1789, its power has grown substantially, as has the power of the federal government as a whole.
However, nine vice presidents have assumed the presidency without having elected to the office. The Twenty-second Amendment prohibits anyone from being elected president for a third term, in all,44 individuals have served 45 presidencies spanning 57 full four-year terms. On January 20,2017, Donald Trump was sworn in as the 45th, in 1776, the Thirteen Colonies, acting through the Second Continental Congress, declared political independence from Great Britain during the American Revolution. The new states, though independent of each other as nation states, desiring to avoid anything that remotely resembled a monarchy, Congress negotiated the Articles of Confederation to establish a weak alliance between the states. Out from under any monarchy, the states assigned some formerly royal prerogatives to Congress, only after all the states agreed to a resolution settling competing western land claims did the Articles take effect on March 1,1781, when Maryland became the final state to ratify them.
In 1783, the Treaty of Paris secured independence for each of the former colonies, with peace at hand, the states each turned toward their own internal affairs. Prospects for the convention appeared bleak until James Madison and Edmund Randolph succeeded in securing George Washingtons attendance to Philadelphia as a delegate for Virginia. It was through the negotiations at Philadelphia that the presidency framed in the U. S. The first power the Constitution confers upon the president is the veto, the Presentment Clause requires any bill passed by Congress to be presented to the president before it can become law. Once the legislation has been presented, the president has three options, Sign the legislation, the bill becomes law. Veto the legislation and return it to Congress, expressing any objections, in this instance, the president neither signs nor vetoes the legislation
In 1682, William Penn, an English Quaker, founded the city to serve as capital of the Pennsylvania Colony. Philadelphia was one of the capitals in the Revolutionary War. In the 19th century, Philadelphia became an industrial center. It became a destination for African-Americans in the Great Migration. The areas many universities and colleges make Philadelphia a top international study destination, as the city has evolved into an educational, with a gross domestic product of $388 billion, Philadelphia ranks ninth among world cities and fourth in the nation. Philadelphia is the center of activity in Pennsylvania and is home to seven Fortune 1000 companies. The Philadelphia skyline is growing, with a market of almost 81,900 commercial properties in 2016 including several prominent skyscrapers. The city is known for its arts and rich history, Philadelphia has more outdoor sculptures and murals than any other American city. Fairmount Park, when combined with the adjacent Wissahickon Valley Park in the watershed, is one of the largest contiguous urban park areas in the United States.
The 67 National Historic Landmarks in the city helped account for the $10 billion generated by tourism, Philadelphia is the only World Heritage City in the United States. Before Europeans arrived, the Philadelphia area was home to the Lenape Indians in the village of Shackamaxon, the Lenape are a Native American tribe and First Nations band government. They are called Delaware Indians and their territory was along the Delaware River watershed, western Long Island. Most Lenape were pushed out of their Delaware homeland during the 18th century by expanding European colonies, Lenape communities were weakened by newly introduced diseases, mainly smallpox, and violent conflict with Europeans. Iroquois people occasionally fought the Lenape, surviving Lenape moved west into the upper Ohio River basin. The American Revolutionary War and United States independence pushed them further west, in the 1860s, the United States government sent most Lenape remaining in the eastern United States to the Indian Territory under the Indian removal policy.
In the 21st century, most Lenape now reside in the US state of Oklahoma, with communities living in Wisconsin, Ontario. The Dutch considered the entire Delaware River valley to be part of their New Netherland colony, in 1638, Swedish settlers led by renegade Dutch established the colony of New Sweden at Fort Christina and quickly spread out in the valley. In 1644, New Sweden supported the Susquehannocks in their defeat of the English colony of Maryland
The earliest records of prohibition of alcohol date to the Xia Dynasty in China. Yu the Great, the first ruler of the Xia Dynasty and it was legalized again after his death, during the reign of his son Qi. Another record was in the Code of Hammurabi specifically banning the selling of beer for money, in the early twentieth century, much of the impetus for the prohibition movement in the Nordic countries and North America came from moralistic convictions of pietistic Protestants. Rum-running became widespread and organized crime control of the distribution of alcohol. Distilleries and breweries in Canada and the Caribbean flourished as their products were consumed by visiting Americans or illegally exported to the United States. Chicago became notorious as a haven for prohibition dodgers during the known as the Roaring Twenties. Prohibition generally came to an end in the late 1920s or early 1930s in most of North America and Europe, in some countries where the dominant religion forbids the use of alcohol, the production and consumption of alcoholic beverages is prohibited or restricted today.
For example, in Saudi Arabia and Libya alcohol is banned, Sale of alcohol is banned in Afghanistan. In Bangladesh, alcohol is prohibited due to its proscription in the Islamic faith. However, the purchase and consumption is allowed in the country, the Garo tribe consume a type of rice beer, and Christians in this country drink and purchase wine for their holy communion. In Brunei, alcohol consumption and sale is banned in public, in India alcohol is a state subject and individual states can legislate prohibition, but currently most states do not have prohibition. Prohibition is in force in the states of Gujarat and Nagaland, parts of Manipur, the state of Kerala has placed some limitations on sale of alcohol. All other States and union territories of India permit the sale of alcohol, election days and certain national holidays such as Gandhi Jayanti are meant to be dry days when liquor sale is not permitted. The state of Andhra Pradesh had imposed Prohibition under the Chief Ministership of N. T.
Rama Rao, Prohibition was observed from 1996 to 1998 in Haryana. Some Indian states observe dry days on major religious festivals/occasions depending on the popularity of the festival in that region, since the 1979 Islamic Revolution, the sale and consumption of alcohol is banned in Iran. Alcohol is banned for people who use small shops and convenience stores, the consumption and brewing of, and trafficking in liquor is strictly against the law. Alcohol is banned for Muslims in Malaysia due to its Islamic faith, the Maldives ban the import of alcohol, x-raying all baggage on arrival. Alcoholic beverages are available only to tourists on resort islands
Virginia Military Institute
The Virginia Military Institute is a state-supported military college in Lexington, the oldest such institution in the United States. Unlike any other Senior Military College in the United States, and in keeping with its principles, VMI enrolls cadets only. VMI offers cadets strict military discipline combined with a spartan and academically demanding environment, the Institute grants degrees in 14 disciplines in engineering, the sciences, and the liberal arts. While VMI has been called the West Point of the South, for example, the living conditions at VMI are far more austere than at the service academies. S. military branches upon graduation. The Board of Visitors is the board of the Virginia Military Institute. The Board appoints the Superintendent and approves appointment of members of the faculty, Code §2. 2-4002, some of its regulations are codified at 8VAC100. The Executive Committee conducts the business of the Board during recesses, the Board has 17 members, including ex officio the Adjutant General of the Commonwealth of Virginia.
Regular members are appointed by the Governor for a four-year term, the Executive Committee consists of the Boards President, three Vice Presidents, and one non-alumnus at large, and is appointed by the Board at each annual meeting. Current law makes provision for officers of the Virginia Militia to be subject to orders of the Governor, the cadets are a military corps under the command of the Superintendent and under the administration of the Commandant of Cadets, and constitute the guard of the Institute. In the years after the War of 1812, the state of Virginia built, in the 1830s Lexington attorney John Thomas Lewis Preston belonged to a debate club known as the Franklin Society. After debate and revision of the proposal, the Franklin Society voted in favor of Preston’s concept. Crozet was the Chief Engineer of Virginia and someone whom Thomas Jefferson referred to as, the board delegated to Preston the task of deciding what to call the new school, and he created the name Virginia Military Institute.
Preston was tasked with hiring VMI’s first Superintendent and he was persuaded that West Point graduate and Army officer Francis Henney Smith, on the faculty at Hampden–Sydney College, was the most suitable candidate. Preston successfully recruited Smith, and convinced him to become the first Superintendent, after Smith agreed to accept the Superintendent’s position, Preston applied to join the faculty, and was hired as Professor of Languages. Classes began in 1839, and the first cadet to march a sentinel post was Private John Strange, with few exceptions, there have been sentinels posted at VMI every hour of every day of the school year. The Class of 1842 graduated 16 cadets, living conditions were poor until 1850 when the cornerstone of the new barracks was laid. In 1851 Thomas Stonewall Jackson became a member of the faculty, under Jackson, a major, and Major William Gilham, VMI infantry and artillery units were present at the execution by hanging of John Brown at Charles Town, Virginia in 1859.
VMI cadets and alumni played instrumental roles in the American Civil War, on 14 occasions, the Confederacy called cadets into active military engagements
University of Missouri
The University of Missouri is a public land-grant research university located in Columbia, Missouri, U. S. It was founded in 1839 as the first public institution of higher education west of the Mississippi River, as the largest university in the state, it enrolled 32,777 students in 2016, offering over 300 degree programs in 19 academic colleges in the 2014–2015 school year. It is the campus of the University of Missouri System, which maintains campuses in Kansas City, Rolla. MU is one of the nations top-tier R1 institutions and one of the 34 public universities to be members of the Association of American Universities, there are more than 300,000 MU alumni living worldwide with over one half continuing to reside in Missouri. The university was ranked 103rd among national universities in the 2016 U. S. News & World Report rankings, starting in December 1953, it boasts the countrys only university-owned TV network affiliate, operated by the Missouri School of Journalism. In 1908, the worlds first school of journalism was founded by Walter Williams as the Missouri School of Journalism, the University of Missouri Research Reactor Center is the worlds most powerful university research reactor.
MU is one of six public universities in the United States with a school of medicine, veterinary medicine, agriculture. The university owns the University of Missouri Health Care system, the only athletic program that operates a NCAA Division I FBS football team in Missouri is known as the Missouri Tigers and competes as a member of the Southeastern Conference. The schools mascot, Truman the Tiger, is named after Missourian, according to the NCAA, the American tradition of homecoming was established at the university in 1911, the tradition has since been adopted nationwide. In 1839, the Missouri Legislature passed the Geyer Act to establish funds for a state university and it would be the first public university west of the Mississippi River. To secure the university, the citizens of Columbia and Boone County pledged $117,921 in cash, the land on which the university was eventually constructed was just south of Columbias downtown and owned by James S. Rollins. He was called the Father of the University, as the first public university in the Louisiana Purchase, the school was shaped by Thomas Jeffersons ideas about public education.
In 1862 the American Civil War forced the university to close for much of the year, residents of Columbia formed a home guard militia that became known as the Fighting Tigers of Columbia. They were given the name for their readiness to protect the city and university, in 1890, the universitys newly formed football team took the name the Tigers after the Civil War militia. In 1870 the institution was granted land-grant college status under the Morrill Act of 1862, the act led to the founding of the Missouri School of Mines and Metallurgy as an offshoot of the main campus in Columbia. It developed as the present-day Missouri University of Science and Technology, in 1888 the Missouri Agricultural Experiment Station opened. This grew to encompass ten centers and research farms around Missouri, by 1890 the university encompassed a normal college, engineering college and science college, school of agriculture and mechanical arts. School of medicine, and school of law, on January 9,1892, Academic Hall, the institutions main building, burned in a fire that completely gutted the building, leaving little more standing than six stone Ionic columns
The offense must advance at least ten yards in four downs, or plays, or else they turn over the football to the opposing team, if they succeed, they are given a new set of four downs. Points are primarily scored by advancing the ball into the teams end zone for a touchdown or kicking the ball through the opponents goalposts for a field goal. The team with the most points at the end of a game wins, American football evolved in the United States, originating from the sports of association football and rugby football. The first game of American football was played on November 6,1869, during the latter half of the 1870s, colleges playing association football switched to the Rugby Union code, which allowed carrying the ball. American football as a whole is the most popular sport in the United States, Professional football and college football are the most popular forms of the game, with the other major levels being high school and youth football. As of 2012, nearly 1.1 million high school athletes and 70,000 college athletes play the sport in the United States annually, almost all of them men, in the United States, American football is referred to as football.
The term football was established in the rulebook for the 1876 college football season. The terms gridiron or American football are favored in English-speaking countries where other codes of football are popular, such as the United Kingdom, New Zealand, American football evolved from the sports of association football and rugby football. What is considered to be the first American football game was played on November 6,1869 between Rutgers and Princeton, two college teams, the game was played between two teams of 25 players each and used a round ball that could not be picked up or carried. It could, however, be kicked or batted with the feet, head or sides, Rutgers won the game 6 goals to 4. Collegiate play continued for years in which matches were played using the rules of the host school. Representatives of Yale, Columbia and Rutgers met on October 19,1873 to create a set of rules for all schools to adhere to. Teams were set at 20 players each, and fields of 400 by 250 feet were specified, Harvard abstained from the conference, as they favored a rugby-style game that allowed running with the ball.
An 1875 Harvard-Yale game played under rugby-style rules was observed by two impressed Princeton athletes and these players introduced the sport to Princeton, a feat the Professional Football Researchers Association compared to selling refrigerators to Eskimos. Princeton, Harvard and Columbia agreed to play using a form of rugby union rules with a modified scoring system. These schools formed the Intercollegiate Football Association, although Yale did not join until 1879, the introduction of the snap resulted in unexpected consequences. Prior to the snap, the strategy had been to punt if a scrum resulted in bad field position, however, a group of Princeton players realized that, as the snap was uncontested, they now could hold the ball indefinitely to prevent their opponent from scoring. In 1881, both teams in a game between Yale-Princeton used this strategy to maintain their undefeated records, each team held the ball, gaining no ground, for an entire half, resulting in a 0-0 tie
It provides these products and services to individual and institutional customers through distribution networks in the financial services industry. Prudential has operations in the United States, Asia and Latin America and has organized its principal operations into the Financial Services Businesses, Prudential is composed of hundreds of subsidiaries and holds more than $2 trillion of life insurance. The company uses the Rock of Gibraltar as its logo, the use of Prudentials symbol, the Rock of Gibraltar, began after an advertising agent passed Laurel Hill, a volcanic neck, in Secaucus, New Jersey, on a train in the 1890s. The related slogans Get a Piece of the Rock and Strength of Gibraltar are quite widely associated with Prudential. Through the years, the symbol went through various versions, but in 1989 and it has been used ever since. The logotype was updated with a font in 1996. The font, Prudential Roman, was designed by Doyald Young and John March, started in Newark, New Jersey, in 1875, Prudential Financial was originally called The Widows and Orphans Friendly Society, the Prudential Friendly Society.
It was founded by John F. Dryden, who became a U. S. Senator. It sold one product in the beginning, burial insurance, Dryden was president of Prudential until 1912. He was succeeded by his son Forrest F. Dryden, who was the president until 1922, a history of The Prudential Insurance Company of America up to about 1975 is the topic of the book Three Cents A Week, referring to the premium paid by early policyholders. For their insurance, industrial workers paid double what others paid for ordinary life insurance, prominent lawyer and future U. S. Supreme Court Justice Louis Brandeis helped pass a 1907 Massachusetts law to protect workers by allowing savings banks to sell life insurance at lower rates. Prudential has evolved from an insurance company to a joint stock company. It is now traded on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol PRU, the Prudential Stock was issued and started trading on the New York Stock Exchange on December 13,2001. On October 16,2007 the Fox Business Channel picked Prudential as part of its Fox50 Index, on August 1,2004, the U. S.
In the same year, a joint venture was formed between Prudential Financial and China Everbright Limited, for misconduct relating to improper market timing. On November 28,2007, Prudential Financial board of directors elected a new CEO, John R. Strangfeld, in 1981, the company acquired Bache & Co. In 1999, Prudential sold its division, Prudential HealthCare. On May 1,2003, Prudential formalized the acquisition of American Skandia, the CEO of American Skandia, Wade Dokken, partnered with Goldman Sachs and sold the division to Prudential for $1.2 billion
Lexington is an independent city in the Commonwealth of Virginia in the United States. At the 2010 census, the population was 7,042 and it is the county seat of Rockbridge County, although the two are separate jurisdictions. The Bureau of Economic Analysis combines the city of Lexington with Rockbridge County for statistical purposes, Lexington is about 57 miles east of the West Virginia border and is about 50 miles north of Roanoke, Virginia. It was first settled in 1777, Lexington is the location of the Virginia Military Institute and of Washington and Lee University. It was one of the first of what would be many American places named after Lexington, the Union General David Hunter led a raid on Virginia Military Institute during the American Civil War. Robert E. Lee and Stonewall Jackson are buried here and it is the site of the only house Jackson ever owned, now open to the public as a museum. Cyrus McCormick invented the mechanical reaper at his familys farm in Rockbridge County. McCormick Farm is now owned by Virginia Tech and is an agricultural research center.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has an area of 2.5 square miles. The Maury River, a tributary of the James River, forms the northeastern boundary. The climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers, according to the Köppen climate classification system, Lexington has a humid subtropical climate, similar to Northern Italy, abbreviated Cfa on climate maps. As of the census of 2000, there were 6,867 people,2,232 households, the population density was 2,753.8 per square mile. The racial makeup was 86. 01% White,10. 38% African American,0. 26% Native American,1. 92% Asian,0. 01% Pacific Islander and 0. 48% from other races, and 0. 93% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4. 1% of the population,41. 0% of all households were made up of individuals and 17. 7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.06 and the family size was 2.76. In the city, the population was out with 11. 0% under the age of 18,41. 4% from 18 to 24,14. 5% from 25 to 44,16. 7% from 45 to 64.
The median age was 23 years, for every 100 females there were 123.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 127.2 males, the median income for a household in the city was $28,982, and the median income for a family was $58,529