A lobby is a room in a building used for entry from the outside. Sometimes referred to as a foyer, reception or an entrance hall, it is a large, vast room or complex of rooms adjacent to the auditorium, it is a repose area for spectators and place of venues used before performance and during intermissions but as a place of celebrations or festivities after performance. Since the mid-1980s, there has been a growing trend to think of lobbies as more than just ways to get from the door to the elevator but instead as social spaces and places of commerce; some research has been done to develop scales to measure lobby atmosphere to improve hotel lobby design. Many office buildings and skyscrapers go to great lengths to decorate their lobbies to create the right impression and convey an image. Supertall skyscrapers can have one or more of what is known as a sky lobby, an intermediate floor where people can change from an express elevator that stops only at the sky lobby to a local elevator which stops at every floor within a segment of the building.
A foyer in a house is a small entry area or room by the front door. Other public rooms such as the living room, dining room, family room attach to it, along with any main stairway, it was intended as an "airlock", separating the fireplace-heated rooms from the front entrance, where cold air infiltration made for cold drafts and low temperatures. It is used for outer garment and umbrella storage for both residents and guests. Atrium Door Entryway The dictionary definition of foyer at Wiktionary Media related to Lobbies at Wikimedia Commons
The French Revolution was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies beginning in 1789. The Revolution overthrew the monarchy, established a republic, catalyzed violent periods of political turmoil, culminated in a dictatorship under Napoleon who brought many of its principles to areas he conquered in Western Europe and beyond. Inspired by liberal and radical ideas, the Revolution profoundly altered the course of modern history, triggering the global decline of absolute monarchies while replacing them with republics and liberal democracies. Through the Revolutionary Wars, it unleashed a wave of global conflicts that extended from the Caribbean to the Middle East. Historians regard the Revolution as one of the most important events in human history; the causes of the French Revolution are still debated among historians. Following the Seven Years' War and the American Revolution, the French government was in debt, it attempted to restore its financial status through unpopular taxation schemes, which were regressive.
Leading up to the Revolution, years of bad harvests worsened by deregulation of the grain industry and environmental problems inflamed popular resentment of the privileges enjoyed by the aristocracy and the Catholic clergy of the established church. Some historians hold something similar to what Thomas Jefferson proclaimed: that France had "been awakened by our Revolution." Demands for change were formulated in terms of Enlightenment ideals and contributed to the convocation of the Estates General in May 1789. During the first year of the Revolution, members of the Third Estate took control, the Bastille was attacked in July, the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen was passed in August, the Women's March on Versailles forced the royal court back to Paris in October. A central event of the first stage, in August 1789, was the abolition of feudalism and the old rules and privileges left over from the Ancien Régime; the next few years featured political struggles between various liberal assemblies and right-wing supporters of the monarchy intent on thwarting major reforms.
The Republic was proclaimed in September 1792 after the French victory at Valmy. In a momentous event that led to international condemnation, Louis XVI was executed in January 1793. External threats shaped the course of the Revolution; the Revolutionary Wars beginning in 1792 featured French victories that facilitated the conquest of the Italian Peninsula, the Low Countries and most territories west of the Rhine – achievements that had eluded previous French governments for centuries. Internally, popular agitation radicalised the Revolution culminating in the rise of Maximilien Robespierre and the Jacobins; the dictatorship imposed by the Committee of Public Safety during the Reign of Terror, from 1793 until 1794, established price controls on food and other items, abolished slavery in French colonies abroad, de-established the Catholic church and created a secular Republican calendar, religious leaders were expelled, the borders of the new republic were secured from its enemies. After the Thermidorian Reaction, an executive council known as the Directory assumed control of the French state in 1795.
They suspended elections, repudiated debts, persecuted the Catholic clergy, made significant military conquests abroad. Dogged by charges of corruption, the Directory collapsed in a coup led by Napoleon Bonaparte in 1799. Napoleon, who became the hero of the Revolution through his popular military campaigns, established the Consulate and the First Empire, setting the stage for a wider array of global conflicts in the Napoleonic Wars; the modern era has unfolded in the shadow of the French Revolution. All future revolutionary movements looked back to the Revolution as their predecessor, its central phrases and cultural symbols, such as La Marseillaise and Liberté, fraternité, égalité, ou la mort, became the clarion call for other major upheavals in modern history, including the Russian Revolution over a century later. The values and institutions of the Revolution dominate French politics to this day; the Revolution resulted in the suppression of the feudal system, emancipation of the individual, a greater division of landed property, abolition of the privileges of noble birth, nominal establishment of equality among men.
The French Revolution differed from other revolutions in being not only national, for it intended to benefit all humanity. Globally, the Revolution accelerated the rise of democracies, it became the focal point for the development of most modern political ideologies, leading to the spread of liberalism, radicalism and secularism, among many others. The Revolution witnessed the birth of total war by organising the resources of France and the lives of its citizens towards the objective of military conquest; some of its central documents, such as the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, continued to inspire movements for abolitionism and universal suffrage in the next century. Historians have pointed to many events and factors within the Ancien Régime that led to the Revolution. Rising social and economic inequality, new political ideas emerging from the Enlightenment, economic mismanagement, environmental factors leading to agricultural failure, unmanageable national debt, political mismanagement on the part of King Louis XVI have all been cited as laying the groundwork for the Revolution.
Over the course of the 18th century, there emerged what the philosopher Jürgen Habermas called the idea of the "public sphere" in France and elsewhere
A dining room is a room for consuming food. In modern times it is adjacent to the kitchen for convenience in serving, although in medieval times it was on an different floor level; the dining room is furnished with a rather large dining table and a number of dining chairs. In the Middle Ages, upper class Britons and other European nobility in castles or large manor houses dined in the great hall; this was a large multi-function room capable of seating the bulk of the population of the house. The family would sit at the head table on a raised dais, with the rest of the population arrayed in order of diminishing rank away from them. Tables in the great hall would tend to be long trestle tables with benches; the sheer number of people in a Great Hall meant it would have had a busy, bustling atmosphere. Suggestions that it would have been quite smelly and smoky are by the standards of the time, unfounded; these rooms had large chimneys and high ceilings and there would have been a free flow of air through the numerous door and window openings.
It is true that the owners of such properties began to develop a taste for more intimate gatherings in smaller'parlers' or'privee parlers' off the main hall but this is thought to be due as much to political and social changes as to the greater comfort afforded by such rooms. Over time, the nobility took more of their meals in the parlour, the parlour became, functionally, a dining room, it migrated farther from the Great Hall accessed via grand ceremonial staircases from the dais in the Great Hall. Dining in the Great Hall became something, done on special occasions. Toward the beginning of the 18th Century, a pattern emerged where the ladies of the house would withdraw after dinner from the dining room to the drawing room; the gentlemen would remain in the dining room having drinks. The dining room tended to take on a more masculine tenor as a result. A typical North American dining room will contain a table with chairs arranged along the sides and ends of the table, as well as other pieces of furniture such as sideboards and china cabinets, as space permits.
Tables in modern dining rooms will have a removable leaf to allow for the larger number of people present on those special occasions without taking up extra space when not in use. Although the "typical" family dining experience is at a wooden table or some sort of kitchen area, some choose to make their dining rooms more comfortable by using couches or comfortable chairs. In modern American and Canadian homes, the dining room is adjacent to the living room, being used only for formal dining with guests or on special occasions. For informal daily meals, most medium size houses and larger will have a space adjacent to the kitchen where table and chairs can be placed, larger spaces are known as a dinette while a smaller one is called a breakfast nook. Smaller houses and condos may have a breakfast bar instead of a different height than the regular kitchen counter. If a home lacks a dinette, breakfast nook, or breakfast bar the kitchen or family room will be used for day-to-day eating; this was traditionally the case in Britain, where the dining room would for many families be used only on Sundays, other meals being eaten in the kitchen.
In Australia, the use of a dining room is still prevalent, yet not an essential part of modern home design. For most, it is considered a space to be used during formal celebrations. Smaller homes, akin to the USA and Canada, use a breakfast bar or table placed within the confines of a kitchen or living space for meals. Cafeteria Refectory
In architecture, an atrium is a large open air or skylight covered space surrounded by a building. Atria were a common feature in Ancient Roman dwellings, providing light and ventilation to the interior. Modern atria, as developed in the late 19th and 20th centuries, are several stories high and having a glazed roof or large windows, located beyond the main entrance doors. Atria are a popular design feature because they give their buildings a "feeling of space and light." The atrium has become a key feature of many buildings in recent years. Atria are popular with building designers and building developers. Users like atria because they create a dynamic and stimulating interior that provides shelter from the external environment while maintaining a visual link with that environment. Designers enjoy the opportunity to create new types of spaces in buildings, developers see atria as prestigious amenities that can increase commercial value and appeal. Fire control is an important aspect of contemporary atrium design due to criticism that poorly designed atria could allow fire to spread to a building's upper stories more quickly.
Another downside to incorporating an atrium is that it creates unused vertical space which could otherwise be occupied by additional floors. In a domus, a large house in Ancient Roman architecture, the atrium was the open central court with enclosed rooms on all sides. In the middle of the atrium was the impluvium, a shallow pool sunken into the floor to catch rainwater from the roof; some surviving examples are beautifully decorated. The opening in the ceiling above the pool called for some means of support for the roof, it is here where one differentiates between five different styles of atrium; as the centrepiece of the house, the atrium was the most lavishly-furnished room. It contained the little chapel to the ancestral spirits, the household safe and sometimes a bust of the master of the house; the term was used for a variety of spaces in public and religious buildings forms of arcaded courtyards, larger versions of the domestic spaces. Byzantine churches were entered through such a space.
The 19th century brought the industrial revolution with great advances in iron and glass manufacturing techniques. Courtyards could have horizontal glazing overhead, eliminating some of the weather elements from the space and giving birth to the modern atrium. One of the main public spaces at Federation Square, in Melbourne, Australia, is called The Atrium and is a street-like space, five stories high with glazed walls and roof; the structure and glazing pattern follow the system of fractals used to arrange the panels on the rest of the facades at Federation Square. In Nashville, Tennessee, U. S. the Opryland Hotel hosts 4 different large atria, spanning 9 acres of glass ceiling in total, in the hotel above the gardens of: Delta, Garden-Conservatories, Magnolia. As of 2016, the Burj Al Arab hotel in Dubai, has the world's tallest atrium at 180 metres; the Luxor Hotel, in Las Vegas, has the largest atrium in the world at 29 million cubic feet. Cavaedium Quadrangle Roth, Leland M.. Understanding Architecture: Its Elements History and Meaning.
Oxford, UK: Westview Press. P. 520. ISBN 0-06-430158-3
A boudoir is a woman's private sitting room or salon in a furnished accommodation between the dining room and the bedroom, but can refer to a woman's private bedroom. The term derives from the French verb bouder or adjective boudeur —the room was a space for sulking in, or one to put away or withdraw to. A cognate of the English "bower" the boudoir formed part of the private suite of rooms of a "lady" or upper-class woman, for bathing and dressing, adjacent to her bedchamber, being the female equivalent of the male cabinet. In periods, the boudoir was used as a private drawing room, was used for other activities, such as embroidery or spending time with one's romantic partner. English-language usage varies between countries, is now historical. In the United Kingdom, in the period when the term was most used, a boudoir was a lady's evening sitting room, was separate from her morning room, her dressing room; as this multiplicity of rooms with overlapping functions suggests, boudoirs were found only in grand houses.
In the United States, in the same era, boudoir was an alternative term for dressing room, favored by those who felt that French terms conferred more prestige. In Caribbean English, a boudoir is the front room of the house where women entertain family and friends; the term boudoir has come to denote a style of furnishing for the bedroom, traditionally described as ornate or busy. The plethora of links available on the Internet to furnishing sites using the term boudoir tend to focus on Renaissance and French inspired bedroom styles. In recent times, they have been used to describe the'country cottage' style with whitewashed-style walls and heavy bed furniture, deep bedding; the term "boudoir" may be ascribed to a genre of photography. Boudoir photography is not a new concept and numerous examples including images of Clara Bow, Mae West and Jean Harlow photographed in a boudoir style from the 1920s through the 1940s. Shot in a photographer's studio or luxury hotel suites, it has become fashionable to create a set of sensual or sexually suggestive images of women in indoor "boudoir style" environments.
The most common manifestation of contemporary boudoir photography is to take variations of candid and posed photographs of the subject clothed or in lingerie. Nudity is more implied than explicit. Commercially the genre is derived from a market for brides to surprise their future husbands by gifting the images on or before their wedding day. Other motivations or inspiration for boudoir photography shoots include anniversaries, Valentine's Day, weight loss regimes, other form of body change or alteration and for servicemen and women overseas. Boudoir photography may, in some cases, be distinguished from other photography genres such as glamour photography, fine art nude photography and erotic photography; the Marquis de Sade in his literary works helped develop a reputation in this small room dedicated to the privacy of female talks. Since the success of his book Philosophy in the Bedroom, the small sitting room or salon has a scandalous reputation combined with those of all exchanges and frolics.
Harem Ladyfinger, which translates as boudoirs in French
A balcony is a platform projecting from the wall of a building, supported by columns or console brackets, enclosed with a balustrade above the ground floor. The traditional Maltese balcony is a wooden closed balcony projecting from a wall. By contrast, a'Juliet balcony' does not protrude out of the building, it is part of an upper floor, with a balustrade only at the front, like a small Loggia. Modern Juliet balconies involve a metal barrier placed in front of a high window which can be opened. Juliet balconies are named after Shakespeare's Juliet, who, in traditional stagings of the play Romeo and Juliet, is courted by Romeo while she is on her balcony—though the play itself, as written, makes no mention of a balcony, but only of a window at which Juliet appears. Various types of balcony have been used in depicting this famous scene; the Julian Balcony is a larger version of the well-known Juliet Balcony, protruding from the wall, unlike the smaller Juliet balcony, spanning at least two windows rather than one.
Sometimes balconies are adapted for ceremonial purposes, e.g. that of St. Peter's Basilica at Rome, when the newly elected pope gives his blessing urbi et orbi after the conclave. Inside churches, balconies are sometimes provided for the singers, in banqueting halls and the like for the musicians. A unit with a regular balcony will have doors that open up onto a small patio with railings, a small Patio garden or Skyrise greenery. A French balcony is a false balcony, with doors that open to a railing with a view of the courtyard or the surrounding scenery below. In theatres, the balcony was a stage-box, but the name is now confined to the part of the auditorium above the dress circle and below the gallery. Balconies are part of the sculptural shape of the building allowing for irregular facades without the cost of irregular internal structures. One of the most famous uses of a balcony is in traditional stagings of the scene that has come to be known as the "balcony scene" in William Shakespeare's tragedy and Juliet.
Manufacturers' names for their balcony designs refer to the origin of the design, e.g. Italian balcony, Spanish balcony, Mexican balcony, Ecuadorian balcony, they refer to the shape and form of the pickets used for the balcony railings, e.g. knuckle balcony. Deck Jharokha Loggia Mashrabiya Mezzanine Minstrel's gallery Patio Porch Verandah Balconing Media related to Balconies at Wikimedia Commons "Balcony". Encyclopædia Britannica. 1911