Loch Ness Monster
In Scottish folklore, the Loch Ness Monster or Nessie is a creature said to inhabit Loch Ness in the Scottish Highlands. It is described as large in size with a long neck and one or more humps protruding from the water. Popular interest and belief in the creature has varied since it was brought to worldwide attention in 1933. Evidence of its existence is anecdotal, with sonar readings; the scientific community regards the Loch Ness Monster as a phenomenon without biological basis, explaining sightings as hoaxes, wishful thinking, the misidentification of mundane objects. The creature has been affectionately called Nessie since the 1940s; the word "monster" was applied for the first time to the creature on 2 May 1933 by Alex Campbell, water bailiff for Loch Ness and a part-time journalist, in an Inverness Courier report. On 4 August 1933 the Courier published a report by Londoner George Spicer that several weeks earlier, while they were driving around the loch, he and his wife saw "the nearest approach to a dragon or pre-historic animal that I have seen in my life" trundling across the road toward the loch with "an animal" in its mouth.
Letters began appearing in the Courier anonymously, claiming land or water sightings by the writer, their family or acquaintances or remembered stories. The accounts reached the media, which described a "monster fish", "sea serpent", or "dragon" and settled on "Loch Ness monster". On 6 December 1933 the first purported photograph of the monster, taken by Hugh Gray, was published in the Daily Express. In 1934, interest was further piqued by the "surgeon's photograph"; that year, R. T. Gould published an account of the author's investigation and a record of reports predating 1933. Other authors have claimed sightings of the monster dating to the sixth century AD; the earliest report of a monster in the vicinity of Loch Ness appears in the Life of St. Columba by Adomnán, written in the sixth century AD. According to Adomnán, writing about a century after the events described, Irish monk Saint Columba was staying in the land of the Picts with his companions when he encountered local residents burying a man by the River Ness.
They explained that the man was swimming in the river when he was attacked by a "water beast" which mauled him and dragged him underwater. Although they tried to rescue him in a boat, he was dead. Columba sent Luigne moccu Min, to swim across the river; the beast approached him. Do not touch the man. Go back at once." The creature stopped as if it had been "pulled back with ropes" and fled, Columba's men and the Picts gave thanks for what they perceived as a miracle. Believers in the monster point to this story, set in the River Ness rather than the loch itself, as evidence for the creature's existence as early as the sixth century. Sceptics question the narrative's reliability, noting that water-beast stories were common in medieval hagiographies and Adomnán's tale recycles a common motif attached to a local landmark. According to sceptics, Adomnán's story may be independent of the modern Loch Ness Monster legend and became attached to it by believers seeking to bolster their claims. Ronald Binns considers that this is the most serious of various alleged early sightings of the monster, but all other claimed sightings before 1933 are dubious and do not prove a monster tradition before that date.
Christopher Cairney uses a specific historical and cultural analysis of Adomnán to separate Adomnán’s story about St. Columba from the modern myth of the Loch Ness Monster, but finds an earlier and culturally significant use of Celtic “water beast” folklore along the way. In doing so he discredits any strong connection between kelpies or water-horses and the modern “media-augmented” creation of the Loch Ness Monster. In October 1871, D. Mackenzie of Balnain saw an object resembling a log or an upturned boat "wriggling and churning up the water"; the object moved at first, disappearing at a faster speed. Mackenzie sent his story in a letter to Rupert Gould in 1934, shortly after popular interest in the monster increased. Modern interest in the monster was sparked by a sighting on 22 July 1933, when George Spicer and his wife saw "a most extraordinary form of animal" cross the road in front of their car, they described the creature as having a large body and a long, narrow neck thicker than an elephant's trunk and as long as the 10–12-foot width of the road.
They saw no limbs. It lurched across the road towards the loch 20 yards away, leaving a trail of broken undergrowth in its wake, it has been claimed that sightings of the monster increased after a road was built along the loch in early 1933, bringing workers and tourists to the formerly-isolated area. However, Binns has described this as "the myth of the lonely loch", as it was far from isolated before due to the construction of the Caledonian Canal. In the 1930s, the existing road by the side of the loch was given a serious upgrade. Hugh Gray's photograph taken near Foyers on 12 November 1933 was the first photograph alleged to depict the monster, it was blurred, it has been noted that if one looks the head of a dog can be seen. Gray had taken his Labrador for a walk that day, it is suspected that the photograph depicts his dog fetching a stick from the loch. Others have suggested the photograph depicts a swan; the original negative was lo
South Tyneside is a metropolitan borough in Tyne and Wear in North East England. It is bordered by three other boroughs - Gateshead to the west, Sunderland in the south and North Tyneside to the north; the border county of Northumberland lies further north. The borough was formed on 1 April 1974 by the merger of the County Borough of South Shields along with the municipal borough of Jarrow and the urban districts of Boldon and Hebburn from County Durham. South Tyneside forms part of the Tyneside conurbation, the sixth largest in the United Kingdom, with a geographical area of 64.43 km2 and an estimated population of 153,700, measured at the 2011 Census as 148,127. It is bordered to the north by the River Tyne. A Green Belt of 23.64 km2 is at its southern boundary. The main administrative centre and largest town is South Shields. Other riverside towns are Jarrow and Hebburn, while the villages of Cleadon and The Boldons border the South Tyneside green belt, with Wearside to the south at Sunderland.
South Tyneside is represented by two Members of Parliament with two constituencies: South Shields and Jarrow. Mr. Martin Swales has been Chief Executive at South Tyneside Council since December 3, 2009. Mr. Swales served as Strategic Director of Development at North Tyneside Council. Celts, Angles, Jutes, the early 20th century arrival of the Arabs and more the settling of people from the Commonwealth, notably the Indian sub-continent, the European Union reflect the present-day culture of South Tyneside. In South Shields, excavations and a reconstructed fort are found at Arbeia; this fort served as a garrison and an outpost of the Roman Empire, is part of Hadrian's Wall World Heritage Site. The hospitality strip at Ocean Road is famed throughout the region for its Indian, Middle Eastern and Chinese cuisine. Mill Dam, with former Customs House, cobbled lanes and Mission to Seafarers centre, stands tribute to the long and proud history of shipping in the town and the river Tyne. Bede's World in Jarrow is dedicated to the life of the Venerable Bede, the'Father of English History'.
The nominated World Heritage Site is straddled by two rivers - the Don. There is a medieval monastery, an Anglo-Saxon farm with rare breed animals and buildings constructed in original materials from that period, the Georgian Jarrow Hall; the Jarrow Crusade of 1936 was a key event in the town's history and the original banner carried by the marchers to London can be viewed at Jarrow Town Hall. There has been a sizeable Arab community in South Shields since the 1890s; this is one hypothesised explanation of the term "Sandancer" for people born and brought up in South Shields. South Tyneside Council is formed of 54 members. Following the 2018 local elections this consists of fifty-three Labour councillors and one Conservative. Shipbuilding and repairing, coal mining and exports, the chemical industries declined from the latter half of the 20th Century, resulting in mass unemployment. In more recent years, this trend has reversed and South Tyneside attracts new industries, most notably in the service sector.
There is still a considerable manufacturing base of ship-repair and offshore services, electronics, furniture, paper products and small precision engineering. At one time, Tyneside built 25% of the world's ships. South Tyneside College attracts students from around the world. Tourism is an important and growing industry. South Shields town centre and riverside are undergoing significant regeneration, with new housing, business and leisure uses replacing old industrial sites; the town centre offers high street shopping, a regular market by the Grade I listed old town hall, a new library and exhibition space called The Word, the head post office, museum & art gallery, a new bus/Metro interchange due to open in 2019, cross-river pedestrian ferry to North Shields, Harton Quays office development and promenade, the town hall and civic offices. The Customs House is located within the historic Mill Dam conservation area and hosts a theatre, art gallery and restaurant. Arbeia formed the easternmost extremity of the Roman Empire at Hadrian's Wall and is located at the mouth of the River Tyne on the North Sea coast.
Excavations, a reconstructed fort and museum are open to the public on the historic Lawe Top site. The foreshore boasts a quality seaside experience, with the local landmarks of the Groyne lighthouse and mile-long South Pier to the north, Marsden Rock and Souter Lighthouse to the south. There are award-winning sandy beaches at Littlehaven and Marsden Bay. In summer there is a free festival, including a
Dominoes is a family of tile-based games played with rectangular "domino" tiles. Each domino is a rectangular tile with a line dividing its face into two square ends; each end is blank. The backs of the dominoes in a set are either blank or having some common design; the domino gaming pieces make up a domino set, sometimes called a pack. The traditional Sino-European domino set consists of 28 dominoes, featuring all combinations of spot counts between zero and six. A domino set is a generic gaming device, similar to playing cards or dice, in that a variety of games can be played with a set; the earliest mention of dominoes is from Song dynasty China found in the text Former Events in Wulin by Zhou Mi. Modern dominoes first appeared in Italy during the 18th century, but how Chinese dominoes developed into the modern game is unknown. Italian missionaries in China may have brought the game to Europe; the name "domino" is most from the resemblance to a kind of carnival costume worn during the Venetian Carnival consisting of a black-hooded robe and a white mask.
Despite the coinage of the word polyomino as a generalization, there is no connection between the word "domino" and the number 2 in any language. European-style dominoes are traditionally made of bone or ivory, or a dark hardwood such as ebony, with contrasting black or white pips. Alternatively, domino sets have been made from many different natural materials: stone; these sets have a more novel look, the heavier weight makes them feel more substantial. Modern commercial domino sets are made of synthetic materials, such as ABS or polystyrene plastics, or Bakelite and other phenolic resins. Modern sets commonly use a different color for the dots of each different end value to facilitate finding matching ends. One may find a domino set made of card stock like that for playing cards; such sets are lightweight and inexpensive, like cards are more susceptible to minor disturbances such as a sudden breeze. Sometimes, dominoes have a metal pin in the middle; the traditional set of dominoes contains one unique piece for each possible combination of two ends with zero to six spots, is known as a double-six set because the highest-value piece has six pips on each end.
The spots from one to six are arranged as they are on six-sided dice, but because blank ends having no spots are used, seven faces are possible, allowing 28 unique pieces in a double-six set. However, this is a small number when playing with more than four people, so many domino sets are "extended" by introducing ends with greater numbers of spots, which increases the number of unique combinations of ends and thus of pieces; each progressively larger set increases the maximum number of pips on an end by three, so the common extended sets are double-nine, double-12, double-15, double-18. Larger sets such as double-21 can theoretically exist, but are seen in retail stores, as identifying the number of pips on each domino becomes difficult, a double-21 set would have 253 pieces, far more than is necessary for most domino games with eight players; the oldest confirmed written mention of dominoes in China comes from the Former Events in Wulin written by the Yuan Dynasty author Zhou Mi, who listed pupai, as well as dice as items sold by peddlers during the reign of Emperor Xiaozong of Song.
Andrew Lo asserts that Zhou Mi meant dominoes when referring to pupai, since the Ming author Lu Rong explicitly defined pupai as dominoes. The earliest known manual written about dominoes is the 《宣和牌譜》 written by Qu You, but some Chinese scholars believe this manual is a forgery from a time. In the Encyclopedia of a Myriad of Treasures, Zhang Pu described the game of laying out dominoes as pupai, although the character for pu had changed, yet retained the same pronunciation. Traditional Chinese domino games include Tien Gow, Pai Gow, Che Deng, others; the 32-piece Chinese domino set, made to represent each possible face of two thrown dice and thus have no blank faces, differs from the 28-piece domino set found in the West during the mid 18th century. Chinese dominoes with blank faces were known during the 17th century. Many different domino sets have been used for centuries in various parts of the world to play a variety of domino games; each domino represented one of the 21 results of throwing two six-sided dice.
One half of each domino is set with the pips from one die and the other half contains the pips from the second die. Chinese sets introduce duplicates of some throws and divide the dominoes into two suits: military and civil. Chinese dominoes are longer than typical European dominoes; the early 18th century had dominoes making their way to Europe, making their first appearance in Italy. The game changed somewhat in the translation from Chinese to the European culture. European domino sets contain neither sui
The European Union is a political and economic union of 28 member states that are located in Europe. It has an area of an estimated population of about 513 million; the EU has developed an internal single market through a standardised system of laws that apply in all member states in those matters, only those matters, where members have agreed to act as one. EU policies aim to ensure the free movement of people, goods and capital within the internal market, enact legislation in justice and home affairs and maintain common policies on trade, agriculture and regional development. For travel within the Schengen Area, passport controls have been abolished. A monetary union was established in 1999 and came into full force in 2002 and is composed of 19 EU member states which use the euro currency; the EU and European citizenship were established when the Maastricht Treaty came into force in 1993. The EU traces its origins to the European Coal and Steel Community and the European Economic Community, established by the 1951 Treaty of Paris and 1957 Treaty of Rome.
The original members of what came to be known as the European Communities were the Inner Six: Belgium, Italy, the Netherlands, West Germany. The Communities and its successors have grown in size by the accession of new member states and in power by the addition of policy areas to its remit; the latest major amendment to the constitutional basis of the EU, the Treaty of Lisbon, came into force in 2009. While no member state has left the EU or its antecedent organisations, the United Kingdom signified the intention to leave after a membership referendum in June 2016 and is negotiating its withdrawal. Covering 7.3% of the world population, the EU in 2017 generated a nominal gross domestic product of 19.670 trillion US dollars, constituting 24.6% of global nominal GDP. Additionally, all 28 EU countries have a high Human Development Index, according to the United Nations Development Programme. In 2012, the EU was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. Through the Common Foreign and Security Policy, the EU has developed a role in external relations and defence.
The union maintains permanent diplomatic missions throughout the world and represents itself at the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, the G7 and the G20. Because of its global influence, the European Union has been described as an emerging superpower. During the centuries following the fall of Rome in 476, several European States viewed themselves as translatio imperii of the defunct Roman Empire: the Frankish Empire and the Holy Roman Empire were thereby attempts to resurrect Rome in the West; this political philosophy of a supra-national rule over the continent, similar to the example of the ancient Roman Empire, resulted in the early Middle Ages in the concept of a renovatio imperii, either in the forms of the Reichsidee or the religiously inspired Imperium Christianum. Medieval Christendom and the political power of the Papacy are cited as conducive to European integration and unity. In the oriental parts of the continent, the Russian Tsardom, the Empire, declared Moscow to be Third Rome and inheritor of the Eastern tradition after the fall of Constantinople in 1453.
The gap between Greek East and Latin West had been widened by the political scission of the Roman Empire in the 4th century and the Great Schism of 1054. Pan-European political thought emerged during the 19th century, inspired by the liberal ideas of the French and American Revolutions after the demise of Napoléon's Empire. In the decades following the outcomes of the Congress of Vienna, ideals of European unity flourished across the continent in the writings of Wojciech Jastrzębowski, Giuseppe Mazzini or Theodore de Korwin Szymanowski; the term United States of Europe was used at that time by Victor Hugo during a speech at the International Peace Congress held in Paris in 1849: A day will come when all nations on our continent will form a European brotherhood... A day will come when we shall see... the United States of America and the United States of Europe face to face, reaching out for each other across the seas. During the interwar period, the consciousness that national markets in Europe were interdependent though confrontational, along with the observation of a larger and growing US market on the other side of the ocean, nourished the urge for the economic integration of the continent.
In 1920, advocating the creation of a European economic union, British economist John Maynard Keynes wrote that "a Free Trade Union should be established... to impose no protectionist tariffs whatever against the produce of other members of the Union." During the same decade, Richard von Coudenhove-Kalergi, one of the first to imagine of a modern political union of Europe, founded the Pan-Europa Movement. His ideas influenced his contemporaries, among which Prime Minister of France Aristide Briand. In 1929, the latter gave a speech in favour of a European Union before the assembly of the League of Nations, precursor of the United Nations. In a radio address in March 1943, with war still raging, Britain's leader Sir Winston Churchill spoke warmly of "restoring the true greatness of Europe" once victory had been achieved, mused on the post-war creation of a "Council of Europe" which would bring the European nations together to build peace. After World War II, European integration was seen as an antidote to the extreme nationalism which had devastated the continent.
In a speech delivered on 19
Loch Ness is a large, freshwater loch in the Scottish Highlands extending for 37 kilometres southwest of Inverness. Its surface is 16 metres above sea level. Loch Ness is best known for alleged sightings of the cryptozoological Loch Ness Monster known affectionately as "Nessie", it is connected at the southern end by the River Oich and a section of the Caledonian Canal to Loch Oich. At the northern end there is the Bona Narrows which opens out into Loch Dochfour, which feeds the River Ness and a further section of canal to Inverness leading to the North Sea via the Moray Firth, it is one of a series of interconnected, murky bodies of water in Scotland. Loch Ness is the second largest Scottish loch by surface area at 56 km2 after Loch Lomond, but due to its great depth, it is the largest by volume in the British Isles, its deepest point is 230 m. A 2016 survey claimed to have discovered a crevice that pushed the depth to 271 m but further research determined it to be a sonar anomaly, it contains more fresh water than all the lakes in England and Wales combined, is the largest body of water in the Great Glen, which runs from Inverness in the north to Fort William in the south.
At Drumnadrochit is the "Loch Ness Centre and Exhibition" which examines the natural history and legend of Loch Ness. Boat cruises operate from various locations on the loch shore, giving visitors the chance to look for the "monster". Urquhart Castle is located on the western shore, 2 km east of Drumnadrochit. Lighthouses are located at Fort Augustus. Loch Ness is known as the home of the Loch Ness Monster, a cryptid, reputedly a large unknown animal, it is similar to other supposed lake monsters in Scotland and elsewhere, though its description varies from one account to the next. Popular interest and belief in the animal's existence have varied since it was first brought to the world's attention in 1933. There is an RNLI lifeboat station on Loch Ness, operational since 2008, it is manned by voluntary crew with an inshore lifeboat. The following fish species are native to Loch Ness. A number of others such as perch and roach have been introduced in the Loch or Caledonian Canal with various levels of success.
Loch Ness has one island, Cherry Island, near Fort Augustus. It is an artificial island, known as a crannog, was constructed during the Iron Age. There was a second island, submerged when the water level was raised during the construction of the Caledonian Canal. Loch Ness serves as the lower storage reservoir for the Foyers pumped-storage hydroelectric scheme, the first of its kind in the United Kingdom; the turbines were used to provide power for a nearby aluminium smelting plant, but now electricity is generated and supplied to the National Grid. Another scheme, the 100 megawatt Glendoe Hydro Scheme near Fort Augustus, began generation in June 2009, it was out of service between 2009 and 2012 for repair of the tunnels connecting the reservoir to the turbines. Loch Ness lies along the Great Glen Fault, which forms a line of weakness in the rocks, excavated by glacial erosion, forming the Great Glen and the basins of Loch Lochy, Loch Oich and Loch Ness. John Cobb died in an attempt at the water speed record when his boat Crusader struck an unexplained wake on the surface of the loch in 1952.
His accident was recorded by the BBC reporters on site at the time. Nearby, there is a memorial. On 31 August 1974, David Scott Munro, of Ross-shire Caberfeidh Water Ski Club, became the first person in the world to water ski the length of Loch Ness. From Lochend to Fort Augustus and back, he covered the 77 km in 77 minutes at an average speed of 60 kilometres per hour. In July 1966, Brenda Sherratt became the first person to swim the length of the loch, it took 27 minutes. Media related to Loch Ness at Wikimedia Commons Loch Ness travel guide from Wikivoyage Loch Ness information Website, Editor Tony Harmsworth Loch Ness Project Research Site, Editor Adrian Shine Loch Ness Investigation website, Editor Dick Raynor Loch Ness Pictures Loch Ness Photographs Virtual Tour of Loch Ness and surrounding area Nessieland at Loch Ness
Gambling in the United Kingdom
Gambling in the United Kingdom is regulated by the Gambling Commission on behalf of the government's Department for Culture and Sport under the Gambling Act 2005. This Act of Parliament updated the UK's gambling laws, including the introduction of a new structure of protections for children and vulnerable adults, as well as bringing the burgeoning Internet gaming sector within British regulation for the first time; the game of Housie was popularised in the armed forces in the Second World War and brought back to Britain after the end. The Betting and Gaming Act 1960 allowed commercial bingo halls to be set up, provided they were established as members-only clubs and had to get their take from membership fees and charges rather than as a percentage of the entry fees. Casinos had a similar history, with requirement for licensing from the Gaming Board of Great Britain and for casinos to be members only clubs; the number of gaming machines in casinos was limited at 10. The Casino Club Port Talbot in Wales — believed to be Britain's first legal casino — was established in 1961 by gambling mogul George Alfred James.
James opened several casino-cum-cabaret and fine dining establishments in the 1960s, including the Charlie Chester Casino and Golden Horseshoe in London and the Kingsway and Grand Casino in Southport. The Gaming Act 1968 liberalised the law; the first popular game was Chemmy, popularised by the Clermont Club, in London. The Gambling Act 2005 paved the way for larger resort style casinos to be built, albeit in a controlled manner with one being built every few years until the Act is implemented. Many towns and cities bid to host one of these so-called "super casinos", which will be similar to those found in Las Vegas. On 30 January 2007 Manchester was announced as the winning bid to be the location of the first super casino. On 29 March 2007, the House of Lords urged the Government to review plans for the massive super casino in Manchester. Instead it supported plans for 16 smaller casinos, including ones in Wolverhampton. In 2007 Prime Minister Gordon Brown said that the Government would not be proceeding with the super casino in Manchester.
Gaming machines are divided into a number of categories depending upon the stakes and payouts involved, whether there is an element of skill. Sports gambling has a long history in the United Kingdom, having been controlled for many decades, more relaxed; the 1960 Act legalised off-course bookmakers. Pool betting on horses is a monopoly of The Tote. There are over 1,000 betting shops located in London. There is a large market in the United Kingdom for gambling on competitive sports at bookmakers or licensed websites for horse, greyhound racing and football; the last of these has an associated form of gambling known as the football pools, in which players win by predicting the outcome of each week's matches. The online sports betting market in the UK is estimated to be worth £650 million which has seen a compounding annual growth rate from 2009–12 of 7%; the total online gambling population in the UK is estimated at 2.1 million customers. Sports gambling is advertised on television at times when young people are watching.
There are calls for the government to control this. Dr Heather Wardle, a gambling behaviour expert from the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, said, “It’s hard to prove what harm is being done because it’s a generational thing and the harm comes much further down the line. We’re creating the conditions that normalise gambling for a generation.” The gambling industry has announced voluntary curbs on television advertising. Stephen van Rooyen of Sky UK, maintains the TV ad ban is meaningless unless the industry curbs advertising on other media. Rooyen stated, “The gambling industry are ignoring the fact they spend five times more on online marketing than they do on TV. By cutting TV ads, they’ll spend more online, bombarding people’s smartphones and social media feeds with more gambling ads. A proportionate and responsible limit to gambling advertising across all media is the right thing to do.” The voluntary reduction does not prevent shirt sponsorship, ads that run around hoardings in stadiums, so that gambling firms will still feature prominently during live sport.
Simon Stevens of the NHS, expressed disapproval of eight betting firms because they do not pay towards NHS costs in countering gambling addiction. A statute of 1698 provided that in England lotteries were by default illegal unless authorised by statute; the aim of the statute was that before the era of mass and efficient communications, those running national lotteries could claim to one part of the country that the winner lived in another, do the same the other way: thus taking all the stakes and paying nothing out. A 1934 Act legalised small lotteries, further liberalised in 1956 and 1976, but then limited in the stakes, the geographical scope that they could cover, so there could be no chance of the lottery organisers deceiving the bettors. There could be no big national lottery, however. Other countrywide lotteries do exist, but work by dividing the prizes and stakes on a geographical basis into small areas and thus technically not becoming a national lottery; the Gambling Commission called the Health Lottery in 2010 "a fine line" and insisted it would only be legal if split into at least 31 separate, identifiable schemes so as not to become "a de facto National Lottery".
The United Kingdom's state-franchised lottery is known as the National Lottery, s
1945 United Kingdom general election
The 1945 United Kingdom general election was held on 5 July 1945, with polls in some constituencies delayed until 12 July and in Nelson and Colne until 19 July, because of local wakes weeks. The results were counted and declared on 26 July, to allow time to transport the votes of those serving overseas; the result was an unexpected landslide victory for Clement Attlee's Labour Party, over Winston Churchill's Conservatives. It was the first time. Labour won its first majority government, a mandate to implement its postwar reforms; the 10.7% national swing from the Conservative Party to the Labour Party remains the largest achieved in a British general election. Held less than two months after VE Day, it was the first general election since 1935, as general elections had been suspended during the Second World War. Clement Attlee, Leader of the Labour Party, refused Winston Churchill's offer of continuing the wartime coalition until the Allied defeat of Japan. Parliament was dissolved on 15 June.
The caretaker government led by Churchill was defeated. The result of the election came as a major shock to the Conservatives, given the heroic status of Winston Churchill, but reflected the voters' belief that the Labour Party were better able to rebuild the country following the war than the Conservatives. Ralph Ingersoll reported in late 1940 that "Everywhere I went in London people admired energy, his courage, his singleness of purpose. People said, he was respected. But no one felt, he was the right man in the right job at the right time. The time being the time of a desperate war with Britain's enemies". Henry Pelling, noting that polls showed a steady Labour lead after 1942, explained the long-term forces that caused the Labour landslide, he pointed to the usual swing against the party in power. Though voters respected and liked Churchill's wartime record, they were more distrustful of the Conservative Party's domestic and foreign policy record in the late 1930s. Labour had been given, during the war, the opportunity to display to the electorate their domestic competence in government, under men such as Attlee as Deputy Prime Minister, Herbert Morrison at the Home Office and Ernest Bevin at the Ministry of Labour.
Churchill and the Conservatives are generally considered to have run a poor campaign in comparison to Labour. The Labour manifesto'Let Us Face the Future' included promises of nationalisation, economic planning, full employment, a National Health Service, a system of social security; the Conservative manifesto,'Mr. Churchill's Declaration to the Voters', on the other hand, included progressive ideas on key social issues but was vague on the idea of post-war economic control; this was the first election in which Labour gained a majority of seats, the first time it won a plurality of votes. The election was a disaster for the Liberal Party. According to Baines, the defeat marked its transition from being a party of government to a party of the political fringe; the National Liberal Party fared worse, losing two-thirds of its seats and falling behind the Liberals in seat count for the first time since the parties split in 1931. This was the final election that the Liberal Nationals fought as an autonomous party, as they merged with the Conservative Party two years continuing to exist as a subsidiary party of the Conservatives until 1968.
Future prominent figures who entered Parliament included Harold Wilson, James Callaghan, Barbara Castle, Michael Foot and Hugh Gaitskell. Future Conservative Prime Minister Harold Macmillan lost his seat, returning to Parliament at a by-election in the year; this differs from the above list in including seats where the incumbent was standing down and therefore there was no possibility of any one person being defeated. The aim is to provide a comparison with the previous election. All comparisons are with the 1935 election. In some cases the change is due to the MP defecting to the gaining party; such circumstances are marked with a *. In other circumstances the change is due to the seat having been won by the gaining party in a by-election in the intervening years, retained in 1945; such circumstances are marked with a †. With the Second World War coming to an end in Europe, the Labour Party decided to pull out of the wartime national coalition government, precipitating an election which took place in July 1945.
King George VI dissolved Parliament, sitting for ten years without an election. What followed was one of the greatest swings of public confidence of the twentieth century. In May 1945, the month in which the war in Europe ended, Churchill's approval ratings stood at 83%, although the Labour Party held an 18% lead as of February 1945. Labour won overwhelming support while Churchill "was both surprised and stunned" by the