Billboard (magazine)

Billboard, stylized as billboard, is an American entertainment media brand owned by the Billboard-Hollywood Reporter Media Group, a division of Eldridge Industries. It publishes pieces involving news, opinion, reviews and style, is known for its music charts, including the Hot 100 and Billboard 200, tracking the most popular songs and albums in different genres, it hosts events, owns a publishing firm, operates several TV shows. Billboard was founded in 1894 by William Donaldson and James Hennegan as a trade publication for bill posters. Donaldson acquired Hennegen's interest in 1900 for $500. In the early years of the 20th century, it covered the entertainment industry, such as circuses and burlesque shows, created a mail service for travelling entertainers. Billboard began focusing more on the music industry as the jukebox and radio became commonplace. Many topics it covered were spun-off into different magazines, including Amusement Business in 1961 to cover outdoor entertainment, so that it could focus on music.

After Donaldson died in 1925, Billboard was passed down to his children and Hennegan's children, until it was sold to private investors in 1985, has since been owned by various parties. The first issue of Billboard was published in Cincinnati, Ohio by William Donaldson and James Hennegan on November 1, 1894, it covered the advertising and bill posting industry, was known as Billboard Advertising. At the time, billboards and paper advertisements placed in public spaces were the primary means of advertising. Donaldson handled editorial and advertising, while Hennegan, who owned Hennegan Printing Co. managed magazine production. The first issues were just eight pages long; the paper had columns like "The Bill Room Gossip" and "The Indefatigable and Tireless Industry of the Bill Poster". A department for agricultural fairs was established in 1896; the title was changed to The Billboard in 1897. After a brief departure over editorial differences, Donaldson purchased Hennegan's interest in the business in 1900 for $500 to save it from bankruptcy.

That May, Donaldson changed it from a monthly to a weekly paper with a greater emphasis on breaking news. He improved editorial quality and opened new offices in New York, San Francisco and Paris, re-focused the magazine on outdoor entertainment such as fairs, circuses and burlesque shows. A section devoted to circuses was introduced in 1900, followed by more prominent coverage of outdoor events in 1901. Billboard covered topics including regulation, a lack of professionalism and new shows, it had a "stage gossip" column covering the private lives of entertainers, a "tent show" section covering traveling shows, a sub-section called "Freaks to order". According to The Seattle Times, Donaldson published news articles "attacking censorship, praising productions exhibiting'good taste' and fighting yellow journalism"; as railroads became more developed, Billboard set up a mail forwarding system for traveling entertainers. The location of an entertainer was tracked in the paper's Routes Ahead column Billboard would receive mail on the star's behalf and publish a notice in its "Letter-Box" column that it has mail for them.

This service was first introduced in 1904, became one of Billboard's largest sources of profit and celebrity connections. By 1914, there were 42,000 people using the service, it was used as the official address of traveling entertainers for draft letters during World War I. In the 1960s, when it was discontinued, Billboard was still processing 1,500 letters per week. In 1920, Donaldson made a controversial move by hiring African-American journalist James Albert Jackson to write a weekly column devoted to African-American performers. According to The Business of Culture: Strategic Perspectives on Entertainment and Media, the column identified discrimination against black performers and helped validate their careers. Jackson was the first black critic at a national magazine with a predominantly white audience. According to his grandson, Donaldson established a policy against identifying performers by their race. Donaldson died in 1925. Billboard's editorial changed focus as technology in recording and playback developed, covering "marvels of modern technology" such as the phonograph, record players, wireless radios.

It began covering coin-operated entertainment machines in 1899, created a dedicated section for them called "Amusement Machines" in March 1932. Billboard began covering the motion picture industry in 1907, but ended up focusing on music due to competition from Variety, it created a radio broadcasting station in the 1920s. The jukebox industry continued to grow through the Great Depression, was advertised in Billboard, which led to more editorial focus on music; the proliferation of the phonograph and radio contributed to its growing music emphasis. Billboard published the first music hit parade on January 4, 1936, introduced a "Record Buying Guide" in January 1939. In 1940, it introduced "Chart Line", which tracked the best-selling records, was followed by a chart for jukebox records in 1944 called Music Box Machine charts. By the 1940s, Billboard was more of a music industry specialist publication; the number of charts it published grew after World War II, due to a growing variety of music interests and genres.

It had eight charts by 1987, covering different genres and formats, 28 charts by 1994. By 1943, Billboard had about 100 employees; the magazine's offices moved to Brighton, Ohio in 1946 to New York City in 1948. A five-column tabloid format was adopted in November 1950 and coated paper was first used in Billboard's print issues in January 1963, al

Benny McCoy

Benjamin Jenison McCoy was a second baseman in Major League Baseball who played for the Detroit Tigers and Philadelphia Athletics. Listed at 5 ft 9 in. 170 lb. he batted left-handed and threw right-handed. He was born in Michigan. McCoy was 22 years old when he entered the majors in September 1938 with the Detroit Tigers, appearing in seven games while hitting a.200 batting average. In 1939, though he played just two months for Detroit after Charlie Gehringer was injured, McCoy hit.302 with 33 runs batted in and 38 runs scored in 55 games played. At the end of the season, he was dealt by the Tigers to the Philadelphia Athletics in exchange for Wally Moses. McCoy was among 91 Detroit minor league players declared free agents by baseball commissioner Kenesaw Mountain Landis; the Tigers had been blocking players in their minor league system for years, players with major league skills, a common practice in those days as there were only 16 big league clubs and precious few jobs. For a middle infielder, McCoy was a good offensive player, but Detroit had Gehringer and he was blocked in the minors.

With the deal canceled, McCoy had bids from ten major-league clubs. The Washington Senators offered him a bonus of $20,000, the New York Giants raised it to $25,000, the Brooklyn Dodgers to $35,000, the Pittsburgh Pirates and Cincinnati Reds to $40,000. McCoy, who got $15 for his first major league season and thought his $5,000 in 1939 was big money, accepted the Philadelphia Athletics'offer: a $45,000 bonus, a two-year contract at $10,000 a year, a regular job at second base under the tutorial guidance of manager Connie Mack, his was not only the biggest bonus in major league history, $20,000 more than the previous top, given Rick Ferrell by the St. Louis Browns in 1929, but it made McCoy the highest-paid bigleaguer of the year, his 1940 income of $55,000 will be more than the salary of Joe Di Maggio, Jimmy Foxx or Hank Greenberg. McCoy played in 1941 with the Athletics, his most productive season came in 1941, when he hit.271 with 61 RBI and posted career-highs in games, walks, home runs, triples.

He spent the next four years in the US Navy during World War II. When he returned from service, his skills had eroded and he never played another game. In a four-season career, McCoy was a.269 hitter with 16 home runs and 156 RBI in 337 games, including 182 runs, 327 hits, 52 doubles, 18 triples, eight stolen bases. A selective and patient hitter, he posted a solid.384 on-base percentage and a respectable 1.56 strikeout-to-walk ratio. McCoy played in the National Baseball Congress with the St Joseph's Autos team in 1946. Before his death, he was recognized as one of the oldest living major league ballplayers. McCoy died on his 96th birthday on November 9, 2011. Career statistics and player information from Baseball-Reference, or Fangraphs Baseball Library Baseball Page Philadelphia Athletics Historical Society Retrosheet Time magazine

Alexander Massialas

Alexander Massialas is an American foil fencer, team silver medallist in the 2014 World Fencing Championships. At the 2016 Summer Olympics he earned a silver medal. Massialas was born in California to a father of Greek descent and a Taiwanese mother, his father, Greg Massialas, fenced for the United States in the 1984 and 1988 Summer Olympics, coaches the American national foil team. His sister, Sabrina, is a high-level foil fencer. Despite this, Massialas was never pushed into fencing. After he showed spontaneous interest at an early age, his father made him wait until he was seven years old to begin training. An athletic child, Massialas played soccer, made the basketball and the swimming teams at Drew School, he enrolled Stanford University on a fencing scholarship in the fall of 2012. He closed his freshman season by winning the 2013 NCAA title in individual men's foil, he repeated this feat in 2015, after falling to David Willette in 2014's semifinal round. Alexander Massialas at the International Fencing Federation Alexander Massialas at the United States Olympic & Paralympic Committee Alexander Massialas at the International Olympic Committee Alexander Massialas at Olympics at