Auto racing is a motorsport involving the racing of automobiles for competition. Auto racing has existed since the invention of the automobile. Races of various sorts were organised, with the first recorded as early as 1867. Many of the earliest events were reliability trials, aimed at proving these new machines were a practical mode of transport, but soon became an important way for competing makers to demonstrate their machines. By the 1930s, specialist racing cars had developed. There are now each with different rules and regulations; the first prearranged match race of two self-powered road vehicles over a prescribed route occurred at 4:30 A. M. on August 30, 1867, between Ashton-under-Lyne and Old Trafford, a distance of eight miles. It was won by the carriage of Isaac Watt Boulton. Internal combustion auto racing events began soon after the construction of the first successful gasoline-fueled automobiles; the first organized contest was on April 28, 1887, by the chief editor of Paris publication Le Vélocipède, Monsieur Fossier.
It ran 2 kilometres from Neuilly Bridge to the Bois de Boulogne. On July 22, 1894, the Parisian magazine Le Petit Journal organized what is considered to be the world's first motoring competition, from Paris to Rouen. One hundred and two competitors paid a 10-franc entrance fee; the first American automobile race is held to be the Thanksgiving Day Chicago Times-Herald race of November 28, 1895. Press coverage of the event first aroused significant American interest in the automobile. With auto construction and racing dominated by France, the French automobile club ACF staged a number of major international races from or to Paris, connecting with another major city, in France or elsewhere in Europe. Brooklands, in Surrey, was the first purpose-built motor racing venue, opening in June 1907, it featured a 4.43 km concrete track with high-speed banked corners. One of the oldest existing purpose-built automobile racing circuits in the United States, still in use, is the 2.5-mile-long Indianapolis Motor Speedway in Speedway, Indiana.
It is the largest capacity sports venue of any variety worldwide, with a top capacity of some 257,000+ seated spectators. NASCAR was founded by Bill France, Sr. on February 21, 1948, with the help of several other drivers of the time. The first NASCAR "Strictly Stock" race was held on June 19, 1949, at Daytona Beach, Florida. From 1962, sports cars temporarily took a back seat to GT cars, with the FIA replacing the World Championship for Sports Cars with the International Championship for GT Manufacturers. From 1972 through 2003, NASCAR's premier series was called the Winston Cup Series, sponsored by R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company cigarette brand Winston; the changes that resulted from RJR's involvement, as well as the reduction of the schedule from 48 to 31 races a year, established 1972 as the beginning of NASCAR's "modern era". The IMSA GT Series evolved into the American Le Mans Series, which ran its first season in 1999; the European races became the related Le Mans Series, both of which mix prototypes and GTs.
Turismo Carretera is a popular touring car racing series in Argentina, the oldest car racing series still active in the world. The first TC competition took place in 1937 with 12 races, each in a different province. Future Formula One star Juan Manuel Fangio won the 1940 and 1941 editions of the TC, it was during this time that the series' Chevrolet-Ford rivalry began, with Ford acquiring most of its historical victories. The two most popular varieties of open wheel road racing are the IndyCar Series. Formula One is a European-based series that runs only street race tracks; these cars are based around technology and their aerodynamics. With the highest speed record set in 2005 by Juan Pablo Montoya hitting 373 kph; some of the most prominent races are the Monaco Grand Prix, the Italian Grand Prix, the British Grand Prix. The season ends with the crowning of the World Championship for constructors. In single-seater, the wheels are not covered, the cars have aerofoil wings front and rear to produce downforce and enhance adhesion to the track.
In Europe and Asia, open-wheeled racing is referred to as'Formula', with appropriate hierarchical suffixes. In North America, the'Formula' terminology is not followed; the sport is arranged to follow an international format, a regional format, and/or a domestic, or country-specific, format. In the United States, the most popular series is the National Championship, more known as the IndyCar Series and known as CART; the cars have traditionally been similar though less technologically sophisticated than F1 cars, with more restrictions on technology aimed at controlling costs. While these cars are not as technologically advanced, they are faster because they compete on oval race tracks, being able to average a lap at 388 kph; the series' biggest race is the Indianapolis 500, referred to as "The Greatest Spectacle in Racing" due to being the longest continuously run race and having the largest crowd for a single-day sporting event. The other major international single-seater racing series is Formula 2.
Regional series include Formula Nippon and Formula V6 Asia, Formula Renault 3.5, Formula Three, For
New York Coliseum (1928)
The New York Coliseum is a defunct sports venue and auditorium in New York City, in the borough of The Bronx. The 105,000-square-foot auditorium was built for Philadelphia's 1926 Sesquicentennial Exposition, transported in 1928 to Starlight Park at 177th Street and Devoe Avenue in the West Farms section of the Bronx, it was referred to as Starlight Park Stadium. The 15,000-seat edifice was used for circuses, political rallies and midget auto racing; the Coliseum hosted the defunct Eastern Hockey League's Bronx Tigers franchise for two seasons, 1933–34, 1937–38. In late 1939, it was the home of the New York Giants of the short-lived National Professional Indoor Baseball League; the U. S. Army controlled the building from 1942 through 1946, after which it was used by New York City Transit Authority buses as the Coliseum Depot. In 1995, the Transit Authority closed the depot, reopened it in 2003 as the West Farms Bus Depot. Only two parts of the original facade of the building remain on the rebuilt depot.
1937 photograph of coliseum showing official name of New York Coliseum on roof
1952 Formula One season
The 1952 Formula One season was the sixth season of FIA Formula One motor racing. In comparison to previous seasons, the 1952 season consisted of a small number of Formula One races, following the decision to run all the Grand Prix events counting towards the World Championship of Drivers to Formula Two regulations rather than Formula One; the Indianapolis 500 was still run to AAA regulations as in previous seasons. The 3rd FIA World Championship of Drivers, which began on 18 May and ended on 7 September after eight races, was won by Alberto Ascari, driving for Scuderia Ferrari. In addition to the Formula One races and the World Championship Formula Two races, numerous other Formula Two races, which did not count towards the Championship, were held during the year. Alfa Romeo, unable to fund a new car, withdrew from racing, while BRM had been preparing two V16-powered cars for the season but withdrew them before an April race at Valentino Park, whilst attempting to enlist Juan Manuel Fangio as teammate to Stirling Moss, leaving Ferrari as the only serious Formula One contender.
This led World Championship organizers to run their races for Formula Two, utilising 2-litre aspirated engines, which meant larger fields and a greater variety of cars if the victories all went to Ferrari. Ascari won the six Grands Prix he entered, missing the Swiss race because he was at Indianapolis qualifying for the Indianapolis 500 – the first European to do so in the World Championship era. Maserati and Gordini offered little challenge, but Mike Hawthorn's drives in his Cooper would earn him a works Ferrari drive in 1953. Reigning champion Fangio, badly injured in an early season crash at Monza, took no part in the championship, but was to go on to drive for BRM; the 1952 World Championship of Drivers was contested over an eight race series. All 1952 World Championship Grand Prix events were restricted to Formula Two cars and the Indianapolis 500-Mile Race, which counted towards the 1952 AAA Championship, was contested by AAA National Championship cars; the Spanish Grand Prix was scheduled to be held on October 26 at the Pedralbes Circuit in Barcelona, but was cancelled.
The following teams and drivers competed in the 1952 FIA World Championship of Drivers. The list does not include those. * Car entered only in the Indianapolis 500 race Points were awarded to top five finishers in each race on an 8–6–4–3–2 basis. One point was awarded for fastest lap. Points for shared drives were divided between the drivers, regardless of who had driven more laps. Only the best four of eight scores counted towards the World Championship. Italics indicate fastest lap Bold indicates pole position † Position shared between more drivers of the same car Only the best four results counted towards the Championship. Numbers without parentheses are Championship points. Other Formula One/Formula Two races, which did not count towards the World Championship of Drivers, were held in 1952
1951 Indianapolis 500
The 35th International 500-Mile Sweepstakes was held at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway on Wednesday, May 30, 1951. The event was part of the 1951 AAA National Championship Trail, was race 2 of 8 in the 1951 World Championship of Drivers. For the second year in a row, no European Formula One-based teams entered the race. Duke Nalon, who had suffered serious burns in a crash in 1949, who missed the 1950 race, made a comeback at Indy by winning the pole position in a Novi. Heavy attrition saw only eight cars running at the finish. Winner Lee Wallard's car lost its brakes, suffered a damaged exhaust pipe, broke a shock absorber mounting. In addition to the unbearably uncomfortable ride, Wallard had worn a fire retardant outfit, created by dipping his uniform in a mixture of borax crystals and water. Due to not wearing an undershirt, Wallard suffered serious chafing, required treatment at the infield hospital after the victory lane celebration, it was estimated. Wallard's winning car had the smallest displacement in the field.
About a week after winning the race, Wallard suffered severe burns in a crash at Reading, which ended his professional racing career. Three-time winner Mauri Rose, in his 15th Indy start and flipped on lap 126, it was his final 500. Time trials was scheduled for six days. Rain, pushed qualifying into a seventh day. Saturday May 12 – Pole Day time trials Sunday May 13 – Second day time trials Saturday May 19 – Third day time trials Sunday May 20 – Fourth day time trials Saturday May 26 – Fifth day time trials Sunday May 27 – Sixth day time trials Monday May 28 – Seventh day time trials Notes^1 – Includes 1 point for fastest lead lap First alternate: Bob Sweikert Pole position: Duke Nalon – 4:23.74 Fastest Lead Lap: Lee Wallard – 1:07.26 Ayulo and McGrath shared the same car. Points for 3rd position were shared between the drivers. World Drivers' Championship standingsNote: Only the top five positions are listed. Only the best 4 results counted towards the Championship; the race was carried live on the radio through a network arrangement set up by 1070 WIBC-AM of Indianapolis.
Mutual, which had carried the race for several years, had raised its advertising rates for 1951, lost its primary sponsor for the event, Perfect Circle Piston Rings. As a result, Mutual dropped the coverage altogether. Local station WIBC stepped in to cover the race, provided its feed to various Mutual affiliates. A total of 26 stations carried the broadcast. WIBC personality Sid Collins served as booth announcer, the remainder of the crew consisted of WIBC talent. Jim Shelton reported from his familiar turn four location, Collins interviewed the winner in victory lane. Like the Mutual broadcasts, WIBC featured live coverage of the start, the finish, 15-minute live updates throughout the race. Indianapolis 500 History: Race & All-Time Stats – Official Site Van Camp's Pork & Beans Presents: Great Moments From the Indy 500 – Fleetwood Sounds, 1975 1951 Indianapolis 500 at RacingReference.info
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
1950 Indianapolis 500
The 34th International 500-Mile Sweepstakes was held at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway on Tuesday, May 30, 1950. The event was part of the 1950 AAA National Championship Trail, it was race 3 of 7 in the 1950 World Championship of Drivers and paid points towards the World Championship. The event, did not attract any European entries for 1950. Giuseppe Farina planned to enter, but his car never arrived; the Indianapolis 500 would be included on the World Championship calendar through 1960. The race was scheduled for 200 laps, but was stopped after 138 laps due to rain. A rumor circulated in racing circles during and after this race that Johnnie Parsons's team discovered an irreparable crack in the engine block on race morning; the discovery precipitated Parsons to charge for the lap leader prizes. He set his sights on leading as many laps as possible before the engine was to fail. Furthermore, the race ending early due to rain saved Parsons's day allowing him to secure the victory before the engine let go.
However, the engine block crack was proved to be an urban myth, it was said to be a minor but acceptable level of porosity, which did not affect the performance. Parsons's win saw him score 9 points move to equal first in the first World Drivers' Championship alongside Giuseppe Farina and Juan Manuel Fangio, saw him become the first American to win a World Championship race. Despite the 500 being his only race in the 1950 World Championship, it would be enough to see him finish 6th in points. During the month, Clark Gable and Barbara Stanwyck were at the track to film scenes for the film To Please a Lady. Stanwyck was on hand in victory lane after the race for the traditional celebratory kiss to the winner. Time trials was scheduled for six days. Saturday May 13: Walt Faulkner won the pole position with a record run of 134.343 mph. Sunday May 14 Saturday May 20: The third day of time trials saw six cars complete runs. Bayliss Levrett was the fastest of the afternoon. Charles Van Acker was ruled physically disqualified, after a crash he suffered at the Speedway from 1949.
Sunday May 21 Saturday May 27: The day began with 11 spots open in the grid. Sunday May 28: Only one driver managed to bump his way into the field. Johnny McDowell bumped Cliff Griffith; the two Novi entries failed to qualify – Chet Miller had engine trouble in one of the cars, while the other snapped a supercharger shaft. Rain and two crashes cut the track time to less than three hours. Cy Marshall was among the few left in line when time trials closed at 6 p.m. Notes^1 – Includes 1 point for fastest lead lap = past winner = rookie Pole position: Walt Faulkner – 4:27.97 Fastest Lead Lap: Johnnie Parsons – 1:09.77 Shared drivers: Joie Chitwood and Tony Bettenhausen, after Bettenhausen retired. Points for 5th position were shared between the drivers. Henry Banks and Fred Agabashian Bayliss Levrett and Bill Cantrell First win for Firestone in the World Championship. World Drivers' Championship standingsNote: Only the top five positions are listed. Only the best 4 results counted towards the Championship.
The race was carried live on the precursor to the IMS Radio Network. The broadcast was sponsored by Perfect Circle Piston Bill Slater served as the anchor. Sid Collins moved into the booth for the first time to serve as analyst, conducted the victory lane interview at the conclusion of the race; the broadcast feature live coverage of the start, the finish, live updates throughout the race. Prior to the race, it was reported. WIBC personality Sid Collins was named as a replacement, Slater was able to arrive in time for race day. Collins, who had served as a turn reporter, was invited to be the co-anchor in the booth. For the first time, Collins interviewed the winner in victory lane at the conclusion of the race. Collins claims he burned his trousers on Parsons's hot exhaust pipe during the interview, which took place in the rain; because the race was shortened, Mutual had to interrupt Queen For A Day to cover the finish of the abbreviated event. This was cited by some as a reason why the Speedway would begin flag-to-flag coverage in 1953.
The race was carried live for the second year in a row on local television on WFBM-TV channel 6 of Indianapolis. Earl Townsend, Jr. was the announcer, along with Paul Roberts. After the race, Speedway management disallowed WFBM from broadcasting the race live again, feeling that gate attendance had been negatively affected. Indianapolis 500 History: Race & All-Time Stats – Official Site 1950 Indianapolis 500 Radio Broadcast, Mutual Van Camp's Pork & Beans Presents: Great Moments From the Indy 500 – Fleetwood Sounds, 1975 1950 Indianapolis 500 at RacingReference.info
Sprint car racing
Sprint cars are high-powered race cars designed for the purpose of running on short oval or circular dirt or paved tracks. Sprint car racing is popular in the United States of America and Canada, as well as Australia, New Zealand, South Africa. Sprint cars have high power-to-weight ratios, with weights of 1,400 pounds for 410 sprint cars, they are powered by a aspirated, mechanically fuel injected American V8 with an engine displacement of 410 cubic inches capable of engine speeds of 9000 rpm. Depending on the mechanical setup and the track layout these cars achieve speeds in excess of 160 miles per hour. A lower budget and popular class of sprint cars uses 360 cubic inch engines that produce 700 horsepower. Sprint cars do not utilize a transmission, they have an in or out gear box and quick change rear differentials for occasional gearing changes; as a result, they do not require a push to start them. The safety record of sprint car racing in recent years has been improved by the use of roll cages, on dirt tracks, wings, to protect the drivers.
Many IndyCar Series and NASCAR drivers used sprint car racing as an intermediate stepping stone on their way to more high-profile divisions, including Indianapolis 500 winners A. J. Foyt, Mario Andretti, Johnny Rutherford, Parnelli Jones, Johnnie Parsons, Al Unser, Sr. and Al Unser, Jr. as well as NASCAR Sprint Cup champions Jeff Gordon and Tony Stewart. The National Sprint Car Hall of Fame & Museum located in Knoxville, Iowa, USA features exhibits highlighting the history of both winged and wingless sprint cars. There are several sanctioning bodies for non-winged sprint cars; the United States Automobile Club has become the top series for non-winged sprint car racing throughout the United States after taking over the Sprint Car Racing Association and turning it into the USAC/California Racing Association. This series has become the premier non-winged sprint car series on the west coast of the United States. USAC has hosted the Silver Crown series, based in Indiana, for decades; the Silver Crown series was started in 1971 as an offshoot of the series that competed for the National Championship Trail including the Indianapolis 500, known as "big cars".
Non-winged sprint cars are considered the traditional sprint car, dating back to the first sprint cars in the 1930s and 1940s. Today, they are the same car as a winged sprint car, only without wings. In fact, many of them have the "stub outs" in the frame for adding wings, they use the same 410ci and 360ci aluminum engines as their winged counterparts. Their tuning and gearing are different for performance at lower RPMs than a winged car. Chassis set ups and tires are different. While they do not have the same top speed as a winged car, they are thought by many to be more fun to watch, they tend to have a more extreme driving style and are sliding sideways through corners and doing wheelies. This makes them more dangerous than winged cars and their crashes are known for their spectacular nature, they lack the inherent safety that a wing provides. It is uncommon for someone to be good at driving both winged and non-winged cars; the world's first winged car, known today as a winged sprint car, was created and driven by Jim Cushman at the Columbus Motor Speedway in 1958.
In the early 1970s, many sprint car drivers began to put wings with sideboards on both the front and top of their cars. The added wings increased the downforce generated on the car, with the opposite direction of the sideboards helping to turn the car in the corners; the increased traction makes the car easier to control. The wing affects safety; the added downforce lessens the likelihood of going airborne. When cars do go airborne, the wings break off or absorb some of the impact of the flip, lessening the impact on the driver. Wings provide an amount of protection for the driver in case of an accident and are sometimes referred to as "aluminum courage." In some cases, teams are able to replace the wing during the ensuing stoppage and are able to race once the race resumed. In 1978, Ted Johnson formed. Racing throughout the United States from February to November, the World of Outlaws is the premier dirt sprint car racing series. Famous tracks featured in the series included the Eldora Speedway in Rossburg, the Lernerville Speedway in Sarver, the Knoxville Raceway in Knoxville and Williams Grove Speedway in Mechanicsburg, Pennsylvania.
Each August, the Knoxville Raceway holds the Knoxville Nationals. In 1987, Australia followed suit with its own national series for winged sprint cars called the World Series Sprintcars, founded by Adelaide based sedan driver and Speedway Park track promoter John Hughes. Famous Australian tracks used in the WSS have included Speedway Park/City in Adelaide, South Australia, Claremont Speedway and Perth Motorplex in Perth, Western Australia, Valvoline Raceway in Sydney, New South Wales, Archerfield Speedway in Brisbane and the Premier Speedway (home of the Grand Annual Sprintcar Clas