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Billboard 200

The Billboard 200 is a record chart ranking the 200 most popular music albums and EPs in the United States. It is published weekly by Billboard magazine, it is used to convey the popularity of an artist or groups of artists. A recording act will be remembered by its "number ones", those of their albums that outperformed all others during at least one week; the chart grew from a weekly top 10 list in 1956 to become a top 200 in May 1967, acquired its present title in March 1992. Its previous names include the Billboard Top LPs, Billboard Top LPs & Tapes, Billboard Top 200 Albums and Billboard Top Pop Albums; the chart is based on sales of albums in the United States. The weekly sales period was Monday to Sunday when Nielsen started tracking sales in 1991, but since July 2015, tracking week begins on Friday and ends on Thursday. A new chart is published the following Tuesday with an issue post-dated to the Saturday of that week, four days later; the chart's streaming schedule is tracked from Friday to Thursday.

Example: Friday January 1 – sales tracking week begins Thursday January 7 – sales tracking week ends Tuesday January 12 – new chart published, with issue date of Saturday January 16. New product is released to the American market on Fridays. Digital downloads of albums are included in Billboard 200 tabulation. Albums that are not licensed for retail sale in the United States are not eligible to chart. A long-standing policy which made titles that are sold by specific retail outlets ineligible for charting, was reversed on November 7, 2007, took effect in the issue dated November 17. Beginning with the December 13, 2014 issue, Billboard updated the methodology of their album chart to include on-demand streaming and digital track sales by way of a new algorithm, utilizing data from all of the major on-demand audio subscription and online music sales services in the United States. Starting on the issue dated January 18, 2020, Billboard updated the methodology to compile the chart again by incorporating video data from YouTube, along with visual plays from streaming services like Apple Music, Spotify and Vevo.

As of the issue dated March 7, 2020, the current number-one album on the Billboard 200 is Map of the Soul: 7 by BTS. Billboard began an album chart in 1945. Only five positions long, the album chart was not published on a weekly basis, sometimes three to seven weeks passing before it was updated. A biweekly, 15-position Best-Selling Popular Albums chart appeared in 1955. With the increase in album sales as the early 1950s format wars stabilized into market dominance by 45 RPM singles and long-playing twelve-inch albums, with 78 RPM record and long-playing ten-inch album sales decreasing Billboard premiered a weekly Best-Selling Popular Albums chart on March 24, 1956; the position count varied anywhere from 10 to 30 albums. The first number-one album on the new weekly list was Belafonte by Harry Belafonte; the chart was renamed to Best-Selling Pop Albums in 1956, to Best-Selling Pop LPs in 1957. Beginning on May 25, 1959, Billboard split the ranking into two charts Best-Selling Stereophonic LPs for stereo albums and Best-Selling Monophonic LPs for mono albums.

These were renamed to Stereo Action Charts and Mono Action Charts in 1960. In January 1961, they became Action Albums -- Action Albums -- Monophonic. Three months they became Top LPs—Stereo and Top LPs—Monaural. On August 17, 1963 the stereo and mono charts were combined into a 150-position chart called Top LPs. On April 1, 1967, the chart was expanded to 175 positions finally to 200 positions on May 13, 1967. In February 1972, the album chart's title was changed to Top Tape. In 1960, Billboard began concurrently publishing album charts which ranked sales of older or mid-priced titles; these Essential Inventory charts were divided by stereo and mono albums, featured titles that had appeared on the main stereo and mono album charts. Mono albums were moved to the Essential Inventory—Mono chart after spending 40 weeks on the Mono Action Chart, stereo albums were moved to the Essential Inventory—Stereo chart after 20 weeks on the Stereo Action Chart. In January 1961, the Action Charts became Action Albums—Monophonic, Action Albums—Stereophonic.

Albums appeared on either chart for up to nine weeks were moved to an Essential Inventory list of 200 titles, with no numerical ranking. This list continued to be published until the consolidated Top LPs chart debuted in 1963. In 1982, Billboard began publishing a Midline Albums chart which ranked mid-priced titles; the chart was published on a bi-weekly basis. On May 25, 1991, Billboard premiered the Top Pop Catalog Albums chart; the criteria for this chart were albums that were more than 18 months old and had fallen below position 100 on the Billboard 200. An album needed not have charted on the Billboard 200 at all to qualify for catalog status. Starting with the issue dated December 5, 2009, the catalog limitations which removed albums over 18 months old, that have drop

Legislative session

A legislative session is the period of time in which a legislature, in both parliamentary and presidential systems, is convened for purpose of lawmaking being one of two or more smaller divisions of the entire time between two elections. In each country the procedures for opening, in between sessions differs slightly. A session may last for the full term of the legislature or the term may consist of a number of sessions; these may be used as a parliamentary procedural device. A session of the legislature is brought to an end by an official act of prorogation. In either event, the effect of prorogation is the clearing of all outstanding matters before the legislature; each session of a parliament would last less than one year, ceasing with a prorogation during which legislators could return to their constituencies. In more recent times, development in transportation technology has permitted these individuals to journey with greater ease and frequency from the legislative capital to their respective electoral districts for short periods, meaning that parliamentary sessions last for more than one year, though the length of sessions varies.

Legislatures plan their business within a legislative calendar, which lays out how bills will proceed before a session ceases, although related but unofficial affairs may be conducted by legislators outside a session or during a session on days in which parliament is not meeting. While a parliament is prorogued, between two legislative sessions, the legislature is still constituted – i.e. no general election takes place and all Members of Parliament thus retain their seats. In many legislatures, prorogation causes all orders of the body – bills, etc. – to be expunged. Prorogations should thus not be confused with recesses, adjournments, or holiday breaks from legislation, after which bills can resume where they left off. In the United Kingdom, the practice of terminating all bills upon prorogation has altered. A new session will begin on the same day that the previous session ended. In most cases, when parliament reconvenes for a new legislative session, the head of state, or a representative thereof, will address the legislature in an opening ceremony.

In both parliamentary and presidential systems, sessions are referred to by the name of the body and an ordinal number – for example, the 2nd Session of the 39th Canadian Parliament or the 1st Session of the 109th United States Congress. Governments today end sessions whenever it is most convenient, but a “good faith exercise of the power” to prorogue parliament does not include preventing it from frustrating the prime minister's agenda; when the Parliament of the Kingdom of Italy conquered the power to decide on its recalling, the MP Modigliani spoke of a coup d'état, in the event that the right to prorogue or close the session was exercised after Parliament had recalled itself. During the electoral campaign, this break takes place so as to prevent the upper house from sitting and to purge all upper chamber business before the start of the next legislative session, it is not uncommon for a session of parliament to be put into recess during holidays and resumed a few weeks exactly where it left off.

In Commonwealth realms, legislative sessions can last from a few weeks to over a year. Each session begins with a speech from the throne, read to the members of both legislative chambers either by the reigning sovereign or a viceroy or other representative. Houses of parliament in some realms will, following this address, introduce a pro forma bill as a symbol of the right of parliament to give priority to matters other than the monarch's speech. In the parliament of the United Kingdom, prorogation is preceded by a speech to both legislative chambers, with procedures similar to the Throne Speech; the monarch approves the oration—which recalls the prior legislative session, noting major bills passed and other functions of the government—but delivers it in person, Queen Victoria being the last to do so. Instead, the speech is presented by the Lords Commissioners and read by the Leader of the House of Lords; when King Charles I dissolved the Parliament of England in 1628, after the Petition of Right, he gave a prorogation speech that cancelled all future meetings of the legislature, at least until he again required finances.

Prior to 1977, it was common for the federal Parliament to have up to three sessions, with Parliament being prorogued at the end of each session and recalled at the beginning of the next. This was not always the case, for instance; the practice of having multiple sessions in the same parliament fell into disuse, all parliaments from 1978 to 2013 had a single session. Since 1990, it has been the practice for the parliament to be prorogued on the same day that the House is dissolved so that the Senate will not be able to sit during the election period. However, on 21 March 2016, Prime Minister Malcolm Turnbull announced that the 44th Parliament, elected in 2013, would be prorogued on 15 April and

United States Army Medical Research and Materiel Command

The United States Army Medical Research and Development Command is the United States Army's medical materiel developer, with responsibility for medical research and acquisition and medical logistics management. The USAMRDC's expertise in these critical areas helps establish and maintain the capabilities the U. S. Army needs to win on the battlefield. USAMRMC Headquarters at Fort Detrick, supports 11 subordinate commands located throughout the world. Six USAMRMC medical research laboratories and institutes perform the core science and technology research to develop medical solutions; these laboratories specialize in various areas of biomedical research, including infectious diseases, combat casualty care, operational medicine and rehabilitative medicine and biological defense, combat dentistry, laser effects. The laboratories are staffed with qualified scientists and support personnel. A large extramural research program and numerous cooperative research and development agreements provide additional S&T capabilities by the leading R&D organizations in the civilian sector.

Five USAMRMC subordinate commands perform medical materiel advanced development and operational medical logistics, contracting, to complete the lifecycle management of medical materiel. About 6,000 military and contractor personnel are assigned to support the Headquarters and subordinate units. Officers, enlisted Soldiers, civilians-many of whom are among the most respected and knowledgeable specialists in their fields-provide subject matter expertise in medical and technical areas throughout the Command. Medical information and products developed by USAMRMC protect and sustain the health and safety of the force through deployment and combat; the USAMRMC motto, "Protect, Sustain," emphasizes the Command's priorities in support of the warfighter. In March 1994, a merger of Medical Research and Development Command, the United States Army Medical Materiel Agency and the Health Facilities Planning Agency resulted in creation of the Medical Research, Development and Logistics Command, subordinate to the provisional MEDCOM.

The MRDALC was soon renamed the U. S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command. At Fort Detrick: U. S. Army Medical Materiel Agency U. S. Army Medical Materiel Development Activity U. S. Army Medical Research Acquisition Activity U. S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases Telemedicine and Advanced Technology Research Center Elsewhere: United States Army Aeromedical Research Laboratory, Fort Rucker, Alabama United States Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland United States Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Massachusetts Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Forest Glen Annex, Forest Glen, Maryland WRAIR's Special Foreign Activities: Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical Sciences, Thailand United States Army Medical Research Directorate-Africa, Kenya United States Army Medical Research Directorate-Georgia, Georgia United States Army Medical Research Directorate-West, Joint Base Lewis–McChord, Washington US Army Medical Materiel Center - Europe, Husterhoeh Kaserne, Germany US Army Medical Materiel Center - Korea, Camp Carroll, South Korea General Maxwell R. Thurman Award MRMC's 50 Year History Book USAMRMC official website