The Billboard Music Award is an honor given out annually by Billboard, a publication and music popularity chart covering the music business. The Billboard Music Awards show had been held annually since 1990 and the event was held in December until it went dormant in 2006; the awards are now held annually in May. Unlike other awards, such as the Grammy Award, which determine nominations as a result of the highest votes received by the National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences, the Billboard Music Awards finalists are based on album and digital songs sales, radio airplay and social engagement; these measurements are tracked year-round by Billboard and its data partners, including Nielsen Music and Next Big Sound. The 2018 awards are based on the reporting period of April 8, 2017 through March 31, 2018. Awards are given for the top album and single in a number of different music genres. Whitney Houston won the award for "#1 World Artist"; this field shows winners of "Artist of the Year", "Top Artist".
From 1989 to 2006, the show had the same categories and category names every year. In 2011, for the first time, all of the awards were renamed to "Top "; the "of the year" portion of each category title no longer exists, many of the awards have been further renamed. Other awards, including both "crossover" awards were discontinued; as of 2017, there are two fan-voted categories. The general categories are Top Billboard 200 Album, Top Hot 100 Song and Top New Artist; these categories highlighted in each award and other categories are divided by genre. The record for most Billboard Music Awards won is held by Drake with 27; the record for most Billboard Music Awards won by a female artist is held by Taylor Swift who has won 23 awards. Since its inception, the BMAs had been telecast on the Fox network. Plans for a new version of the awards in 2008 fell through, the BMAs were not held until 2011. On February 17, 2011, Billboard announced that it would bring the BMAs back to television, moving from its original home on Fox to its new network, ABC, on May 22, 2011.
A new award statuette was created by New York firm Society Awards. Dick Clark Productions, co-owned with Billboard, began producing the ceremony in 2014. On November 28, 2017, it was announced that the Billboard Music Awards would be moving from ABC to NBC beginning in 2018 under a multi-year contract. Billboard Live Music Awards Billboard Japan Music Awards Billboard Latin Music Awards Billboard Women in Music Billboard Indonesia Music Awards 2020 Official website
Chandralekha is a 1995 Tamil romantic drama film, directed by Nambirajan. The daughter of Tamil veteran actor Vijayakumar, Vanitha Vijayakumar played the love interest of Vijay; this was the first movie for Vanitha. The music composed by Ilaiyaraaja was a super hit; the film released on 23 October on Gained Positive reviews to mixed reviews. Chandralekha, an orthodox Brahmin girl, falls in love with, Rahim, a Muslim boy. Whereas, Salima loves Rahim since her childhood. Mustafa, Rahim's brother, Jamal, Salima's brother, agrees to engage Salima and Rahim without Rahim's permission, their families don't accept it. Meanwhile, the lovers are caught by militants in the forest. Salima becomes mentally unstable unable to bear her love failure. Rahim and Chandralekha are rescued from the militants by the police and brought safely to the village. Mustafa agrees for their wedding. Jamal, upset that her sister has gone mad, kills Rahim at the railway station. Policemen kill Jamal. In the end, Chandralekha makes a wish that Rahim's dead body are to be buried together.
The music was composed by Ilaiyaraaja. Chandralekha on IMDb
Bloch oscillation is a phenomenon from solid state physics. It describes the oscillation of a particle confined in a periodic potential when a constant force is acting on it, it was first pointed out by Felix Bloch and Clarence Zener while studying the electrical properties of crystals. In particular, they predicted that the motion of electrons in a perfect crystal under the action of a constant electric field would be oscillatory instead of uniform. While in natural crystals this phenomenon is hard to observe due to the scattering of electrons by lattice defects, it has been observed in semiconductor superlattices and in different physical systems such as cold atoms in an optical potential and ultrasmall Josephson junctions; the one-dimensional equation of motion for an electron with wave vector k in a constant electric field E is: d p d t = ℏ d k d t = − e E,which has the solution k = k − e E ℏ t. The group velocity v of the electron is given by v = 1 ℏ d E d k,where E denotes the dispersion relation for the given energy band.
Suppose that the latter has the form E = A cos a k,where a is the lattice parameter and A is a constant. V is given by v = 1 ℏ d E d k = − A a ℏ sin a k,and the electron position x can be computed as a function of time: x = ∫ 0 t v d t ′ = x − A e E cos ; this shows. The angular frequency of the oscillations is given by ω B = a e | E | / ℏ. Bloch oscillations were predicted by Nobel laureate Leo Esaki in 1970. However, they were not experimentally observed for a long time, because in natural solid-state bodies, ω B is not large enough to allow for full oscillations of the charge carriers within the diffraction and tunneling times, due to small lattice periods; the development in semiconductor technology has led to the fabrication of structures with super lattice periods that are now sufficiently large, based on artificial semiconductors. The oscillation period in those structures is smaller than the diffraction time of the electrons, hence more oscillations can be observed in a time window below the diffraction time.
For the first time the experimental observation of Bloch oscillations in such super lattices at low temperatures was shown by Jochen Feldmann and Karl Leo in 1992. Other realizations were the observation of coherent Terahertz radiation of Bloch oscillations by Hartmut Roskos et al. in 1993, the observation of Bloch oscillations at room temperature by Thomas Dekorsy et al.. and the observation of Bloch oscillations in the absence of a lattice Super Bloch oscillations
Parshuram is an upazila of Feni District in the Division of Chittagong, in southeast Bangladesh. 10 Anantapur Anantapur is a village in the Parshuram Upazila. 87% of people are literate in this village. It has a government primary school, one non-government high school, one non-government primary school and two madrasas; the villagers respect one another. Most of people from this village live in the capital Chittagong city. Parshuram has 1 municipality, 10 unions/wards, 166 mauzas/mahallas, 162 villages. Parshuram Municipality Munshir Khil is a famous village in Parshuram Upazila, Feni District, Bangladesh; the village is in No. 4 Box Mahmud Union. It is near South Guthuma and Narania village. 100% people in this village are literate. There is a Government Primary School, a High School and a Madrasha are situated in this village. Most of the people in this village are businessman, service holder and self-employed. Communication, Transportation system and other National facilities are much nice here.
Most of the people of this village are freedom fighter and were contribute in the liberation War in 1971. Munshir Khil is a most attractive place in Bangladesh; every year many people come to travel this village to enjoy the natural scenery. Many-more people of Munshir Khil are well known in Bangladesh as well as around the world. Narania is a famous village in Parshuram Upazila. 90% people in this village are literate. It is near Munshir Khil village. There is a high school. In every family at least one member working in Middle East and EU country and another village peoples are businessman, service holder. Transportation system and other National facilities are much nice here. South Guthuma is a village in the Parshuram Upazila. 100% of people are literate in this village. The villagers respect one another. Most of people from this village live in Chittagong city. Dhanikunda is a well-known village in no. 3 Chitolya Union. It is situated near the Mohori River. Dhanikunda Hosne Ara High School is only the school in this Union which founder was late M.
S. Huda with the collaboration of his friends, he was associated with the founder of Parashuram College. During liberation period, Chitoleya was the important place where bravo freedom fighters took face-to-face fight with Pakistani army. Kahua is a village in the Bakshamhmud Union Parishad in Parshuram Upazila. 85% of people are literate in this village. The villagers are 100% Muslim. Most of people from this village live in Chittagong city. Kahua Majumder Bari is a biggest, 100% literate as a one-family bari. Most of the people of this Majumder bari live in various countries of the world and various districts of Bangladesh. Another name of this bari is 22 kolami bari because in 1922, 22 students of this bari graduated at a time in British period, from British period a lot of government class one officers were in this Majuder bari. There is a Majudmer foundation in this bari. Organized by A. K. M. Muhit Uddin, Asheke e Elahi, A. H. M Mahtab Uddin, Humaun Kabir, A. T. M munir Uddin Majumder,MD. Sahadat Hossain Mazumder, Moshaaraf Hossain Jamal and Md Moazzom Hossain Majumder.
This Majudmer family started from Subedar Sayestan Khan. There is a big Jumma masjid front of the Bari, near to Kahua Majumder. Bari has high school and Dakhil Madrasha. One of the biggest rivers is on the western side of Kahua village name Kahua nodi. South Tateshwor is a well-known village in Parshuram Upazila, it is situated west of India. In this village 95% of the people are literate. Maximum people working to government job, Medal east and EU country; this village peoples are involved in agriculture and jobs. Some people live in Chittagong. Bhuiyan Bari in a famous. Taltoli and Eidgha is famous place for the village. There is a government primary School, khandal high school and college, Kindergarten school, South Tateshwor Nurani Talimun Kuran Madrasa and etimkhana, khandal islamia Dhakil Madrasha. There is a big school field; this village is situated on south side khandal high Bazer. Official Map of Parshuram
An evil maid attack is an attack on an unattended device, in which an attacker with physical access alters it in some undetectable way so that they can access the device, or the data on it. The name refers to the scenario where a maid could subvert a device left unattended in a hotel room – but the concept itself applies to situations such as a device being intercepted while in transit, or taken away temporarily by airport or law enforcement personnel. In a 2009 blog post, security analyst Joanna Rutkowska coined the term "Evil Maid Attack"; the post detailed a method for compromising the firmware on an unattended computer via an external USB flash drive – and therefore bypassing TrueCrypt disk encryption. D. Defreez, a computer security professional, first mentioned the possibility of an evil maid attack on Android smartphones in 2011, he talked about the WhisperCore Android distribution and its ability to provide disk encryption for Androids. In 2007, former U. S. Commerce Secretary Carlos Gutierrez was targeted by an evil maid attack during a business trip to China.
He left his computer unattended during a trade talk in Beijing, he suspected that his device had been compromised. Although the allegations have yet to be confirmed or denied, the incident caused the U. S. government to be more wary of physical attacks. In 2009, Symantec CTO Mark Bregman was advised by several U. S. agencies to leave his devices in the U. S. before travelling to China. He was instructed to buy new ones before leaving and dispose of them when he returned so that any physical attempts to retrieve data would be ineffective; the attack begins. The attacker can proceed to tamper with the system. If the victim does not have password protection or authentication on their computer, an intruder can turn on the computer and access the victim's information. However, if the device is password protected, as with full disk encryption, the firmware of the device needs to be compromised done with an external drive; the compromised firmware provides the victim with a fake password prompt identical to the original.
Once the password is input, the compromised firmware sends the password to the attacker and removes itself after a reboot. In order to complete the attack, the attacker must return to the device once it has been unattended a second time to steal the now-accessible data. Another method of attack is through a DMA attack in which an attacker accesses the victim's information through hardware devices that connect directly to the physical address space; the attacker needs to connect to the hardware device in order to access the information. An evil maid attack can be done by replacing the victim's device with an identical device. If the original device has a bootloader password the attacker only needs to acquire a device with an identical bootloader password input screen. If the device has a lock screen, the process becomes more difficult as the attacker must acquire the background picture to put on the lock screen of the mimicking device. In either case, when the victim inputs their password on the false device, the device sends the password to the attacker, in possession of the original device.
The attacker can access the victim's data. Legacy BIOS is considered insecure against evil maid attacks, its architecture is old and Option ROMs are unsigned, configuration is unprotected. Additionally, it does not support secure boot; these vulnerabilities allow an attacker to compromise the firmware. The compromised firmware can be configured to send keystrokes to the attacker remotely. Unified Extensible Firmware Interface provides many necessary features for mitigating evil maid attacks. For example, it offers a framework for secure boot, authenticated variables at boot-time, TPM initialization security. Despite these available security measures, platform manufacturers are not obligated to use them. Thus, security issues may arise. Many full disk encryption systems, such as TrueCrypt and PGP Whole Disk Encryption, are susceptible to evil maid attacks due to their inability to authenticate themselves to the user. An attacker can still modify disk contents despite the device being encrypted; the attacker can modify the encryption system's loader codes to steal passwords from the victim.
The ability to create a communication channel between the bootloader and the operating system to remotely steal the password for a disk protected by FileVault 2, is explored. On a macOS system, this attack has additional implications due to “password forwarding” technology, in which a user's account password serves as the FileVault password, enabling an additional attack surface through privilege escalation. Any unattended device can be vulnerable to a network evil maid attack. If the attacker knows the victim's device well enough, they can replace the victim's device with an identical model with a password-stealing mechanism. Thus, when the victim inputs their password, the attacker will be notified of it and be able to access the stolen device's information. One approach is to detect. Proximity alarms, motion detector alarms, wireless cameras, can be used to alert the victim when an attacker is nearby their device, thereby nullifying the surprise factor of an evil maid attack; the "Haven" Android app was created in 2017 by Edward Snowden to do such monitoring, transmit the results to the user's smartphone.
In the absence of the above, tamper-evident technology of various kinds can be used to d
The American automobile manufacturer GM has sold a number of trucks and SUVs under its marque GMC, which began being applied in 1911. The vast majority of GMC vehicles are based upon the same platforms as, or rebadged from, vehicles sold in the Chevrolet division of GM. C/E Series "New Design" Series "Blue Chip" Series C/K Series Sprint Caballero S-15 Sonoma Syclone L-Series C-Series Forward W-Series T-Series TopKick 7500 9500 Astro General Brigadier Handi-Van Handi-Bus Rally Vandura Safari P-Series "Old Look" "New Look" RTS Classic B-Series S-Series Suburban Jimmy S-15 Jimmy Tracker Typhoon Envoy Chevette CCKW AFKWX DUKW 1950 Futurliner 1954 XP-21 Firebird I 1955 LaSalle II Roadster 1955 LaSalle II Sedan 1956 Firebird II 1959 Firebird III 1966 Electrovan Experimental 1970 Urban Concept 1992 Ultralite Experimental 1992 Impact Concept 2000 Terradyne 2001 Terracross 2002 Terra 4 2002 Hy-Wire 2002 Autonomy Concept 2005 Sequel 2005 Graphyte 2006 PAD 2008 Denali XT 2010 Granite 2010 Granite CPU GMC General Motors Chevrolet Badge engineering