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SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Pacific Aviation Safety Office

The Pacific Aviation Safety Office is an intergovernmental civil aviation authority, responsible for aviation safety and security in ten states of Oceania. PASO is headquartered in Anchor House on Kumul Highway in Vanuatu. PASO was informally organised in 2002 by the aviation ministers of several states of the Pacific Islands Forum; the organisation was formally confirmed through the conclusion of the Pacific Islands Civil Aviation Safety and Security Treaty, signed on 9 August 2004 in Apia, Samoa. The treaty entered into force on 11 June 2005 and has been ratified by the Cook Islands, Nauru, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, Tonga and Vanuatu; the Pacific Islands Forum states that have not ratified the treaty and joined PASO are Australia, Marshall Islands and New Zealand. Tonga withdrew from PASO on 7 April 2006, but joined again on 24 August 2006. PASO works with the Australian Civil Aviation Safety Authority, the Civil Aviation Authority of Fiji, the Civil Aviation Authority of New Zealand.

Papua New Guinea Accident Investigation Commission Official website Text of Treaty. Treaty signatures and ratifications

Swabia (Bavaria)

Swabia is one of the seven administrative regions of Bavaria, Germany. The county of Swabia is located in southwest Bavaria, it was annexed by Bavaria in 1803, is part of the historic region of Swabia and was ruled by dukes of the Hohenstaufen dynasty. During the Nazi period, the area was separated from the rest of Bavaria to become the Gau Swabia, it was re-incorporated into Bavaria after the war. The Regierungsbezirk is subdivided into 3 regions: Allgäu, Donau-Iller. Donau-Iller includes two districts and one city of Baden-Württemberg. * Part of the Swabian Keuper Land Historical population of Swabia: 1939: 934,311 1950: 1,293,734 1961: 1,340,217 1970: 1,467,454 1987: 1,546,504 2002: 1,776,465 2005: 1,788,919 2006: 1,786,764 2008: 1,787,995 2010: 1,785,875 The Bavarian administrative region of Swabia is the eastern part of the duchy of Swabia. After the execution of the Swabian duke Conradin in Naples in 1268, his uncle, the Bavarian duke Louis inherited some of Conradin's possessions in Swabia.

In 1803, with the German Mediatisation, Bavaria acquired the further East Swabian territories, which were merged with Palatinate-Neuburg. After the founding of the Kingdom of Bavaria, the state was reorganised and, in 1808, divided into 15 administrative districts, in Bavaria called Kreise, they were created in the fashion of the French departements, quite in size and population, named after their main rivers. In the following years, due to territorial changes, the number of districts was reduced to 8; the Swabian territories were merged with Palatinate-Neuburg and the new district was called Oberdonaukreis. In 1837, king Ludwig I of Bavaria renamed all the districts after historical territorial names and tribes of the area; this involved some border changes or territorial swaps. Thus the name Oberdonaukreis changed to Swabia. In 1945, the town of Lindau was divested by France, but reunited with the district of Swabia in 1955. In 1972, the former Swabian city Neuburg an der Donau was reunited with the district of Upper Bavaria.

Next to the capital Augsburg and several other old cities including Donauwörth, Nördlingen, Mindelheim and Kempten, the Ottobeuren Abbey and the scenic attractions of the River Danube in the north and the Allgäu in the south with the Allgäu Alps and Oberstdorf and the royal castles of Hohenschwangau and Neuschwanstein next to Füssen belong to the major attractions. With the district of Lindau, Bavarian Swabia has access to Lake Constance. Swabian cuisine is rather simple. Noodle products are important. Brenntar Spätzle Maultaschen Bergkäse Schupfnudel Alb-Leisa Michael Bredl, a singer and collector of traditional Swabian Volksmusik Ludwig Aurbacher, famous for his stories about The Seven Swabians Ludwig Ganghofer and inventor Sebastian Kneipp, inventor of Kneipp-Kur known as Water-Doctor of Hydrotherapy Swabian Keuper-Lias Plains Official website

Symbol (programming)

A symbol in computer programming is a primitive data type whose instances have a unique human-readable form. Symbols can be used as identifiers. In some programming languages, they are called atoms. Uniqueness is enforced by holding them in a symbol table; the most common use of symbols by programmers is for performing language reflection, most common indirectly is their use to create object linkages. In the most trivial implementation, they are named integers; the following programming languages provide runtime support for symbols: A symbol in Lisp is unique in a namespace. Symbols can be tested for equality with the function EQ. Lisp programs can generate new symbols at runtime; when Lisp reads data that contains textual represented symbols, existing symbols are referenced. If a symbol is unknown, the Lisp reader creates a new symbol. In Common Lisp symbols have the following attributes: a name, a value, a function, a list of properties and a package. In Common Lisp it is possible that a symbol is not interned in a package.

Such symbols can be printed. Since it is not *interned*, the original symbol can't be retrieved from a package. In Common Lisp symbols may use any characters, such as spaces and newlines. If a symbol contains a whitespace character it needs to be written as |this is a symbol|. Symbols can be used as identifiers for any kind of named programming constructs: variables, macros, types, goto tags and more. Symbols can be interned in a package. Keyword symbols are self-evaluating and interned in the package named KEYWORD; the following is a simple external representation of a Common Lisp symbol: Symbols can contain whitespace: In Common Lisp symbols with a leading colon in their printed representations are keyword symbols. These are interned in the keyword package. A printed representation of a symbol may include a package name. Two colons are written between the name of the symbol. Packages can export symbols. Only one colon is written between the name of the package and the name of the symbol. Symbols, which are not interned in a package, can be created and have a notation: In Prolog, symbols are the primary primitive data types, similar to numbers.

The exact notation may differ in different Prolog's dialects. However, it is always quite simple. Contrary to other languages, it is possible to give symbols some meaning by creating some Prolog's facts and/or rules; the following example demonstrates one rule. These three sentences use some abstract variables; the mother relationship has been omitted for clarity. In Ruby, symbols can be created by converting a string, they can be used as an interned string. Two symbols with the same contents will always refer to the same object, it is considered a best practice to use symbols as keys to an associative array in Ruby. The following is a simple example of a symbol literal in Ruby: Strings can be coerced into symbols, vice versa: Symbols are objects of the Symbol class in Ruby: Symbols are used to dynamically send messages to objects: Symbols as keys of an associative array: In Smalltalk, symbols can be created with a literal form, or by converting a string, they can be used as an interned string. Two symbols with the same contents will always refer to the same object.

In most Smalltalk implementations, selectors are implemented as symbols. The following is a simple example of a symbol literal in Smalltalk: Strings can be coerced into symbols, vice versa: Symbols conform to the symbol protocol, their class is called Symbol in most implementations: Symbols are used to dynamically send messages to objects

Sal Hepatica

Sal Hepatica is the name of a mineral salt laxative, produced and marketed by Bristol-Myers from its inception in 1887, becoming its first nationally recognized product in 1903, until 1958. When dissolved in water, it was said to reproduce the taste and effect of the natural mineral waters of Bohemia; the product was composed of Glauber's salt, baking soda, tartaric acid, common salt, sodium phosphate and traces of lithium carbonate and water. It was marketed as alkalinizing agent. In the latter role it was recommended for dissolving uric acid in gout and "rheumatism", for various other stomach and kidney disorders. Epsom Salt A Magnesium sulfate salt marketed as the active ingredient in the water from Epsom Collection of mid-twentieth century advertising featuring Sal Heptica from the TJS Labs Gallery of Graphic Design. Https://www.flickr.com/photos/internetarchivebookimages/14598496190/ book scan of a bottle of Sal Hepatica from 1889 http://www.old-time.com/commercials/1930%27s/Smile.html co-marketing of Ipana and Sal hepatica in the 1930s

Herta Oberheuser

Herta Oberheuser was a Nazi physician and a war criminal who worked at the Auschwitz and Ravensbrück concentration camps from 1940 until 1943. In 1937, Oberheuser obtained her medical degree in Bonn. Soon thereafter she joined the Nazi Party as an intern, served as doctor for the League of German Girls. In 1940, Oberheuser was appointed to serve as an assistant to Karl Gebhardt Chief Surgeon of the Schutzstaffel and Heinrich Himmler's personal doctor. Oberheuser and Gebhardt came to Ravensbrück in 1942 in order to conduct experiments on its prisoners, with an emphasis on finding better methods of treating infection, they conducted gruesome medical experiments on 86 women, 74 of whom were Polish political prisoners in the camp. She killed healthy children with oil and evipan injections removed their limbs and vital organs; the time from the injection to death was between three and five minutes, with the person being semi conscious until the last moment. She performed some of the most gruesome and painful medical experiments, focusing on deliberately inflicting wounds on the subjects.

In order to simulate the combat wounds of German soldiers fighting in the war, Oberheuser rubbed foreign objects, such as wood, rusty nails, slivers of glass, dirt, or sawdust into the cuts. Herta Oberheuser was the only female defendant in the Nuremberg "Doctors' trial", where she was sentenced to 20 years in prison – a sentence reduced to five years. Oberheuser was released in April 1952 for good behaviour and became a family doctor in Stocksee, near Kiel, in West Germany, she lost her position in August 1958 after a Ravensbrück survivor recognized her, the interior minister of Schleswig-Holstein, Helmut Lemke, revoked her medical license and shut down her practice. Oberheuser appealed to the Schleswig-Holstein administrative court, which rejected the appeal in December 1960, she was fined as punishment. She died in January 1978 at the age of 66. Testimony of Helena Hegier, prisoner of Ravensbruck, about medical experiments conducted by Oberheuser Paulina Fronczak: Doktor Herta Oberheuser i jej działalność medyczna w KL Ravensbrück w świetle zeznań świadków i ofiar eksperymentów.

Acta Universitatis Lodziensis. Folia Historica. Nr 96