Activism consists of efforts to promote, direct, or intervene in social, economic, or environmental reform with the desire to make changes in society. Forms of activism range from mandate building in the community, petitioning elected officials, running or contributing to a political campaign, preferential patronage of businesses, demonstrative forms of activism like rallies, street marches, sit-ins, or hunger strikes. Activism may be performed on a day-to-day basis in a wide variety of ways, including through the creation of art, computer hacking, or in how one chooses to spend their money. For example, the refusal to buy clothes or other merchandise from a company as a protest against the exploitation of workers by that company could be considered an expression of activism. However, the most visible and impactful activism comes in the form of collective action, in which numerous individuals coordinate an act of protest together in order to make a bigger impact. Collective action, purposeful and sustained over a period of time becomes known as a social movement.
Activists have used literature, including pamphlets and books to disseminate their messages and attempt to persuade their readers of the justice of their cause. Research has now begun to explore how contemporary activist groups use social media to facilitate civic engagement and collective action combining politics with technology; the Online Etymology Dictionary records the English words "activism" and "activist" as in use in the political sense from the year 1920 or 1915 respectively. The history of the word activism traces back to earlier understandings of collective behavior and social action; as late as 1969 activism was defined as "the policy or practice of doing things with decision and energy", without regard to a political signification, whereas social action was defined as "organized action taken by a group to improve social conditions", without regard to normative status. Following the surge of so-called "new social movements" in the United States in the 1960's, a new understanding of activism emerged as a rational and acceptable democratic option of protest or appeal.
However, the history of the existence of revolt through organized or unified protest in recorded history dates back to the slave revolts of the 1st century BC in the Roman Empire, where under the leadership of former gladiator Spartacus 6,000 slaves rebelled and were crucified from Capua to Rome in what became known as the Third Servile War. In English history, the Peasant's Revolt erupted in response to the imposition of a poll tax, has been paralleled by other rebellions and revolutions in Hungary and more for example, Hong Kong. In 1930 under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi thousands of protesting Indians participated in the Salt March as a protest against the oppressive taxes of their government, resulting in the imprisonment of 60,000 people and eventual independence for their nation. In nations throughout Asia and South America, the prominence of activism organized by social movements and under the leadership of civil activists or social revolutionaries has pushed for increasing national self-reliance or, in some parts of the developing world, collectivist communist or socialist organization and affiliation.
Activism has had major impacts on Western societies as well over the past century through social movements such as the Labour movement, the Women's Rights movement, the civil rights movement. Activists can function in a number of roles, including judicial, environmental and design. Most activism has focused on creating substantive changes in the policy or practice of a government or industry; some activists try to persuade people to change their behavior directly, rather than to persuade governments to change laws. For example, the cooperative movement seeks to build new institutions which conform to cooperative principles, does not lobby or protest politically. Other activists try to persuade people or government policy to remain the same, in an effort to counter change. Activism is not always an activity performed by those; the term activist may apply broadly to anyone who engages in activism, or be more narrowly limited to those who choose political or social activism as a vocation or characteristic practice.
Judicial activism involves the efforts of public officials. Arthur Schlesinger, Jr. - American historian, public intellectual, social critic - introduced the term "judicial activism" in a January 1946 Fortune magazine article titled "The Supreme Court: 1947". Activists can be public watchdogs and whistle blowers, attempting to understand all the actions of every form of government that acts in the name of the people and hold it accountable to oversight and transparency. Activism involves an engaged citizenry. Environmental activism takes quite a few forms: the protection of nature or the natural environment driven by a utilitarian conservation ethic or a nature oriented preservationist ethic the protection of the human environment (by pollution prevention or the protection of cultural heritage or quality of life the conservation of depletable natural resources the protection of the function of critical earth system elements or processes such as the climate; the power of Internet activism came into a global lens with the Arab Spring protests starting in late 2010.
People living in the Middle East and North African countries that were experiencing revolutions used social networking to communicate information about protests, including videos recorded on smart phones
Australian rules football
Australian rules football known as Australian football, or called Aussie rules, football or footy, is a contact sport played between two teams of eighteen players on an oval-shaped field a modified cricket ground. Points are scored by kicking the oval-shaped ball between behind posts. During general play, players may position themselves anywhere on the field and use any part of their bodies to move the ball; the primary methods are kicking and running with the ball. There are rules on how the ball can be handled: for example, players running with the ball must intermittently bounce or touch it on the ground. Throwing the ball is not allowed and players must not get caught holding the ball. A distinctive feature of the game is the mark, where players anywhere on the field who catch the ball from a kick are awarded possession. Possession of the ball is in dispute at all times except when mark is paid. Players can use their whole body to obstruct opponents. Dangerous physical contact, interference when marking and deliberately slowing the play are discouraged with free kicks, distance penalties or suspension for a certain number of matches, depending on the seriousness of the infringement.
The game features frequent physical contests, spectacular marking, fast movement of both players and the ball and high scoring. The sport's origins can be traced to football matches played in Melbourne, Victoria in 1858, inspired by English public school football games. Seeking to develop a game more suited to adults and Australian conditions, the Melbourne Football Club published the first laws of Australian football in May 1859, making it the oldest of the world's major football codes. Australian football has the highest spectator attendance and television viewership of all sports in Australia, while the Australian Football League, the sport's only professional competition, is the nation's wealthiest sporting body; the AFL Grand Final, held annually at the Melbourne Cricket Ground, is the highest attended club championship event in the world. The sport is played at amateur level in many countries and in several variations, its rules are governed by the AFL Commission with the advice of the AFL's Laws of the Game Committee.
Australian rules football is known by several nicknames, including Aussie rules and footy. In some regions, it is marketed as AFL after the Australian Football League. There is evidence of football being played sporadically in the Australian colonies in the first half of the 19th century. Compared to cricket and horse racing, football was viewed as a minor "amusement" at the time, while little is known about these early one-off games, it is clear they share no causal link with Australian football. In 1858, in a move that would help to shape Australian football in its formative years, "public" schools in Melbourne, Victoria began organising football games inspired by precedents at English public schools; the earliest such match, held in St Kilda on 15 June, was between Melbourne Grammar and St Kilda Grammar. On 10 July 1858, the Melbourne-based Bell's Life in Victoria and Sporting Chronicle published a letter by Tom Wills, captain of the Victoria cricket team, calling for the formation of a "foot-ball club" with a "code of laws" to keep cricketers fit during winter.
Born in Australia, Wills played a nascent form of rugby football whilst a pupil at Rugby School in England, returned to his homeland a star athlete and cricketer. His letter is regarded by many historians as giving impetus for the development of a new code of football today known as Australian football. Two weeks Wills' friend, cricketer Jerry Bryant, posted an advertisement for a scratch match at the Richmond Paddock adjoining the Melbourne Cricket Ground; this was the first of several "kickabouts" held that year involving members of the Melbourne Cricket Club, including Wills, Bryant, W. J. Hammersley and J. B. Thompson. Trees were used as goalposts and play lasted an entire afternoon. Without an agreed upon code of laws, some players were guided by rules they had learned in the British Isles, "others by no rules at all". Another significant milestone in 1858 was a match played under experimental rules between Melbourne Grammar and Scotch College, held at the Richmond Paddock; this 40-a-side contest, umpired by Wills and Scotch College teacher John Macadam, began on 7 August and continued over two subsequent Saturdays, ending in a draw with each side kicking one goal.
It is commemorated with a statue outside the MCG, the two schools have competed annually since in the Cordner-Eggleston Cup, the world's oldest continuous football competition. Since the early 20th century, it has been suggested that Australian football was derived from the Irish sport of Gaelic football, not codified until 1885. There is no archival evidence in favour of a Gaelic influence, the style of play shared between the two modern codes was evident in Australia long before the Irish game evolved in a similar direction. Another theory, first proposed in 1983, posits that Wills, having grown up amongst Aborigines in Victoria, may have seen or played the Aboriginal game of Marn Grook, incorporated some of its features into early Australian football; the evidence for this is only circumstantial, according to biographer Greg de Moore's research, Wills was "almost influenced by his experience at Rugby School". A loosely organised Melbourne side, captained by Wills, played against other football enthusiasts in the winter and spring of 1858.
The following year, on 14 May, the Melbourne Football Club came into being, making it one of the
Mount Lilydale Mercy College
Mount Lilydale Mercy College is a Roman Catholic co-educational secondary school located in the Melbourne suburbs of Lilydale, Australia, founded by the Sisters of Mercy in 1896. The College serves the needs over 1,500 students; the Institute of the Sisters of Mercy was founded by Catherine McAuley in 1831 in Ireland. The Sisters took as their special concerns the education of girls, visitation of the sick in their homes, the protection of distressed women of good character, their attention was on local needs and they soon came to be called the ‘walking nuns’ as they were seen on their way to and from their visitations. Before Catherine died in 1841, there were Sisters of Mercy working in twelve towns in Ireland and two in England; the Sisters at that time were involved in school-based and adult education, the care of the sick in hospitals, the establishment of homes for orphans, the aged and disadvantaged. Fifteen years in 1846, the first Sisters of Mercy arrived in Perth from Ireland. One of these pioneering women was Ursula Frayne who brought with her the vision of Catherine that they should be living witnesses of God's mercy in a new world.
The Sisters of Mercy continue to provide education, health care, social services and ministries across 43 countries today. In 1990, Pope John Paul II declared Catherine McAuley "Venerable". Click herefor more information on Catherine McAuley and the work underway to have her declared a Saint. Following the establishment of a convent at Mansfield in 1846, a branch house was opened in Lilydale in 1896; when the Sisters arrived in January of that year, neither the convent nor school had been prepared for them, but the local Parish Priest vacated his presbytery and, for the first four months, school was carried out in the basement of the presbytery. There were four nuns in charge at Lilydale, namely Mother Patrick Maguire, Mother Agnes Ryan, Sister Brigid Bradshaw and Sister Catherine Ford; the Parish Priest, Rev A Hennessy bought a property of 33 acres and on 15 November 1896, the foundation stone of the convent and the boarding school was laid. As soon as the first stage of the building was ready, the Sisters took up residence on what is now known as Mount Lilydale Mercy College.
The number of pupils increased and volunteer Sisters from Ireland were soon called for. In 1905, Mount Lilydale College, was granted primary registration. In 1938, the high school received full recognition as a secondary college. From these beginnings, the College flourished as a primary, secondary and day school for students. In 1944, a two-roomed junior school was built nearby. Both were demolished for construction of the existing College. In April 1962, in November 1965, the present north and south wings of the McAuley Campus were opened. In February 1964, the tennis courts were laid, opened by Archbishop Knox; the Library and Science block were constructed in 1970. At that time, this new building marked the last stage of the development of Mount Lilydale Catholic Girls’ College, which, in 1974, boasted 339 secondary and 95 primary students, including 21 boarders. During 1973 a committee was formed to address the need for development of a boys’ secondary school to meet the growing demands in the area.
The magnanimous and courageous decision was taken by the Sisters of Mercy to retain the presence of the Sisters of Mercy and for Mount Lilydale College to become coeducational. Boarders ceased living at the College in 1974 and in February 1975 the first boys were enrolled and the primary section of the College began to be phased out. On 17 November 1976, Bishop Perkins opened and blessed the first extension required for this new phase of the College development. During the past 41 years there has been a major transformation in the College facilities with further building works proposed as a result of the new College Master Plan. Mount Lilydale Mercy College accepts students from Year 7 to Year 12. Philip Morison is the Principal of Mount Lilydale Mercy College and is responsible for representing the College and for providing strategic leadership and management; the Learning and Teaching Portfolio, led by the Deputy Principal – Learning and Teaching is responsible for Faculties, Library Services, eLearning, Learning Services and Learning & Teaching policy.
The Mission Portfolio, led by the Deputy Principal – Mission is responsible for Religious Education, Ministry and Justice. The Organisation Portfolio, led by the Deputy Principal – Organisation is responsible for Staff, Human Resources, Professional Learning & Development, Health & Safety and Compliance; the Pastoral Care Portfolio, led by the Deputy Principal – Pastoral Care is responsible for Student Leadership, Student Wellbeing, Student Management, the Counseling Service, Extra-Curricular Programs and Pastoral Care Policy. The Corporate Services Portfolio, led by the Director of Business, is composed of Finance, Health & Safety, Human Resources, Information Technology, Properties & Facilities and Administrative Services; the Development and Communications Portfolio, led by the Director of Development and Communications is responsible for marketing, communications, alumni relations and fundraising. Mount Lilydale Mercy College offers the Victorian Certificate of Education to students at Year 11 and 12 Level.
High achieving Year 10 students are given the opportunity to undertake one VCE subject at Year 11 level. Mount Lilydale Mercy College offers an extensive range of VCE subjects all of which are run each year due to the large size of the school; the Victorian Certificate of Applied iLearning is offered to Year 11 and 12 Students at the I
Daniel Paul Merriweather is an Australian R&B recording artist. Merriweather's debut solo album, Love & War, was released in June 2009, it entered the UK Albums Chart at number two. It was preceded by two singles, "Change" and "Red", which both made the top 10 on the related singles chart. Merriweather has won two ARIA Music Awards, Best Urban Release in 2005 for "She's Got Me" and Best Male Artist in 2009 for Love & War. In addition to his solo career, he has worked as a featured vocalist for other well-known artists, his guest vocals are included on album tracks by Mark Ronson and Phrase. His collaborations with Ronson led to working in the United Kingdom including lead vocals on 2007 Ronson's hit "Stop Me", a cover version of "Stop Me If You Think You've Heard This One Before", a song by The Smiths. Daniel Paul Merriweather grew up in the Melbourne suburb of Sassafras in the Dandenong Ranges. Both his parents are teachers and he has two brothers; as Merriweather described his family, "My mum's lot are working-class – my granddad was a boxer and fireman, a real man's man – while my dad's parents were missionaries, he grew up with a tribe in Papua New Guinea."
His maternal grandfather, Ted Ellis, was an Australian rules footballer for North Melbourne and Footscray, while Daniel is an Essendon supporter. Merriweather attended The Patch Primary School, Billanook College, Blackburn High School and Swinburne Senior Secondary College and left school when he was aged 17, his musical education began with violin lessons at the age of four. As a teen, he was in a social environment that cultivated violent tendencies and on one occasion was charged with assault. After dropping out of school, he focused his attention on music, taking vocal lessons and performing in clubs around Melbourne. Merriweather spent much of his time between New York and London, as from 2009 resided in East Harlem. Since the age of 18, Merriweather has had a tattoo on his inside-right forearm bearing the Latin phrase for "love or money". Merriweather indicated in 2009 that he planned another tattoo for his back – a 100-word excerpt from the last verse of the poem "Jim Jones", quoted in Robert Hughes' book The Fatal Shore, which includes "For night and day... we toil and toil".
Daniel Merriweather's first commercially released recording was a guest appearance on the track "All I Want" for Australian dance act Disco Montego's self-titled album in September 2002. The album peaked at No.17 on the ARIA Albums Chart. He signed with the local label, Marlin Records, which led to work with Mark Ronson, a United Kingdom DJ and guitarist, on the latter's debut album, Here Comes the Fuzz, in September 2003. Merriweather signed with Ronson's label, Allido Records, worked on his debut solo single, "City Rules", as a revised version of "NYC Rules", it was produced by Ronson and featured raps from New York MC Saigon and was issued in early 2004. Other musicians on the single are?uestlove, The Black Eyed Peas' horn section and members of Beck's backing band. He received an ARIA Award nomination for "City Rules" in the Best Urban Release category at the 2004 ceremony."She's Got Me" was released as Merriweather's second single. While neither charted on the ARIA Top 50 Singles Chart, both became favourites in clubs and urban music circles.
"City Rules" won the Most Performed Dance Work category at the APRA Awards of 2005 and "She's Got Me" won the Best Urban Release category at the ARIA Music Awards of 2005. "City Rules" obtained some airplay on the major Australian commercial radio stations FOX FM /2Day FM and B105. In 2005, he co-wrote and co-produced much of Phrase's debut album Talk with Force lending vocals to three tracks including the single "Catch Phrase". In March 2006, Undercover News reported that Merriweather was recording his debut album, The Fifth Season, with Ronson producing. However, in August 2011, Merriweather recalled: "It was 12 songs out of a whole bunch of songs that I'd written. I came up with the idea of calling it The Fifth someone put it on Wikipedia, but it wasn't an album – it was just a collection of songs. There's a difference". In early 2007, Ronson featured Merriweather's lead vocals on a cover version of The Smiths' song "Stop Me If You Think You've Heard This One Before" released as "Stop Me", it was re-composed with additional lyrics from the song "You Keep Me Hangin' On" by The Supremes.
Merriweather admitted in an interview with The Guardian that he was not familiar with the Smiths song prior to recording the revised version: "Mark said,'I want you to sing on this - it's my favourite Smiths song', so I listened to it. I'd heard it once before, but I thought it was beautiful". It was issued as a single in April on Columbia Records and appeared on Ronson's compilation album Version that same month, it was a commercial success in Ronson's native United Kingdom, where it reached number two on the UK Singles Chart. It peaked in the top 40 on the Italian Singles Charts. Merriweather performed it during Glastonbury 2008. Merriweather's debut solo album, Love & War produced by Ronson, was released in June 2009, which reached number two on the UK Albums Chart and peaked in the top 10 on the Swiss Albums Chart, it was preceded by the singles "Change" and "Red", which both made the top 10 on the UK Singles Chart. "Change" appeared in the top 10 on the Swiss Singles Top 75. While "Red" was a top 10 hit on the Danish and Irish Singles Charts.
On the ARIA Albums Chart, Love & War reached the top 40 and "Change" peaked in the top 50 on the related singles chart. At the ARIA Music Awards of 2009, he won the Best Male Artist category for Love & War
Victoria is a state in south-eastern Australia. Victoria is Australia's smallest mainland state and its second-most populous state overall, thus making it the most densely populated state overall. Most of its population lives concentrated in the area surrounding Port Phillip Bay, which includes the metropolitan area of its state capital and largest city, Australia's second-largest city. Victoria is bordered by Bass Strait and Tasmania to the south,New South Wales to the north, the Tasman Sea to the east, South Australia to the west; the area, now known as Victoria is the home of many Aboriginal people groups, including the Boon wurrung, the Bratauolung, the Djadjawurrung, the Gunai/Kurnai, the Gunditjmara, the Taungurong, the Wathaurong, the Wurundjeri, the Yorta Yorta. There were more than 30 Aboriginal languages spoken in the area prior to the European settlement of Australia; the Kulin nation is an alliance of five Aboriginal nations which makes up much of the central part of the state. With Great Britain having claimed the half of the Australian continent, east of the 135th meridian east in 1788, Victoria formed part of the wider colony of New South Wales.
The first European settlement in the area occurred in 1803 at Sullivan Bay, much of what is now Victoria was included in 1836 in the Port Phillip District, an administrative division of New South Wales. Named in honour of Queen Victoria, who signed the division's separation from New South Wales, the colony was established in 1851 and achieved self government in 1855; the Victorian gold rush in the 1850s and 1860s increased both the population and wealth of the colony, by the time of the Federation of Australia in 1901, Melbourne had become the largest city and leading financial centre in Australasia. Melbourne served as federal capital of Australia until the construction of Canberra in 1927, with the Federal Parliament meeting in Melbourne's Parliament House and all principal offices of the federal government being based in Melbourne. Politically, Victoria has 37 seats in the Australian House of Representatives and 12 seats in the Australian Senate. At state level, the Parliament of Victoria consists of the Legislative Assembly and the Legislative Council.
The Labor Party led Daniel Andrews as premier has governed Victoria since 2014. The personal representative of the Queen of Australia in the state is the Governor of Victoria Linda Dessau. Victoria is divided into 79 municipal districts, including 33 cities, although a number of unincorporated areas still exist, which the state administers directly; the economy of Victoria is diversified, with service sectors including financial and property services, education, retail and manufacturing constitute the majority of employment. Victoria's total gross state product ranks second in Australia, although Victoria ranks fourth in terms of GSP per capita because of its limited mining activity. Culturally, Melbourne hosts a number of museums, art galleries, theatres, is described as the world's sporting capital; the Melbourne Cricket Ground, the largest stadium in Australia and the Southern Hemisphere, hosted the 1956 Summer Olympics and the 2006 Commonwealth Games. The ground is considered the "spiritual home" of Australian cricket and Australian rules football, hosts the grand final of the Australian Football League each year, drawing crowds of 100,000.
Nearby Melbourne Park has hosted the Australian Open, one of tennis' four Grand Slam events, annually since 1988. Victoria has eight public universities, with the oldest, the University of Melbourne, dating from 1853. Victoria, like Queensland, was named after Queen Victoria, on the British throne for 14 years when the colony was established in 1851. After the founding of the colony of New South Wales in 1788, Australia was divided into an eastern half named New South Wales and a western half named New Holland, under the administration of the colonial government in Sydney; the first British settlement in the area known as Victoria was established in October 1803 under Lieutenant-Governor David Collins at Sullivan Bay on Port Phillip. It consisted of 402 people, they had been sent from England in HMS Calcutta under the command of Captain Daniel Woodriff, principally out of fear that the French, exploring the area, might establish their own settlement and thereby challenge British rights to the continent.
In 1826, Colonel Stewart, Captain Samuel Wright, Lieutenant Burchell were sent in HMS Fly and the brigs Dragon and Amity, took a number of convicts and a small force composed of detachments of the 3rd and 93rd regiments. The expedition landed at Settlement Point, on the eastern side of Western Port Bay, the headquarters until the abandonment of Western Port at the insistence of Governor Darling about 12 months afterwards. Victoria's next settlement was on the south west coast of what is now Victoria. Edward Henty settled Portland Bay in 1834. Melbourne was founded in 1835 by John Batman, who set up a base in Indented Head, John Pascoe Fawkner. From settlement, the region around Melbourne was known as the Port Phillip District, a separately administered part of New South Wales. Shortly after, the site now known as Geelong was surveyed by Assistant Surveyor W. H. Smythe, three weeks after Melbourne, and in 1838, Geelong was declared a town, despite earlier European settlements dating back to 1826
Olympic Park Stadium
Olympic Park Stadium was a multi-purpose outdoor stadium located on Olympic Boulevard in inner Melbourne. The stadium was built as an athletics training venue for the 1956 Olympics, a short distance from the MCG, which served as the Olympic Stadium. Over the years it was the home of rugby league side, Melbourne Storm and the A-League team, Melbourne Victory. Olympic Park Stadium was located in Olympic Park, part of the Melbourne Sports and Entertainment Precinct. Olympic Park Stadium was demolished in 2011, replaced with an Australian rules football ground; this new ground, Olympic Park Oval, has been used by the Collingwood Football Club for training purposes, it being adjacent to the Holden Centre. As of the 2016 season, Collingwood are using Olympic Park as one of their home grounds for the VFL side of the club; the stadium was one of the largest in Victoria suited to a rectangular configuration, which made it ideal for hosting rugby league, rugby union and gridiron matches. Whilst the larger Etihad Stadium and Melbourne Cricket Ground stadiums support rectangular configuration, due to their oval-shaped grounds, viewing conditions are less ideal.
The larger 30,050-seat rectangular stadium adjacent to Olympic Park Stadium was completed in May 2010. The stadium had lighting suited for night athletics meets as well as a world standard athletics track, refurbished in 1997, with the stadium last being redeveloped in 1998; the athletics track was refurbished again in 2010 for the national championships. Until 2009, the stadium was home of the Melbourne Storm, it served as the home of Melbourne Victory home games for two seasons. Olympic Park had a capacity of 18,500 spectators, with 11,000 seats. Australian athletes competed on the track for over fifty years and the venue hosted twelve National Championships. Thirteen world records in athletics had been established at the stadium with Pole vaulter Emma George setting four between 1995 and 1998. Australian middle-distance runner star John Landy featured in a memorable race at the 1956 National Championships, where he stopped during the Mile championship to assist the fallen junior champion, Ron Clarke.
Landy's actions, in front of a 22,000 strong crowd have been described as'the finest sporting moment in the history of sport'. Landy went on to win the event with many commentators believing that the stop had cost him the world record. A photograph of the fall was named the'Best Australian Sporting Photo of the Twentieth Century' while Landy's conduct was named by the Sport Australia Hall of Fame as the nation's finest sporting moment of the 20th Century; the track was host to the most significant athletics meeting in Australia each year, the Athletics Grand Prix Series, meet. Olympic Park was the first stadium in Australia to be recognised by FIFA as a soccer ground. From the mid-1950s onward the venue was considered to be the unofficial home of soccer in Victoria, it hosted important games of the Victorian State League, including Dockerty Cup finals and games by overseas touring teams. The stadium held FIFA World Cup qualification matches, 1993 FIFA World Youth Championship matches, group matches of the 1956 Olympics football competition.
Australia played 34 internationals at Olympic Park for 11 wins. The last international match played at Olympic Park was a friendly against Paraguay on 15 June 2000, which Australia won 2–1, it wasn't supposed to host the game but the game was moved to Olympic Park because the venue, about to play host to the soccer international, Colonial Stadium, had an unsafe surface that had caused an Australian Football League match to be moved from Colonial Stadium to the Melbourne Cricket Ground. As well as hosting several National Soccer League Grand Finals, various soccer clubs used the venue as a permanent or temporary home, such as Melbourne Knights, South Melbourne and Heidelberg United. A-League club Melbourne Victory initially played its home games at the venue, before capacity issues saw it move to the much larger Docklands Stadium the following season. Game II of the 1990 State of Origin series was the first to be played in Melbourne and the stadium was packed to capacity for New South Wales' victory over Queensland.
Capacity for the stadium was upped to 25,800 through the use of temporary seating at each end. The stadium held an NSWRL premiership match in 1993, when the St. George Dragons defeated the Western Suburbs Magpies 20–8 in front of 11,822 fans; the match was designated as a Wests home game. The stadium hosted an Australia vs New Zealand test match on 3 July 1991 as part of the 1991 Trans-Tasman Test series; the match was first rugby league test held in Australia outside of New South Wales or Queensland, with the Kiwi's scoring an upset 24–8 win over the World Champions in front of 26,900 fans. Olympic Park was the home ground of the Melbourne Storm from 1998–2000 and 2002–2009; the exception being 2001 when the Storm moved their home games to the larger, 56,347-capacity Telstra Dome, due in part to the Storm's first three seasons, each having season average attendance of over 13,000. Attractive in the move was the chance to play indoors due to the stadium having a retractable roof, the stadium's ability to move seating closer to the rugby league field.
The seating was only moved for one game, due to the cost involved and the damage done to the playing surface, which hosted the Australian Football League. That was the Round 21 clash with defending premiers Brisbane
The Knox School (Australia)
The Knox School is an independent, co-educational, non-denominational day school, located in the eastern Melbourne suburb of Wantirna South, Australia. The school is a member of the Eastern Independent Schools of Melbourne association. There are 600+ students at the school and class sizes are capped at 24 students.. 2017 fees range from $11,915 to $22,990 p.a. The Knox School was founded as Knoxfield College in February 1982; the school took over the campus from Taylors College at 220 Burwood Highway. The first principal was Dulcie Flinn, of the Presbyterian Ladies' College, Melbourne. From 1982 to 1985 there were eight portable classrooms – five for the Junior School and three for the Senior School. In 1985 Stage II building work was done; the second principal was Baxter Holly. Under Holly's leadership, Knoxfield College developed Stage III, including the Performing Arts Centre and the Art Gallery. 1987 saw the first Year 12 class. 1992 saw. That area is now the school's synthetic hockey pitch; this was opened in 1996.
The third principal was Tony Conabere. He was appointed in July 1995. 1996 was another year of building, including the Pre-Prep campus and Tew Field, as well as the adjoining Pavilion. In 1998 and 2000 the Knox School was ranked in Victoria's top ten schools, in 1998 won the gold medal for Assessment Practice. 2000 saw the renaming of the school to Knox Grammar, however only a year the school was further renamed to The Knox School after a "disagreement" with Knox Grammar School over the naming. In 2002 the Information Common was opened by the then-Governor of John Landy; this building incorporates four stories which include a library, many computer facilities, multimedia studio and numerous staff offices and front desk. In 2004 the fourth principal, Suzanne McChesney, was appointed. In that year the Philip Island Discovery Campus was purchased. In 2005, the Junior School Building was named the D. G. M. Flinn building after the School's first principal. 2006 saw the renaming of the Arts Centre to the Founders' Building, in honour of those who started the school.
In 2007 The Knox School celebrated its 25th anniversary, along with unofficially opening its new auditorium, beginning renovations to part of the Senior School, with renovations to the science labs and the conversion of the Year 12 Common Room into a hospitality kitchen, where students study the elective subject Food Technology and serves as a small café for the staff. The school contributed to the building of a crossing over Burwood Highway; the school developed sister school relationships with the Shonan Gauken school in Fujisawa, Japan. After ten and a half years as the principal of The Knox School, Suzanne McChesney was farewelled in a special assembly on 27 June 2014, her successor, Allan Shaw took up the position of principal on 7 July 2014. In September 2015, a $1.5 million refurbishment of the Year 7 Centre began. It was completed by the beginning of the school year in 2016. Significant building projects since 2014 have seen many classrooms and other rooms refurbished and a 30 Million Dollar building masterplan was ratified in December 2016.
The four Houses used for sporting and arts competitions and carnivals are "Chisholm", "Flinders", "Lawrence" and "Paterson". There are three sub-schools: Middle School and Senior College. Jackson Irvine, professional footballer who plays for EFL Championship club Hull City and the Socceroos Xander Speight, actor best known for his role as Parker in the ABC3 television series, Worst Year of My Life Again List of schools in Victoria The Knox School