Jack Leroy Wilson Jr. was an African American soul singer and performer. A tenor with a four-octave range, Wilson was a prominent figure in the transition of rhythm and blues into soul. Wilson was considered a master showman, gaining the nickname "Mr. Excitement", one of the most dynamic singers and performers in pop, R&B, rock & roll history. Wilson gained initial fame as a member of His Dominoes, he went solo in 1957 and scored over 50 chart singles spanning the genres of R&B, soul, doo-wop and easy listening, including 16 R&B Top 10 hits, in which six R&B of the repertoire ranked as number ones. On the Billboard Hot 100, Wilson scored 14 top 20 pop hits, six of which reached the top 10. Jackie Wilson was one of the most influential musical artists of his generation. A two-time Grammy Hall of Fame Inductee, winner of the Rhythm and Blues Foundation's special Legacy Tribute Award in 2003, Jackie Wilson was inducted to the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1987. In 2004, Rolling Stone magazine ranked Jackie Wilson #69 on its list of the 100 Greatest Artists of All Time.
In 2013, Jackie Wilson was inducted into the National Rhythm & Blues Hall of Fame. Jack Leroy Wilson Jr. was born on June 9, 1934, in Detroit, Michigan, as the third and only surviving child of singer-songwriter Jack Leroy Wilson, Sr. and Eliza Mae Wilson. Eliza Mae was born on the Billups-Whitfield Place in Mississippi. Eliza Mae's parents were Virginia Ransom. Wilson visited his family in Columbus and was influenced by the choir at Billups Chapel. Growing up in the suburban Detroit enclave of Highland Park, Wilson joined a gang called the Shakers and got himself in trouble. Wilson's alcoholic father was absent and unemployed, his parents separated shortly after Jackie's ninth birthday. Jackie Wilson began singing as a youth, accompanying an excellent church choir singer. In his early teens he joined a quartet, the Ever Ready Gospel Singers, who gained popularity in local churches. Wilson was not religious, but he enjoyed singing in public; the money the quartet earned from performing was spent on alcohol, Wilson began drinking at an early age.
Wilson dropped out of high school at age 15, having been sentenced to detention in the Lansing Corrections system for juveniles twice. During his second stint in detention, Wilson learned to box and began competing in the Detroit amateur circuit at age 16. Wilson's record in the Golden Gloves was 2 and 8. After his mother forced Jackie to quit boxing, Wilson was forced by his father to marry Freda Hood, he became a father at age 17, it is estimated. He began working at Lee's Sensation Club as a solo singer formed a group called the Falcons that included cousin Levi Stubbs, who led the Four Tops; the other Falcons joined Hank Ballard as part of the Midnighters, including Alonzo Tucker and Billy Davis, who worked with Wilson several years as a solo artist. Tucker and Wilson collaborated as songwriters on a few songs Wilson recorded, including his 1963 hit "Baby Workout". Jackie Wilson was discovered by talent agent Johnny Otis, who recruited him for a group called the Thrillers; that group evolved into the Royals.
Wilson signed on with manager Al Green. Green, who managed LaVern Baker, Little Willie John, Johnnie Ray and Della Reese, owned two music publishing companies, Pearl Music and Merrimac Music, Detroit's Flame Show Bar, where Wilson met Baker. After Wilson recorded his first version of "Danny Boy" and a few other tracks on Dizzy Gillespie's record label Dee Gee Records under the name Sonny Wilson, Wilson was hired by Billy Ward in 1953 to join a group Ward formed in 1950 called the Dominoes, after Wilson's successful audition to replace the immensely popular Clyde McPhatter, who left the Dominoes and formed the Drifters. Wilson blew his chance that day, showing up calling himself "Shit" Wilson and bragging about being a better singer than McPhatter. Billy Ward felt. Before leaving the Dominoes, McPhatter coached Wilson on the sound Billy Ward wanted for his group, influencing Wilson's singing style and stage presence. "I learned a lot from Clyde, that high-pitched choke he used and other things...
Clyde McPhatter was my man. Clyde and Billy Ward." 1940s Blues singer Roy Brown was a major influence on him, Wilson grew up listening to the Mills Brothers, the Ink Spots, Louis Jordan and Al Jolson. Wilson was the group's lead singer for three years, but the Dominoes lost some of their stride with the departure of McPhatter, they made appearances riding on the strength of the group's earlier hits, until 1956 when the Dominoes recorded Wilson with an unlikely interpretation of the pop hit "St. Therese of the Roses", giving the Dominoes another brief moment in the spotlight. In 1957 Jackie Wilson began a solo career, left the Dominoes, collaborated with his cousin Levi, secured performances at Detroit's Flame Show Bar. Al Green secured a deal with Decca Records, Wilson was signed to its subsidiary label Brunswick. Shortly after Jackie Wilson signed a solo contract with Brunswick
A record producer or music producer oversees and manages the sound recording and production of a band or performer's music, which may range from recording one song to recording a lengthy concept album. A producer has varying roles during the recording process, they may gather musical ideas for the project, collaborate with the artists to select cover tunes or original songs by the artist/group, work with artists and help them to improve their songs, lyrics or arrangements. A producer may also: Select session musicians to play rhythm section accompaniment parts or solos Co-write Propose changes to the song arrangements Coach the singers and musicians in the studioThe producer supervises the entire process from preproduction, through to the sound recording and mixing stages, and, in some cases, all the way to the audio mastering stage; the producer may perform these roles themselves, or help select the engineer, provide suggestions to the engineer. The producer may pay session musicians and engineers and ensure that the entire project is completed within the record label's budget.
A record producer or music producer has a broad role in overseeing and managing the recording and production of a band or performer's music. A producer has many roles that may include, but are not limited to, gathering ideas for the project, composing the music for the project, selecting songs or session musicians, proposing changes to the song arrangements, coaching the artist and musicians in the studio, controlling the recording sessions, supervising the entire process through audio mixing and, in some cases, to the audio mastering stage. Producers often take on a wider entrepreneurial role, with responsibility for the budget, schedules and negotiations. Writer Chris Deville explains it, "Sometimes a producer functions like a creative consultant — someone who helps a band achieve a certain aesthetic, or who comes up with the perfect violin part to complement the vocal melody, or who insists that a chorus should be a bridge. Other times a producer will build a complete piece of music from the ground up and present the finished product to a vocalist, like Metro Boomin supplying Future with readymade beats or Jack Antonoff letting Taylor Swift add lyrics and melody to an otherwise-finished “Out Of The Woods.”The artist of an album may not be a record producer or music producer for his/her album.
While both contribute creatively, the official credit of "record producer" may depend on the record contract. Christina Aguilera, for example, did not receive record producer credits until many albums into her career. In the 2010s, the producer role is sometimes divided among up to three different individuals: executive producer, vocal producer and music producer. An executive producer oversees project finances, a vocal producers oversees the vocal production, a music producer oversees the creative process of recording and mixings; the music producer is often a competent arranger, musician or songwriter who can bring fresh ideas to a project. As well as making any songwriting and arrangement adjustments, the producer selects and/or collaborates with the mixing engineer, who takes the raw recorded tracks and edits and modifies them with hardware and software tools to create a stereo or surround sound "mix" of all the individual voices sounds and instruments, in turn given further adjustment by a mastering engineer for the various distribution media.
The producer oversees the recording engineer who concentrates on the technical aspects of recording. Noted producer Phil Ek described his role as "the person who creatively guides or directs the process of making a record", like a director would a movie. Indeed, in Bollywood music, the designation is music director; the music producer's job is to create and mold a piece of music. The scope of responsibility may be one or two songs or an artist's entire album – in which case the producer will develop an overall vision for the album and how the various songs may interrelate. At the beginning of record industry, the producer role was technically limited to record, in one shot, artists performing live; the immediate predecessors to record producers were the artists and repertoire executives of the late 1920s and 1930s who oversaw the "pop" product and led session orchestras. That was the case of Ben Selvin at Columbia Records, Nathaniel Shilkret at Victor Records and Bob Haring at Brunswick Records.
By the end of the 1930s, the first professional recording studios not owned by the major companies were established separating the roles of A&R man and producer, although it wouldn't be until the late 1940s when the term "producer" became used in the industry. The role of producers changed progressively over the 1960s due to technology; the development of multitrack recording caused a major change in the recording process. Before multitracking, all the elements of a song had to be performed simultaneously. All of these singers and musicians had to be assembled in a large studio where the performance was recorded. With multitrack recording, the "bed tracks" (rhythm section accompaniment parts such as the bassline and rhythm guitar could be recorded first, the vocals and solos could be added using as many "takes" as necessary, it was no longer necessary to get all the players in the studio at the same time. A pop band could record their backing tracks one week, a horn section could be brought in a week to add horn shots and punches, a string section could be brought in a week after that.
Multitrack recording had another pro
Jackie Ross is an American soul singer. Ross sang gospel music as a child, performed on a radio show run by her parents, both preachers. After her father died in 1954 she was signed to SAR Records by Sam Cooke, her first single, "Hard Times", appeared in 1962, following this she spent time singing in Syl Johnson's band. In 1964, she signed with Chess Records and released "Selfish One", which reached #11 on the U. S. Billboard Hot # 4 on the Cashbox R&B chart. A follow-up, "I've Got the Skill", reached the Hot 100 but stalled at #89 and the following year, "Jerk and Twine", a re-working of "Everything But Love", the song on the other side of her big hit, peaked at #85. An album, Full Bloom, was released in 1965, followed by three more singles, but after disputes with her record label, she left Chess in 1967, she recorded for several labels well into the 1970s, such as Brunswick and Jerry Butler's Fountain Productions. Most of her recordings were produced by her manager, Jimmy Vanleer's production company and issued on various labels, including GSF, Mercury and Capitol and Vanleer's own Golden Ear label, but she was unable to duplicate the success of "Selfish One"
James Milton Campbell Jr. better known as Little Milton, was an American blues singer and guitarist, best known for his hit records "Grits Ain't Groceries," "Walking the Back Streets and Crying," and "We're Gonna Make It." Milton was born James Milton Campbell Jr. in the Mississippi Delta town of Inverness and raised in Greenville by a farmer and local blues musician. By age twelve he was a street musician, chiefly influenced by T-Bone Walker and his blues and rock and roll contemporaries, he joined the Rhythm Aces in the early part of the 1950s, a three piece band who played throughout the Mississippi Delta area. One of the group was Eddie Cusic. In 1952, while still a teenager playing in local bars, he caught the attention of Ike Turner, at that time a talent scout for Sam Phillips' Sun Records, he recorded a number of singles. None of them broke through onto radio or sold well at record stores and Milton left the Sun label by 1955. After trying several labels without notable success, including Trumpet Records, Milton set up the St. Louis based Bobbin Records label, which scored a distribution deal with Leonard Chess' Chess Records.
As a record producer, Milton helped bring artists such as Albert King and Fontella Bass to fame, while experiencing his own success for the first time. After a number of small format and regional hits, his 1962 single, "So Mean to Me," broke onto the Billboard R&B chart peaking at #14. Following a short break to tour, managing other acts, spending time recording new material, he returned to music in 1965 with a more polished sound, similar to that of B. B. King. After the ill-received "Blind Man", he released back-to-back hit singles; the first, "We're Gonna Make It," a blues-infused soul song, topped the R&B chart and broke through onto Top 40 radio, a format dominated by white artists. He followed the song with #4 R&B hit "Who's Cheating Who?" All three songs were featured on his album, We're Gonna Make It, released that summer. Throughout the late 1960s Milton released a number of moderately successful singles, but did not issue a further album until 1969, with Grits Ain't Groceries featuring his hit of the same name, as well as "Just a Little Bit" and "Baby, I Love You".
With the death of Leonard Chess the same year, Milton's distributor, Checker Records fell into disarray, Milton joined the Stax label two years later. Adding complex orchestration to his works, Milton scored hits with "That's What Love Will Make You Do" and "What It Is" from his live album, What It Is: Live at Montreux, he appeared in the documentary film, released in 1973. Stax, had been losing money since late in the previous decade and was forced into bankruptcy in 1975. After leaving Stax, Milton struggled to maintain a career, moving first to Evidence the MCA imprint Mobile Fidelity Records, before finding a home at the independent record label, Malaco Records, where he remained for much of the remainder of his career, his last hit single, "Age Ain't Nothin' But a Number," was released in 1983 from the album of the same name. In 1988, Little Milton was inducted into the Blues Hall of Fame and won a W. C. Handy Award, his final album, Think of Me, was released in May 2005 on the Telarc imprint, included writing and guitar on three songs by Peter Shoulder of the UK-based blues-rock trio Winterville.
Milton’s song "Let Me Down Easy" was recorded by the Spencer Davis Group on The Second Album, but his authorship was not acknowledged on the record. He released a single of it himself in 1968 on Checker, it was chosen by Etta James as the final track in her final album The Dreamer in 2011. Milton died on August 2005 from complications following a stroke, he was 70. We're Gonna Make It Sings Big Blues Grits Ain't Groceries If Walls Could Talk Waiting for Little Milton What It Is: Live at Montreux Blues'n' Soul Tin Pan Alley Friend of Mine Me For You, You For Me Walkin' the Back Streets The Blues Is Alright Age Ain't Nothin' But a Number Playing for Keeps I Will Survive Annie Mae's Cafe Movin' to the Country Back to Back Too Much Pain Reality I Need Your Love So Bad Strugglin' Lady I'm a Gambler Live at Westville Prison Cheatin' Habit Count the Days For Real Welcome to Little Milton Feel It Guitar Man The Blues Is Alright: Live at Kalamazoo Think of Me Live at the North Atlantic Blues Festival: His Last Concert Incomplete listing "So Mean to Me" "Blind Man" "We're Gonna Make It" "Who's Cheating Who?"
"Man Loves Two" "We Got the Winning Hand" "Feel So Bad" "I'll Never Turn My Back on You" "Let Me Down Easy" "More and More" "Grits Ain't Groceries" "Just a Little Bit" "Baby, I Love You" "If Walls Could Talk" "Somebody's Changin' My Sweet Baby's Mind" (
National Library of Australia
The National Library of Australia is the largest reference library in Australia, responsible under the terms of the National Library Act for "maintaining and developing a national collection of library material, including a comprehensive collection of library material relating to Australia and the Australian people." In 2012–13, the National Library collection comprised 6,496,772 items, an additional 15,506 metres of manuscript material. It is located in Parkes, Canberra, ACT; the National Library of Australia, while formally established by the passage of the National Library Act 1960, had been functioning as a national library rather than a Parliamentary Library since its inception. In 1901, a Commonwealth Parliamentary Library was established to serve the newly formed Federal Parliament of Australia. From its inception the Commonwealth Parliamentary Library was driven to development of a national collection. In 1907 the Joint Parliamentary Library Committee under the Chairmanship of the Speaker, Sir Frederick William Holder defined the objective of the Commonwealth Parliamentary Library in the following words: The Library Committee is keeping before it the ideal of building up, for the time when Parliament shall be established in the Federal Capital, a great Public Library on the lines of the world-famed Library of Congress at Washington.
The present library building was opened on 15 August 1968 by Prime Minister John Gorton. The building was designed by the architectural firm of Bunning and Madden in the Late Twentieth Century Stripped Classical style; the foyer is decorated in marble, with stained-glass windows by Leonard French and three tapestries by Mathieu Matégot. The building was listed on the Australian Commonwealth Heritage List on 22 June 2004. In 2012–13 the Library collection comprised 6,496,772 items, with an estimated additional 2,325,900 items held in the manuscripts collection; the Library's collections of Australiana have developed into the nation's single most important resource of materials recording the Australian cultural heritage. Australian writers and illustrators are sought and well represented—whether published in Australia or overseas; the Library's collection includes all formats of material, from books, journals and manuscripts to pictures, maps, oral history recordings, manuscript papers and ephemera.
92.1% of the Library's collection has been catalogued and is discoverable through the online catalogue. The Library has digitized over 174,000 items from its collection and, where possible, delivers these directly across the Internet; the Library is a world leader in digital preservation techniques, maintains an Internet-accessible archive of selected Australian websites called the Pandora Archive. The Library collects material produced by Australians, for Australians or about the Australian experience in all formats—not just printed works—books, newspapers, posters and printed ephemera—but online publications and unpublished material such as manuscripts and oral histories. A core Australiana collection is that of John A. Ferguson; the Library has particular collection strengths in the performing arts, including dance. The Library's considerable collections of general overseas and rare book materials, as well as world-class Asian and Pacific collections which augment the Australiana collections.
The print collections are further supported by extensive microform holdings. The Library maintains the National Reserve Braille Collection; the Library houses the largest and most developing research resource on Asia in Australia, the largest Asian language collections in the Southern hemisphere, with over half a million volumes in the collection, as well as extensive online and electronic resources. The Library collects resources about all Asian countries in Western languages extensively, resources in the following Asian languages: Burmese, Persian, Japanese, Korean, Manchu, Thai and Vietnamese; the Library has acquired a number of important Western and Asian language scholarly collections from researchers and bibliophiles. These collections include: Australian Buddhist Library Collection Braga Collection Claasz Collection Coedes Collection London Missionary Society Collection Luce Collection McLaren-Human Collection Otley Beyer Collection Sakakibara Collection Sang Ye Collection Simon Collection Harold S. Williams Collection The Asian Collections are searchable via the National Library's catalogue.
The National Library holds an extensive collection of manuscripts. The manuscript collection contains about 26 million separate items, covering in excess of 10,492 meters of shelf space; the collection relates predominantly to Australia, but there are important holdings relating to Papua New Guinea, New Zealand and the Pacific. The collection holds a number of European and Asian manuscript collections or single items have been received as part of formed book collections; the Australian manuscript collections date from the period of maritime exploration and settlement in the 18th century until the present, with the greatest area of strength dating from the 1890s onwards. The collection includes a large number of outstanding single items, such as the 14th century Chertsey Cartulary, the journal of James Cook on the HM Bark Endeavour, inscribed on t
Dottie West was an American country music singer and songwriter. Along with her friends and fellow recording artists Patsy Cline and Loretta Lynn, she is considered one of the genre's most influential and groundbreaking female artists. Dottie West's career started in the 1960s, with her Top 10 hit, "Here Comes My Baby Back Again", which won her a Grammy Award for Best Female Country Vocal Performance in 1965, the first female in Country Music to receive a Grammy. In the early 1970s, West wrote a popular commercial for the Coca-Cola company, titled "Country Sunshine", which reached No. 2 on Billboard's Hot Country Singles in 1973. In the late-70s, she teamed up with country pop superstar, Kenny Rogers for a series of duets which took her career to new highs, earning Platinum selling albums and No. 1 records for the first time. Her duet recordings with Rogers, "Every Time Two Fools Collide", "All I Ever Need Is You", "What Are We Doin' in Love", became country music standards. In the mid-1970s, her image and music underwent a metamorphosis, bringing her to the peak of her popularity as a solo act, reaching #1 on her own for the first time in 1980 with "A Lesson in Leavin'".
In 2018, West was posthumously inducted into the Country Music Hall of Fame. Dorothy Marie "Dottie" Marsh was born on October 11, 1932 to Pelina Artha and William Hollis Marsh in a community called Frog Pond just outside McMinnville, Tennessee, she was the eldest of ten children. The family was poor. To help alleviate the financial strain, West's mother opened up a restaurant. Young Dottie helped. Dottie's father, Hollis Marsh, was an alcoholic who sexually abused her; the abuse continued until she was 17, when she reported him to the local sheriff. She testified against her father in court. After living with the sheriff for a short time, she moved to McMinnville with her mother and siblings, she joined her high school band, "The Cookskins", where she sang and played guitar. In 1951, she obtained a music scholarship to Tennessee Technological University in Cookeville, Tennessee. There she met her first husband, a steel guitarist named Bill West, she continued to use his surname professionally. She was a lifelong active Democrat.
After graduation, Dottie West moved with her family to Cleveland, where she began appearing on the television program Landmark Jamboree as one half of a country pop vocal duo called the "Kay-Dots" alongside partner Kathy Dee. At the same time, West made numerous trips to Nashville in the hopes of landing a recording deal. In 1959, she and Bill auditioned for producer Don Pierce at Starday, were offered a contract; the singles West cut for the label proved unsuccessful, but she moved to Nashville two years where she and her husband fell in with aspiring songwriters, including Willie Nelson, Roger Miller, Hank Cochran and Harlan Howard. West played hostess to these struggling songwriters, offering them a place to stay and eat. In return, they taught West about the structure of songwriting. During this time, she became a close friend of groundbreaking female country singer Patsy Cline and her husband Charlie Dick. Cline would become one of West's biggest career inspirations; as West related to Ellis Nassour in the 1980 book Patsy Cline, the greatest advice Cline gave her was, "When you're onstage sing to the audience with all of your heart and mean it.
Cast a spell over them. If you can't do it with feeling don't." In their early days in Nashville and her family would not have enough to pay the rent or buy the week's groceries, so Cline would hire her to help with her wardrobe and West's husband Bill to play in her band. Cline offered to help pay West's rent or buy groceries when she and Bill were struggling to stay in Nashville. On March 5, 1963, Cline died in a plane crash along with Cowboy Copas, Hawkshaw Hawkins, her pilot and manager Randy Hughes on her way home from a benefit at Memorial Hall in Kansas City, a concert West attended. West had asked Cline to ride with her and Bill in their car, but Cline, anxious to get back home to her children, opted to fly instead. In 1963, Jim Reeves recorded a song written by West called "Is This Me", it became a No. 3 hit that year. As a result, Reeves helped. West earned her first Top 40 hit in 1963 with "Let Me Off at the Corner", followed a year by the Top Ten duet with Jim Reeves "Love Is No Excuse".
In 1964, she auditioned for RCA Victor producer Chet Atkins, the architect of the Nashville sound, who agreed to produce her composition "Here Comes My Baby". The single made Dottie the first female country artist to win a Grammy Award, leading to an invitation to join the Grand Ole Opry. "Here Comes My Baby" reached No. 10 on Billboard Magazine's Country charts in 1964. After releasing the Here Comes My Baby LP in 1965, Dottie and producer Chet Atkins reunited the following year for Suffer Time, which generated her biggest hit yet in "Would You Hold It Against Me". In 1967, the West/Atkins pairing issued three separate albums: With All My Heart and Soul, Dottie West Sings Sacred Ballads and I'll Help You Forget Her. During the same period, she appeared in a pair of films, Second Fiddle to a Steel Guitar and There's a Still on the Hill, she continued to have success as a solo artist during the late 1960s with such songs as "What's Come Over My Baby" and "Country Girl" which garnered her an offer to write a commercial based on it for Coca-Cola
BIBSYS is an administrative agency set up and organized by the Ministry of Education and Research in Norway. They are a service provider, focusing on the exchange and retrieval of data pertaining to research and learning – metadata related to library resources. BIBSYS are collaborating with all Norwegian universities and university colleges as well as research institutions and the National Library of Norway. Bibsys is formally organized as a unit at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology, located in Trondheim, Norway; the board of directors is appointed by Norwegian Ministry of Research. BIBSYS offer researchers and others an easy access to library resources by providing the unified search service Oria.no and other library services. They deliver integrated products for the internal operation for research and special libraries as well as open educational resources; as a DataCite member BIBSYS act as a national DataCite representative in Norway and thereby allow all of Norway's higher education and research institutions to use DOI on their research data.
All their products and services are developed in cooperation with their member institutions. BIBSYS began in 1972 as a collaborative project between the Royal Norwegian Society of Sciences and Letters Library, the Norwegian Institute of Technology Library and the Computer Centre at the Norwegian Institute of Technology; the purpose of the project was to automate internal library routines. Since 1972 Bibsys has evolved from a library system supplier for two libraries in Trondheim, to developing and operating a national library system for Norwegian research and special libraries; the target group has expanded to include the customers of research and special libraries, by providing them easy access to library resources. BIBSYS is a public administrative agency answerable to the Ministry of Education and Research, administratively organised as a unit at NTNU. In addition to BIBSYS Library System, the product portfolio consists of BISBYS Ask, BIBSYS Brage, BIBSYS Galleri and BIBSYS Tyr. All operation of applications and databases is performed centrally by BIBSYS.
BIBSYS offer a range of services, both in connection with their products and separate services independent of the products they supply. Open access in Norway Om Bibsys