New York City
The City of New York called either New York City or New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles, New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, exerts a significant impact upon commerce, research, education, tourism, art and sports; the city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of, a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898; the city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world. New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, it has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U. S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is an international symbol of the U. S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability, as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
The names of many of the city's landmarks and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York.
James's older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had seized from the Dutch. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth; the erosive forward movement of the ice contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. That action left bedrock at a shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers. In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He named it Nouvelle Angoulême. A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio.
The Padrón Rea
Multitrack recording —also known as multitracking, double tracking, or tracking—is a method of sound recording developed in 1955 that allows for the separate recording of multiple sound sources or of sound sources recorded at different times to create a cohesive whole. Multitracking became possible in the mid-1950s when the idea of recording different audio channels to separate discrete "tracks" on the same reel-to-reel tape was developed. A "track" was a different channel recorded to its own discrete area on the tape whereby their relative sequence of recorded events would be preserved, playback would be simultaneous or synchronized. Prior to the development of multitracking, the sound recording process required all of the singers, band instrumentalists, and/or orchestra accompanists to perform at the same time in the same space. Multitrack recording was a significant technical improvement as it allowed studio engineers to record all of the instruments and vocals for a piece of music separately.
Multitracking allowed the engineer to adjust the levels and tone of each individual track, if necessary, redo certain tracks or overdub parts of the track to correct errors or get a better "take." As well, different electronic effects such as reverb could be applied to specific tracks, such as the lead vocals, while not being applied to other tracks where this effect would not be desirable. Multitrack recording was much more than a technical innovation. In the 1980s and 1990s, computers provided means by which both sound recording and reproduction could be digitized, revolutionizing audio recording and distribution. In the 2000s, multitracking hardware and software for computers was of sufficient quality to be used for high-end audio recordings by both professional sound engineers and by bands recording without studios using available programs, which can be used on a high-end laptop computer. Though magnetic tape has not been replaced as a recording medium, the advantages of non-linear editing and recording have resulted in digital systems superseding tape.
In the 2010s, with digital multitracking being the dominant technology, the original word "track" is still used by audio engineers. Multi-tracking can be achieved with analogue recording, tape-based equipment, digital equipment that relies on tape storage of recorded digital data and hard disk-based systems employing a computer and audio recording software. Multi-track recording devices vary in their specifications, such as the number of simultaneous tracks available for recording at any one time. With the introduction of SMPTE timecode in the early 1970s, engineers began to use computers to synchronize separate audio and video playback, or multiple audio tape machines. In this system, one track of each machine carried the timecode signal, while the remaining tracks were available for sound recording; some large studios were able to link multiple 24-track machines together. An extreme example of this occurred in 1982, when the rock group Toto recorded parts of Toto IV on three synchronized 24-track machines.
This setup theoretically provided for up to 69 audio tracks, far more than necessary for most recording projects. For computer-based systems, the trend in the 2000s is towards unlimited numbers of record/playback tracks, although issues such as RAM memory and CPU available do limit this from machine to machine. Moreover, on computer-based systems, the number of available recording tracks is limited by the number of sound card discrete analog or digital inputs; when recording, audio engineers can select which track on the device will be used for each instrument, voice, or other input and can blend one track with two instruments to vary the music and sound options available. At any given point on the tape, any of the tracks on the recording device can be recording or playing back using sel-sync or Selective Synchronous recording; this allows an artist to be able to record onto track 2 and listen to track 1, 3 and 7, allowing them to sing or to play an accompaniment to the performance recorded on these tracks.
They might record an alternate version on track 4 while listening to the other tracks. All the tracks can be played back in perfect synchrony, as if they had been played and recorded together; this can be repeated until all of the available tracks have been in some cases, reused. During mix down a separate set of playback heads with higher fidelity are used. Before all tracks are filled, any number of existing tracks can be "bounced" into one or two tracks, the original tracks erased, making more room for more tracks to be reused for fresh recording. In 1963, The Beatles were using twin track for Please Please Me; the Beatles' producer George Martin used this technique extensively to achieve multiple track results, while still being limited to using only multiple four-track machines, until an eight-track machine became available during the recording of the Beatles' White Album. The Beach Boys' Pet Sounds made innovative use of multitracking with 8-tra
University at Albany, SUNY
The State University of New York at Albany referred to as University at Albany, SUNY Albany or UAlbany, is a public research university with campuses in the New York cities of Albany and Rensselaer and the Town of Guilderland, United States. Founded in 1844, it carries out undergraduate and graduate education and service, it is a part of the State University of New York system. The university has three campuses: the Uptown Campus in Albany and Guilderland, the Downtown Campus in Albany, the Health Sciences Campus in the City of Rensselaer, just across the Hudson River; the university enrolls 17,944 students in nine schools and colleges, which offer 50 undergraduate majors and 125 graduate degree programs. The university's academic choices include new and emerging fields in public policy, homeland security, documentary studies, bio-instrumentation, informatics. Through the UAlbany and SUNY-wide exchange programs, students have more than 600 study-abroad programs to choose from, as well as government and business internship opportunities in New York's capital and surrounding region.
The Honors College, which opened in fall 2006, offers opportunities for well-prepared students to work with faculty. The UAlbany faculty had $103.0 million in research expenditures in 2016-17. For work advancing discovery in a wide range of fields; the research enterprise is in four areas: social science, public policy, life sciences and atmospheric sciences. SUNY Albany offers many cultural benefits, such as a contemporary art museum and the New York State Writers Institute. UAlbany plays a major role in the economic development of the Capital New York State. An economic impact study in 2004 estimated UAlbany's economic impact to be $1.1 billion annually in New York State — $1 billion of that in the Capital Region The University at Albany was an independent state-supported teachers' college for most of its history until SUNY was formed in 1948. The institution began as the New York State Normal School on May 7, 1844, by a vote of the State Legislature. Beginning with 29 students and four faculty in an abandoned railroad depot on State Street in the heart of the city, the Normal School was the first New York State-chartered institution of higher education.
Dedicated to training New York students as schoolteachers and administrators, by the early 1890s the “School” had become the New York State Normal College at Albany and, with a revised four-year curriculum in 1905, became the first public institution of higher education in New York to be granted the power to confer the bachelor's degree. A new campus — today, UAlbany's Downtown Campus — was built in 1909 on a site of 4.5 acres between Washington and Western avenues. By 1913, the institution was home to 590 students and 44 faculty members, offered a master's degree for the first time, bore a new name — the New York State College for Teachers at Albany. Enrollment grew to a peak of 1,424 in 1932. By this time, the College for Teachers, or "Albany State" as it was called for short, had developed a curriculum similar to those found at four-year liberal arts colleges, but it did not abandon its primary focus on training teachers. In 1948 the State University of New York system was created, with the College for Teachers and the state's other teacher-training schools as the nuclei.
SUNY, including the Albany campus, became a manifestation of the vision of Governor Nelson A. Rockefeller, who wanted a public university system to accommodate the college students of the post–World War II baby boom. To do so, he launched a massive construction program. Reflecting a broadening mission, the College for Teachers changed its name to SUNY College of Education at Albany in 1959. In 1961, it became a full-fledged four-year liberal arts college as the State University College at Albany. In 1962, the State University College was designated a doctoral-degree granting university center of SUNY as the State University of New York at Albany; the same year, Rockefeller broke ground for the current Uptown Campus on the former site of the Albany Country Club. The new campus's first dormitory opened in 1964, the first classes on the academic podium in the fall of 1966. By 1970, a year beyond the university's 125th anniversary, enrollment had grown to 13,200 and the faculty to 746; that same year the growing protest movement against the Vietnam war engulfed the university when a student strike was called for in response to the killing of protesters at Kent State.
The Uptown Campus, designed by architect Edward Durell Stone, accommodated this growth and gave visible evidence of the school's transition from a teachers college to a broad-based liberal arts university. The Downtown Campus became dedicated to the fields of public policy: criminal justice, public affairs, information science and social welfare. In 1985, the university added the School of Public Health, a joint endeavor with the state's Department of Health. In 1983, the New York State Writers Institute was founded by Pulitzer Prize-winning author William Kennedy; as of 2013, the Institute had hosted, over time, more than 1,200 writers, journalists, historians and filmmakers. The list includes eight Nobel Prize winners, nearly 200 Pulitzer Prize and National Book Award winners, several Motion Picture Academy Award winners and nominees, numerous other literary prize recipients. In addition, the institute has hosted up-and-coming writers to provide them with exposure at the beginning of their writing careers.
During the 1990s, the university built a $3 billion, 450,000-square-foot Albany NanoTech complex, extending the Uptown Campus westward. By 2006, it became home to the College of Nanoscale Science an
John McCutcheon is an American folk music singer-songwriter and multi-instrumentalist who has produced 34 albums since the 1970s. He is regarded as a master of the hammered dulcimer, is proficient on many other instruments including guitar, autoharp, mountain dulcimer and jawharp. McCutcheon was born to Roman Catholic parents in Wisconsin, he graduated from Newman Catholic High School. He is a graduate of Saint John's University in Minnesota. While in his 20s, he travelled to Appalachia and learned from some of the legendary greats of traditional folk music, such as Roscoe Holcomb, I. D. Stamper, Tommy Hunter, his vast repertoire includes songs from contemporary writers like Si Kahn as well as a large body of his own music. When McCutcheon became a father in the early 1980s he found most children's music "unmusical and condescending", sought to change the situation by releasing a children's album, Howjadoo, in 1983, he had only intended to do one children's record, but the popularity of this first effort led to the production of several additional children's albums.
Much of his work, continues to focus on writing politically and conscious songs for adult audiences. One of his most successful songs, "Christmas in the Trenches", tells the story of the Christmas truce of 1914. In his performances, McCutcheon introduces his music with a story, he has become known as a storyteller, has made multiple appearances at the National Storytelling Festival in Jonesborough, Tennessee. He is married to Carmen Agra Deedy. McCutcheon's music has, since the 1990s evolved into heartland rock-influenced ballads, while he still performs purer folk music when playing the dulcimer. In 2011 McCutcheon portrayed IWW organizer and songwriter Joe Hill in Si Kahn's one-man play Joe Hill's Last Will, produced by Main Stage West in Sebastopol, California. How Can I Keep from Singing? The Wind That Shakes the Barley * From Earth To Heaven - June Appal Recordings Barefoot Boy with Boots On Fine Times at Our House Howjadoo Winter Solstice Signs of the Times Step By Step: Hammer Dulcimer Duets and Quartets Gonna Rise Again Mail Myself to You Water from Another Time: A Retrospective What It's Like Live at Wolf Trap Family Garden Between the Eclipse Summersongs Wintersongs Nothing to Lose Sprout Wings and Fly Bigger Than Yourself Doing Our Job Autumnsongs Springsongs Storied Ground Supper's on the Table The Greatest Story Never Told Hail to the Chief Stand Up!
Broadsides for Our Time Welcome the Traveler Home: The Winfield Songs Mightier Than the Sword This Fire Sermon on the Mound Untold Passage Fine Times at Our House 22 Days Joe Hill's Last Will Trolling for Dreams Ghost Light John McCutcheon official site "Making waves making music - 2004 article in local paper Audio/Video John McCutcheon is the only guest on Woodsongs show 471
Folkways Records was a record label founded by Moses Asch that documented folk and children's music. It is now part of Smithsonian Folkways; the Folkways Records & Service Co. was founded by Moses Asch and Marian Distler in 1948 in New York City. Harold Courlander was editor of the Folkways Ethnic Library at the time and is credited with coming up with the name "Folkways" for the label. Asch sought to music from everywhere in the world. From 1948 until Asch's death in 1986, Folkways Records released 2,168 albums. In 1964, Asch helped MGM Records start Verve Folkways Records which evolved in 1967 into Verve Forecast Records; the Folkways catalog includes traditional and contemporary music from around the world as well as poetry, spoken word, language instruction, field recordings of people and nature. Folkways was an early supporter of Woody Guthrie, Pete Seeger, Lead Belly, who formed the center of the American folk music revival. Folkways influenced a generation of folk singers by releasing old-time music from the 1920s and 1930s, such as Dock Boggs, Clarence Ashley, contemporary performers like the New Lost City Ramblers.
The Anthology of American Folk Music appeared on Folkways, as did the accompanying album to The Country Blues by Samuel Charters. Folkways was one of the earliest companies to release albums of world music, including the Music of the World's Peoples collection edited by Henry Cowell, it released many spoken word albums, other unusual repertoire. The albums came with a pull-out leaflet containing extensive liner notes; the Smithsonian Institution Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage in Washington, D. C. acquired Asch's Folkways recordings and business files after his death in 1986. This acquisition was initiated by Ralph Rinzler of the Smithsonian before Asch's death and completed by the Asch Family to ensure the sounds and artists would be preserved for future generations; as a result, it was agreed to continue Asch's policy that all of the 2,168 titles would stay in print indefinitely regardless of market sales. The Smithsonian Folkways website uses the internet to make the recordings available as streaming samples, DRM-free digital downloads in MP3 and lossless FLAC format, on CDs via mail order.
A complete set of the Folkways recordings was donated to the University of Alberta where Michael Asch, Moses Asch's son, was an anthropology professor. FolkwaysAlive, a joint initiative between the University and the Smithsonian, is involved in digitization and archiving of the collection as well as maintaining a research center and sponsoring student research scholarships and an annual concert series. Since acquiring Folkways, the Smithsonian has expanded Asch's collection by adding several other record labels, including Cook, Fast Folk, Dyer-Bennet, Paredon Records, they have released over 300 new recordings. Smithsonian Folkways states that their mission "is the legacy of Moses Asch, who founded Folkways Records in 1948 to document'people's music.'" They "are dedicated to supporting cultural diversity and increased understanding among peoples through the documentation and dissemination of sound", that "musical and cultural diversity contributes to the vitality and quality of life throughout the world."
By making these recordings available, they intend to "strengthen people's engagement with their own cultural heritage and to enhance their awareness and appreciation of the cultural heritage of others."Smithsonian Folkways has produced or co-produced a number of radio series based on Folkways collections. "The Folkways Collection" and "Sounds to Grow On" are co-produced with CKUA radio. "Sounds to Grow On" is hosted by Michael Asch, Professor Emeritus of Anthropology at the University of Alberta and the son of Moses Asch. Moses Asch Smithsonian Folkways Smithsonian Folkways Recordings official website FolkwaysAlive at the University of Alberta website "Tapestry of the Times" podcast "Sounds to Grow On" podcast "The Folkways Collection" podcast "Sound Sessions" podcast
University of Iowa
The University of Iowa is a public research university in Iowa City, Iowa. Founded in 1847, it is the second largest university in the state; the University of Iowa is organized into 11 colleges offering more than 200 areas of study and seven professional degrees. Located on an urban 1,880 acre campus on the banks of the Iowa River, the University of Iowa is classified among "R1: Doctoral Universities – Very high research activity." The university is best known for its programs in health care and the fine arts, with programs ranking among the top 25 nationally in those areas. The University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics and the Stead Family Children's Hospital are ranked nationally by U. S. News and World Report in eleven specialties; the university was the original developer of the Master of Fine Arts degree and it operates the Iowa Writer's Workshop, which has produced 17 of the university's 46 Pulitzer Prize winners. Iowa is a member of the Association of American Universities, the Universities Research Association, the Big Ten Academic Alliance.
Among American universities, the University of Iowa was the first public university to open as coeducational, opened the first coeducational medical school, opened the first Department of Religious Studies at a public university. The University of Iowa's 33,000 students take part in nearly 500 student organizations. Iowa's 22 varsity athletic teams, the Iowa Hawkeyes, compete in Division I of the NCAA and are members of the Big Ten Conference; the University of Iowa alumni network exceeds 250,000 graduates located around the globe. The University of Iowa was founded on February 25, 1847, just 59 days after Iowa was admitted to the Union; the Constitution of the State of Iowa refers to a State University to be established in Iowa City "without branches at any other place." The legal name of the university is the State University of Iowa, but the Board of Regents approved using "The University of Iowa" for everyday usage in October 1964. The first faculty offered instruction at the university beginning in March 1855 to students in the Old Mechanics Building, located where Seashore Hall is now.
In September 1855, there were 124 students. The 1856–57 catalogue listed nine departments offering ancient languages, modern languages, intellectual philosophy, moral philosophy, natural history, natural philosophy, chemistry; the first president of the university was Amos Dean. The original campus consisted of the Iowa Old Capitol Building and the 10 acres of land on which it stood. Following the placing of the cornerstone July 4, 1840, the building housed the Fifth Legislative Assembly of the Territory of Iowa and became the first capitol building of the State of Iowa on December 28, 1846; until that date, it had been the third capitol of the Territory of Iowa. When the capitol of Iowa was moved to Des Moines in 1857, the Old Capitol became the first permanent "home" of the University. In 1855, The university became the first public university in the United States to admit men and women on an equal basis. In addition, Iowa was the world's first university to accept creative work in theater, writing and art on an equal basis with academic research.
The university was one of the first institutions in America to grant a law degree to a woman, to grant a law degree to an African American, to put an African American on a varsity athletic squad. The university offered its first doctorate in 1898; the university was the first state university to recognize the Gay, Bisexual and Allied Union. The University of Iowa established the first law school west of the Mississippi River, it was the first university to use television in education, in 1932, it pioneered in the field of standardized testing. The University of Iowa was the first Big Ten institution to promote an African American to the position of administrative vice president. A shooting took place on campus on November 1, 1991. Six people died in the shooting, including the perpetrator, one other person was wounded; this was the fifth-deadliest university shooting in United States history, tied with a shooting at Northern Illinois University. In the summer of 2008, flood waters breached the Coralville Reservoir spillway, damaging more than 20 major campus buildings.
Several weeks after the flood waters receded university officials placed a preliminary estimate on flood damage at $231.75 million. The university estimated that repairs would cost about $743 million. In 2008, UNESCO designated Iowa City the world's third City of Literature, making it part of the UNESCO Creative Cities Network. In 2014, the Iowa Board of Regents proposed tying state funding to undergraduate resident enrollment, which would have shifted millions of dollars away from the UI to Iowa State University and the University of Northern Iowa. Iowa legislators did not support the plan. In 2015, the Iowa Board of Regents selected Bruce Harreld, a business consultant with limited experience in academic administration, to succeed Sally Mason as president; the regents' choice of Harreld provoked criticism and controversy on the UI campus due to his corporate background, lack of history in leading an institution of higher education, the circumstances related to the search process. The regents said they had based their decision on the belief that Harreld could limit costs and find new sources of revenue beyond tuition in an age of declining state support for universities.
In July 2016, the university took over the former AIB College of Business in Des Moines, wher
Albany, New York
Albany is the capital of the U. S. state of New York and the seat of Albany County. Albany is located on the west bank of the Hudson River 10 miles south of its confluence with the Mohawk River and 135 miles north of New York City. Albany is known for its rich history, culture and institutions of higher education. Albany constitutes the economic and cultural core of the Capital District of New York State, which comprises the Albany–Schenectady–Troy, NY Metropolitan Statistical Area, including the nearby cities and suburbs of Troy and Saratoga Springs. With a 2013 Census-estimated population of 1.1 million the Capital District is the third-most populous metropolitan region in the state. As of the 2010 census, the population of Albany was 97,856; the area that became Albany was settled by Dutch colonists who in 1614, built Fort Nassau for fur trading and, in 1624, built Fort Orange. In 1664, the English took over the Dutch settlements, renaming the city as Albany, in honor of the Duke of Albany, the future James II of England and James VII of Scotland.
The city was chartered in 1686 under English rule. It became the capital of New York in 1797 following formation of the United States. Albany is one of the oldest surviving settlements of the original British thirteen colonies, is the longest continuously chartered city in the United States. During the late 18th century and throughout most of the 19th, Albany was a center of trade and transportation; the city lies toward the north end of the navigable Hudson River, was the original eastern terminus of the Erie Canal connecting to the Great Lakes, was home to some of the earliest railroad systems in the world. In the 1920s, a powerful political machine controlled by the Democratic Party arose in Albany. In the latter part of the 20th century, Albany experienced a decline in its population due to urban sprawl and suburbanization. In the early 21st century, Albany has experienced growth in the high-technology industry, with great strides in the nanotechnology sector. Albany is one of the oldest surviving European settlements from the original thirteen colonies and the longest continuously chartered city in the United States.
The Hudson River area was inhabited by Algonquian-speaking Mohican, who called it Pempotowwuthut-Muhhcanneuw, meaning "the fireplace of the Mohican nation." Based to the west along the Mohawk River, the Iroquoian-speaking Mohawk referred to it as Sche-negh-ta-da, or "through the pine woods," referring to the path they took there. The Mohawk were one of the Five Nations of the Iroquois Confederacy, or Haudenosaunee, became strong trading partners with the Dutch and English, it is the Albany area was visited by European fur traders as early as 1540, but the extent and duration of those visits has not been determined. Permanent European claims began when Englishman Henry Hudson, exploring for the Dutch East India Company on the Half Moon, reached the area in 1609, claiming it for the United Netherlands. In 1614, Hendrick Christiaensen built Fort Nassau, a fur-trading post and the first documented European structure in present-day Albany. Commencement of the fur trade provoked hostility from the French colony in Canada and among the natives, all of whom vied to control the trade.
In 1618, a flood ruined the fort on Castle Island. Both forts were named in honor of the Dutch royal House of Orange-Nassau. Fort Orange and the surrounding area were incorporated as the village of Beverwijck in 1652. In these early decades of trade, the Dutch and Mohawk developed relations that reflected differences among their three cultures; when New Netherland was captured by the English in 1664, the name was changed from Beverwijck to Albany in honor of the Duke of Albany. Duke of Albany was a Scottish title given since 1398 to a younger son of the King of Scots; the name is derived from Alba, the Gaelic name for Scotland. The Dutch regained Albany in August 1673 and renamed the city Willemstadt. On November 1, 1683, the Province of New York was split into counties, with Albany County being the largest. At that time the county included all of present New York State north of Dutchess and Ulster Counties in addition to present-day Bennington County, theoretically stretching west to the Pacific Ocean.
Albany was formally chartered as a municipality by provincial Governor Thomas Dongan on July 22, 1686. The Dongan Charter was identical in content to the charter awarded to the city of New York three months earlier. Dongan created Albany as a strip of land 16 miles long. Over the years Albany would lose much of the land to the annex land to the north and south. At this point, Albany had a population of about 500 people. In 1754, representatives of seven British North American colonies met in the Stadt Huys, Albany's city hall, for the Albany Congress. Although it was never adopted by Parliament, it was an important precursor to the United States Constitution; the same year, the fourth in a series of wars dating back to 1689, began.