The Buffalo Jills were the cheerleading squad for the Buffalo Bills professional American football team. The Bills had cheerleaders in 1960 known simply as the Buffalo Bills Cheerleaders, at the time, they were a group of eight Buffalo State College cheerleaders. They ran this squad until 1965 and went without cheerleaders in 1966, in 1967, the Buffalo Jills were founded and have progressed from a few young women in wool uniforms to a squad of 36 young ladies in more-revealing attire. They have annually sold a swimsuit calendar since the 2000-2001 season, troop visits are a regular occurrence as well and a group of eight girls spent February 22 - March 4,2007, visiting troops in Iraq, the only NFL squad on that tour at the time. In 1986, the Bills discontinued its official ties to the squad, the Bills continued role in employing the squad is currently being disputed in court. In December 2014, Justice Timothy Drury of the New York Supreme Court found that the Bills set the terms of the Jills contracts, in 1995, seeking respect and better pay, the Jills formed the first cheerleaders union in the NFL.
In 2002, the new director instituted an Ambassador Squad, a group of 8-12 Buffalo Jills who did not dance on the sidelines and field. This was not only to allow the squad to more easily meet the demands of all the appearances they were asked to make. In 2006, a pair of Jills swept their first round events in the first year of the NFL Cheerleader Playoffs before falling in the second round. In 2008, the Jills were the first NFL squad to be multi-national, shortly after the squads 35 members were selected for the 2014 season, a lawsuit was filed on April 22 by five former Jills that alleged the cheerleaders were not paid for hours they worked. Management responded 2 days by suspending operations of the cheerleading squad, on July 3,2014, NFL Commissioner Roger Goodell was subpoenaed to testify in the case after a document presented by the Bills in their defense contained his signature. Katherine Katie Kaczor-Bichler, contestant of The Amazing Race 22 Buffalo Pro Cheer Blog
National Football League in Toronto
Subsequently, a number of neutral site preseason and regular season games between NFL teams have been staged in the city. Toronto is one of three cities outside the United States, along with London and Mexico City, which have hosted regular season NFL games, there have long been efforts to establish an NFL franchise in Toronto due to its market size. Toronto is the third largest city in the United States or Canada, the city hosts franchises in all of the other US based major professional North American sports in the United States and Canada. As of 2016 the league has no plans to establish a team in the city, while the Wildcats nominally represented Los Angeles, travel to the west coast posed a major obstacle at the time so the team was instead a traveling team based in Illinois. They played most of their games in the stadiums of their opponents. The Wildcats lost the season game to the New York Yankees 28-0 in front of 10,000 fans at Maple Leaf Stadium on 8 November 1926. The game was popular, at the time Canadian football still more closely resembled rugby football.
The NFL played its first game in Toronto in 1959, when the Toronto Argonauts of the Canadian Football League hosted the first of three NFL teams in a three-season span. These interleague exhibition gamess, which had been first tried in Ottawa in 1950 and were staged in Montreal, were typically played by CFL rules in the first half. The Argos lost all three games, the nearby Hamilton Tiger-Cats hosted a game against the Bills, an American Football League team. Buffalo lost the game 38–21, the time an NFL or AFL team would lose to a CFL team. In 1960 the New York Giants and Chicago Bears played a game at Varsity Stadium in the first game featuring two NFL teams to be played outside the United States. During the 1982 NFL season the NFL players went on strike, in the absence of regular season NFL games, the National Football League Players Association scheduled a series of All-star games across the continent to raise funds. A game between the AFC East and NFC East was scheduled for Torontos Varsity Stadium for October 24, the game was cancelled following a court ruling that permitted players who participated in the games to be sued by their clubs for violating their contracts.
A Toronto group had plans to bring the Buffalo Bills to Toronto to play a game at Exhibition Stadium in 1988. However, following objections from CFL Commissioner Douglas Mitchell the game was vetoed by NFL Commissioner Pete Rozelle, the group would unsuccessfully continue to try to arrange a game for a future season. In 1993 the Cleveland Browns hosted one of their games in Toronto. The Bills played in two pre-season American Bowls in Toronto in 1995 and 1997, organized by Paul Godfrey, in an attempt to prove the citys worthiness to host a franchise permanently
Orchard Park (town), New York
Orchard Park is a town in Erie County, New York, United States, and a suburb southeast of Buffalo. As of the 2010 census the population was 29,054 and this represents an increase of 5. 13% from the 2000 census figure. The town contains a village named Orchard Park, Orchard Park is one of the Southtowns of Erie County. Kinney and wife Phebe purchased land and built a cabin in the southwest corner of the township, the following year, a migration of Quaker settlers began. The town was separated from the town of Hamburg in 1850 and was first named Ellicott, after Joseph Ellicott, within months, the name was changed to the town of East Hamburgh. Around 1934, the town was renamed Orchard Park after its principal settlement, in the early 1900s, a large fire burned down most of the central part of the village of Orchard Park around South Buffalo Street. The Buffalo and Pittsburgh Railroad Station and the Johnson-Jolls Complex are listed on the National Register of Historic Places, Orchard Park is located at 42°46′N 78°44′W.
The village of Orchard Park is 14 miles southeast of downtown Buffalo. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has an area of 38.52 square miles, of which 38.44 square miles is land and 0.08 square miles. U. S. Route 219 passes through the west part of the town and forms junctions with U. S. Route 20A, U. S. Route 20 passes through the north part of the town and forms a junction with NY277 and NY240. The population density was 717.7 people per square mile, there were 10,644 housing units at an average density of 276.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 97. 9% White,0. 5% Black or African American,0. 2% Native American,0. 9% Asian, <0. 1% Pacific Islander,0. 2% from other races, and 0. 6% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1. 0% of the population,22. 1% of all households were made up of individuals and 10. 3% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.62 and the family size was 3.09. In the town, the population was out with 25. 2% under the age of 18,5. 7% from 18 to 24,25. 6% from 25 to 44,26. 8% from 45 to 64.
The median age was 41 years, for every 100 females there were 92.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.7 males, the median income for a household in the town was $151,227, and the median income for a family was $112,906. About 1. 1% of families and 2. 4% of the population were below the poverty line, armor – A hamlet at the west town line
Junious Buck Buchanan was a professional American football defensive tackle with the Kansas City Chiefs in the American Football League and in the National Football League. Buchanan attended A. H. Parker High School in Birmingham, Buchanan attended Grambling College in Louisiana and was a letterman in football and an NAIA All-America selection. He was inducted into the College Football Hall of Fame in 1996 and he is one of four Grambling State players, Willie Brown, Willie Davis, and Charlie Joiner coached by Eddie Robinson enshrined in the Pro Football Hall of Fame. For the 1963 NFL Draft, Buchanan was selected 265th overall in the 19th round by the NFL champion Green Bay Packers, the 6 ft 7 in 287 lb Buchanan was the first overall selection in the AFL Draft by the Kansas City Chiefs. Eddie Robinson, his coach at Grambling State, where he had been an NAIA All-American in 1962, Buchanan was the first black number one draft choice in Professional Football. Others who had watched Buchanan in action were equally enthusiastic, Buchanan had the physical size plus the athletic instincts to be exceptionally successful at his job of foiling opposing offenses.
He was particularly effective at intimidating the passer and in one season alone he batted down 16 passes at or behind the line of scrimmage. He was clocked at 4.9 in the 40-yard dash and 10.2 in the 100-yard dash at Grambling State, in spite of the weekly pounding he took on the line of scrimmage, Buchanan was extremely durable. He played in 182 career games that included a string of 166 straight, after dabbling briefly at defensive end as a rookie, Buchanan settled down to his permanent job as the Chiefs defensive right tackle. He was named to his first AFL All-Star Game after his season and played in six AFL All-Star games. He was selected to the team of the AFL All-Time Team, and was inducted into the Alabama Sports Hall of Fame in 1987. Two years after he was inducted to the Pro Hall of Fame, in 1999, he was ranked number 67 on The Sporting News list of the 100 Greatest Football Players, right behind his former Chiefs teammate Bobby Bell at number 66. The Chiefs retired his uniform number 86, Buchanan once appeared on ABCs The American Sportsman hosted by Grits Gresham of Natchitoches, Louisiana.
The program featured Gresham taking celebrities on hunting trips, fishing tournaments. After his football career Buck started the construction company All Pro Construction, Inc. in Olathe and they specialized in interior renovations and miscellaneous bridge work. Buchanans widow, Georgia continued to run the company after his death until 2006 when she sold, Buchanan was diagnosed with lung cancer a week before his Hall of Fame induction and died at age 51 in his Kansas City home on July 16,1992. Buck Buchanan Award List of American Football League players
Ralph Cookerly Wilson Jr. was the founder and owner of the Buffalo Bills, a team in Americas National Football League. He was one of the owners of the American Football League, the league with which the NFL merged in 1970. At the time of his death he was the oldest owner in the NFL, at age 95, and he was inducted into the Pro Football Hall of Fame in 2009. Wilson grew up in Detroit, the son of salesman Ralph Wilson Sr. and his wife and he graduated from the University of Virginia and attended the University of Michigan Law School. He was a 1936 graduate of Detroit University School, now University Liggett School, during World War II, he enlisted in the U. S. Navy and served in the Atlantic and Pacific Theaters. After the war ended, he took over his fathers insurance business and he eventually purchased several manufacturing outlets, construction firms and radio stations, and founded Ralph Wilson Industries. A minority owner of the Detroit Lions, Wilson got wind of Lamar Hunts plans for a new league and he tried to put together a team in Miami, but was turned down.
His next choice was Buffalo, where the AFLs first choice of owner, in September 1959, Wilson sent Hunt a telegram with the words, Count me in with Buffalo. He named his new team the Bills, after a team that had played in the All-America Football Conference from 1946 to 1949. On October 28,1959 the Buffalo Bills officially became the seventh AFL team. Wilson made professional football a resounding success in a market, signing such stars as Cookie Gilchrist, Jack Kemp. He was a force in AFL policies that ensured success, such as gate. Wilson helped keep those franchises afloat, likely saving the entire league from folding, in 1989, after league commissioner Pete Rozelle announced his retirement, Wilson was on the six-member committee who was tasked with nominating potential candidates for the open position. Wilsons nominee, his former quarterback Jack Kemp, declined to pursue the post, according to an article on msn. com, described as stubborn, turned down numerous naming rights deals for the stadium.
Wilson was one of the leagues most outspoken owners, even near the end of his life, Wilson voted against the Cleveland Browns relocation to Baltimore in 1995. He was one of two owners to oppose the leagues collective bargaining agreement. He negotiated a deal to have his team home games in Toronto beginning in 2008. Wilson retired from the position of president in 2001, giving control to General Manager Tom Donahoe
Georgia Tech Yellow Jackets football
The Georgia Tech Yellow Jackets football team represents the Georgia Institute of Technology in the sport of American football. The Yellow Jackets team competes in the Football Bowl Subdivision of the National Collegiate Athletic Association, Georgia Tech has fielded a football team since 1892 and has an all-time record of 700–471–43. The Yellow Jackets play in Bobby Dodd Stadium at Historic Grant Field in Atlanta, the Yellow Jackets have won four Division I-A college football national championships and fifteen conference titles. A number of collegiate and professional football players once played for Tech. The school has 48 first-team All-Americans and over 150 alumni who have played in the NFL, among the most lauded and most notable players the school has produced are Calvin Johnson, Demaryius Thomas, Keith Brooking, Joe Hamilton, Joe Guyon, and Billy Shaw. In addition to its players, Techs football program has been noted for its coaches and its, in many cases bizarre traditions and game finishes.
Among the teams coaches are John Heisman, for whom the Heisman Trophy is named, and Bobby Dodd, for whom the Bobby Dodd Coach of the Year Award. Heisman led the team to the game in American football history. Dodd led the Jackets on their longest winning streak against the University of Georgia, Tech began its football program with several students forming a loose-knit troop of footballers called the Blacksmiths. On November 5,1892, Tech played its first football game against Mercer University, the team lost to Mercer 12–6 in Macon, Georgia. Tech played two games during their first season and lost both of them for a season record of 0–3. Discouraged by these results, the Blacksmiths sought a coach to improve their record, leonard Wood, an Army officer and Atlantan, heard of Techs football struggles and volunteered to player-coach the team. Over the span of 1892–1903, Tech only won 8 games, tied in 5, in 1893, Tech played against the University of Georgia for the first time. Tech defeated Georgia 28–6 for the schools first-ever victory, the angry Georgia fans threw stones and other debris at the Tech players during and after the game.
The poor treatment of the Blacksmiths by the Georgia faithful gave birth to the now known as Clean. In 1902, Jesse Thrash was the teams first All-Southern selection and he began the season as a sub and closed it as the undisputed star of the Tech team. Oliver Jones Huie was selected by Ga Techs athletic association to coach the team for the 1903 season when the team won 3. A professional coach was desperately needed if Tech wished to build a competitive football program
New Era Field
New Era Field, originally Rich Stadium and formerly known as Ralph Wilson Stadium, is a stadium in Orchard Park, New York, a suburb south of Buffalo. Opened in 1973, it is the home of the Buffalo Bills of the National Football League, the stadium was renamed in 1998 for team founder and then-owner Ralph Wilson. The league mandate instituted after the AFL–NFL merger of 1970 dictated a minimum of 50,000 seats, in early 1971, owner Ralph Wilson was exploring options to relocate the team, possibly to Seattle, with other cities such as Memphis and Tampa soon expressing interest as well. The potential loss of the team hastened the stadium project and Rich Stadium opened in 1973, plans changed because it was not wanted to be close to Lancaster High School. The stadium was built by Frank Schoenle and his construction company. Stadium bonds were approved by the county legislature in September 1971, by a vote of 16 to 4, the county legislature approved the name in November 1972, despite a matching offer from Wilson to name it Buffalo Bills Stadium.
When the Bills organization regularly referred to the stadium without the Rich name, after the original deal expired after a quarter century in 1998, the stadium was renamed in honor of Wilson. Rich Products balked at paying a greatly increased rights fee, which would have brought the price up to par with other NFL stadiums and it was announced on August 13,2016, that local company New Era Cap Company and the Buffalo Bills reached an agreement for naming rights. The Bills and New Era officially announced the new name of New Era Field five days later. The first NFL playoff game at the stadium came in the 1988 season, the Bills won every ensuing playoff game at the stadium until they were defeated in 1996 by the Jacksonville Jaguars on December 28. The stadium is open-air, with a capacity of 71,870, the stadium has never had a natural grass surface, AstroTurf was installed in the stadium upon its opening in 1973. The first renovation occurred in 1984 when the capacity was increased to 80,290 with the addition of 16 executive suites.
Eight years in 1992,24 more executive suites were added, in 1994, major renovations were made to the stadium including the addition of the Red Zone and Goal Line clubs that are enclosed in glass and have 500 seats. These renovations added 14 executive suites, a massive $9.1 million 41.5 by 31.5 feet Sony JumboTron video scoreboard was a major update in 1994 and was the largest in the U. S. at the time. In 1998, $57 million were spent to refit the stadium with seats and more luxury and club seating as a part of the Bills lease renewal with Erie County. This caused the capacity to be reduced to just under 74,000. In the 2003 offseason, the original turf was replaced with a newer AstroTurf product. Over 1,000 ft of Mitsubishi Diamond Vision LED Ribbon Boards were installed in the interior during that renovation
History of the Buffalo Bills
This article details the history of the Buffalo Bills. The team began play in 1960 as a member of the American Football League. The club joined the National Football League as part of the 1970 AFL-NFL Merger, the Bills have the distinction of being the only team to advance to four consecutive Super Bowls, but has the dubious distinction of losing all four of them. The Bills were not the first professional team to play in Buffalo. Professional football had been played in Buffalo and in upstate New York since the beginning of the 20th century, in 1915, Barney Leppers Buffalo All-Stars were founded, the team would be replaced by the Niagaras in 1918, the Prospects in 1919. The Prospects were the basis of what would become the Buffalo All-Americans, after changing their name to the Bisons in 1924, the team suspended operations in 1927, came back in 1929 and re-folded at the end of that season. When the AAFC merged with the NFL in 1950, the AAFC Bills were merged into the Cleveland Browns, the forerunners to the Canadian Football League would play at least one game in Buffalo in 1951.
When Lamar Hunt announced formation of the American Football League in the summer of 1959, mcGroders hopes never came to fruition, and in 1961, he took a position in the new Bills organization. Harry Wismer, who was to own the Titans of New York franchise, reached out to insurance salesman, Wilson, Jr. to see if he was interested in joining the upstart league. Wilson agreed to field a team in the new league, with the words Count me in, ill take a franchise anywhere you suggest. Hunt gave him the choice of six cities, Buffalo, Cincinnati, St. Louis, Atlanta, or Louisville, Kentucky. Wilsons first choice was Miami, but city officials there were wary of an upstart league after the failure of the Miami Seahawks over a decade prior, in WWII, Ralph Wilson served aboard a Minesweeper, the YMS-29, serving in the Mediterranean. Wilson was an Executive officer to the ships Captain, Buffalo native George E. Schaaf, Wilson remembered the Buffalo team in the old NFL and remembered his old ships Captain was from Buffalo.
Ralph Wilson reached out to the General Construction Contractor, George E. Schaaf who still resided there, Schaaf assured Wilson that pro-football interest was significant in Buffalo and assembled a coalition of key Buffalo figures who were able to interest Wilson in bringing the AFL franchise to Buffalo. Their efforts to lobby Wilson to come to Buffalo were successful, the Buffalo Bills were a charter member of the American Football League in 1960. After a public contest, the team adopted the name as the AAFC Buffalo Bills. The AAFC Bills franchise was named after the Buffalo Bills a popular barbershop quartet, the franchises are not officially related, other than in name, to each other. They drafted guard Billy Shaw in the same draft, on August 8,1961, the Bills became the first American Football League team to play a Canadian Football League team, the nearby Hamilton Tiger-Cats
Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci
The Dallas Cowboys are a professional American football team based in the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex. The Cowboys compete in the National Football League as a club of the leagues National Football Conference East division. The team is headquartered in Frisco and plays its games at AT&T Stadium in Arlington, Texas. The stadium took its current name prior to the 2013 season, the Cowboys joined the NFL as an expansion team in 1960. The teams national following might best be represented by its NFL record of consecutive sell-outs, the Cowboys streak of 190 consecutive sold-out regular and post-season games began in 2002. This has corresponded to eight NFC championships, most in the NFC, the Cowboys are the only NFL team to record 20 straight winning seasons, in which they only missed the playoffs twice, an NFL record that remains unchallenged. In 2015, the Dallas Cowboys became the first sports team to be valued at $4 billion, making it the most valuable team in the world. The Cowboys generated $620 million in revenue in 2014, a record for a U. S. sports team.
Prior to the formation of the Dallas Cowboys, there had not been an NFL team south of Washington, D. C. since the Dallas Texans folded in 1952. Oilman Clint Murchison Jr. had been trying to get an NFL expansion team in Dallas, Murchison had tried to purchase the Washington Redskins from Marshall in 1958. An agreement was struck, but as the deal was about to be finalized and this infuriated Murchison and he called off the deal. Marshall opposed any franchise for Murchison in Dallas, since NFL expansion needed unanimous approval from team owners at that time, Marshalls position would prevent Murchison from joining the league. Marshall had an out with the Redskins band leader Barnee Breeskin. Breeskin had written the music to the Redskins fight song Hail to the Redskins, Breeskin owned the rights to the song and was aware of Murchisons plight to get an NFL franchise. Angry with Marshall, Breeskin approached Murchisons attorney to him the rights to the song before the expansion vote in 1959. Murchison purchased Hail to the Redskins for $2,500, before the vote to award franchises in 1959, Murchison revealed to Marshall that he owned the song and Marshall could not play it during games.
After a few Marshall expletives, Murchison gave the rights to Hail to the Redskins to Marshall for his vote, the one against Murchison getting a franchise at that time. From 1970 through 1979, the Cowboys won 105 regular season games, in addition, they appeared in 5 and won two Super Bowls, at the end of the 1971 and 1977 regular seasons
A fumble in American and Canadian football occurs when a player who has possession and control of the ball loses it before being downed or scoring. By rule, it is any act other than passing, punting, a fumble may be forced by a defensive player who either grabs or punches the ball or butts the ball with his helmet. A fumbled ball may be recovered and advanced by either team and it is one of three events that can cause a turnover, where possession of the ball can change during play. Under American rules a fumble may be confused with a muff, a muff occurs where a player drops a ball that he does not have possession of, such as while attempting to catch a lateral pass or improperly fielding a kicking play such as a punt. Ball security is the ability of a player to control over the football during play. If the ball is fumbled the defensive team may recover the ball, the same is true for the offense, but usually when the offense recovers the ball it simply tries to down it. In American football the offense cannot advance the ball if it recovers its own fumble on fourth down, in American football, there is no separate signal to indicate a fumble recovery.
If the offense recovers its own fumble, the official will indicate the recovery by a signal showing the next down. If the defense recovers the fumble, the official will indicate with a first down signal in the direction the team is driving the ball. Some officials have used a first down signal when the offense recovers its own fumble. This is not the thing as when a forward pass is attempted and is not caught. In this latter case, it is simply an incomplete pass, however, if the receiver catches the ball, but drops it after gaining control of the ball, that is considered a fumble. Any number of fumbles can be committed during a play, including fumbles by the team originally on defense, Most famously, Dallas Cowboys defender Leon Lett fumbled during Super Bowl XXVII while celebrating during his own fumble return. A sometimes controversial rule is referred to as the ground cannot cause a fumble. If a player is tackled and loses control of the ball at or after the time he makes contact with the ground, the player is treated as down and the ball is not in play.
However, in the NFL and CFL, if a ball carrier falls without an opponent contacting him and this is because in those leagues the ball carrier is not down unless an opponent first makes contact, or the runner is out of bounds. If a player fumbles in most other leagues, as soon as the knee or elbow touches the ground and it is possible for the ground to cause a fumble in college football if the ball hits the ground before any part of the ball carriers body touches the ground. An example was the fumble by Arkansas quarterback Clint Stoerner vs. Tennessee in 1998, the effects of fumbles vary when the ball goes out of bounds without being recovered, A fumble going out-of-bounds between the end zones is retained by the last team with possession