Utrecht is a province of the Netherlands. With an area of approximately 1,400 square kilometres, it is the smallest of the twelve provinces, apart from its eponymous capital, major cities in the province are Amersfoort, Nieuwegein, Veenendaal, IJsselstein and Zeist. In the International Organization for Standardization world region code system Utrecht makes up one region with code ISO 3166-2, the Bishopric of Utrecht was established in 695 when Saint Willibrord was consecrated bishop of the Frisians at Rome by Pope Sergius I. With the consent of the Frankish ruler, Pippin of Herstal, after Willibrords death the diocese suffered greatly from the incursions of the Vikings. Better times appeared during the reign of the Saxon emperors, who summoned the Bishops of Utrecht to attend the imperial councils. In 1024 the bishops were made Princes of the Holy Roman Empire, in 1122, with the Concordat of Worms, the Emperors right of investiture was annulled, and the cathedral chapter received the right to elect the bishop.
It was, soon obligated to share this right with the four other chapters in the city. The Counts of Holland and Guelders, between whose territories the lands of the Bishops of Utrecht lay, sought to acquire influence over the filling of the episcopal see and this often led to disputes and consequently the Holy See frequently interfered in the election. After the middle of the 14th century the popes repeatedly appointed the bishop directly without regard to the five chapters, during the Hook and Cod Wars, Utrecht was fought over by forces of the Duke of Burgundy leading to the First Utrecht Civil War and Second Utrecht Civil War. The chapters transferred their right of electing the bishop to Charles V and his government, the Habsburg rule did not last long, as Utrecht joined in the Dutch Revolt against Charles successor Philip II in 1579, becoming a part of the Dutch Republic. In World War II, Utrecht was held by German forces until the capitulation of the Germans in the Netherlands on May 5,1945.
It was occupied by Canadian Allied forces on May 7,1945, the towns of Oudewater and Vianen were transferred from the province of South Holland to Utrecht in 1970,1989 and 2002 respectively. In February 2011, together with the provinces of North Holland and Flevoland and this has been positively received by the Dutch cabinet, for the desire to create one Randstad province has already been mentioned in the coalition agreement. The province of South Holland, part of the Randstad urban area, visioned to be part of the Randstad province, with or without South Holland, if created, the new province would be the largest in the Netherlands in both area and population. In the east of Utrecht lies the Utrecht Hill Ridge, a chain of left as lateral moraine by tongues of glacial ice after the Saline glaciation that preceded the last ice age. Because of the scarcity of nutrients in the sandy soil. The south of the province is a river landscape, the west consists mostly of meadows. In the north are big lakes formed by the digging of peat bogs formed after the last ice age
Westbroek is a village in the Dutch province of Utrecht. It is a part of the municipality of De Bilt, in 2001, the village of Westbroek had 510 inhabitants. The built-up area of the village was 0.12 km², the statistical area Westbroek, which includes the peripheral parts of the village, as well as the surrounding countryside and the village of Achttienhoven, has a population of around 1300. Westbroek consists mainly of a ribbon of farms along a dike, the village is surrounded by a number of polders, the Polder Westbroek, the Kerkeindse Polder, and the Polder Achttienhoven in the north, and the Molenpolder and Polder de Kooi in the south. The Molenpolder is a nature reserve, Westbroek used to be a separate municipality. It merged into Maartensdijk in 1957, and has been a part of the De Bilt municipality since 2001, J. Kuyper, Gemeente Atlas van Nederland, 1865-1870, Westbroek. Map of the municipality in 1868
War Resisters' International
War Resisters International is an international anti-war organization with members and affiliates in over thirty countries. Its headquarters are in London, UK, War Resisters International was founded in Bilthoven, Netherlands in 1921 under the name Paco, which means peace in Esperanto. WRI adopted a declaration that has remained unchanged, It adopted the broken rifle as its symbol in 1931. Two years later, in 1923, Tracy Dickinson Mygatt, Frances M. Witherspoon, Jessie Wallace Hughan, notable members include Dutch anarchist Bart de Ligt, Quaker Richard Gregg and Tolstoyan Valentin Bulgakov. The group had a close working relationships with sections of the Gandhian movement, in January 1948, Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi attended a preparatory meeting for the World Pacifist Meeting he called, at the behest of WRI, and which eventually took place in December 1949. It took the form of 50 international pacifists meeting with 25 of Gandhis close associates in a conference in Santiniketan. In the 1930s and 1940s, WRI helped to rescue people from persecution under Francisco Franco and under the Nazis, during the Cold War, WRI consistently sought out war resisters in the Soviet bloc, first individuals, and groups.
After the 1968 invasion of Czechoslovakia, WRI organised protest demonstrations in four Warsaw Pact capitals. In 1988, a WRI advert was cited as one of the reasons for the seizure of an edition of the Weekly Mail in South Africa, in 1971, when Pakistani troops were blockading what was East Pakistan, WRI launched Operation Omega to Bangladesh. War Resisters International is a network of member groups, an international conference takes place at least once every four years. The chair is elected by vote in advance of the international conference. Prasad, War is a Crime against Humanity, The story of War Resisters International, radical Pacifism, The War Resisters League and Gandhian Nonviolence in America, 1915-1963. Syracuse, NY, Syracuse University Press,2003,60 years of the War Resisters International - with special reference to the period 1921 -1939. Berlin,1985, published by Schriftenreihe des Libertären Forums Berlin, roger S. Powers, et al. eds. Protest and Change, An Encyclopedia of Nonviolent Action
International Fellowship of Reconciliation
The International Fellowship of Reconciliation is a non-governmental organization founded in 1914 in response to the horrors of war in Europe. Today IFOR counts 72 branches and affiliates in 48 countries on all continents, IFOR members promote nonviolence, human rights and reconciliation through public education efforts, training programs and campaigns. IFOR has ECOSOC status at the United Nations, on the platform of the railway station at Cologne, they pledged to each other that, We are one in Christ and can never be at war. To take that pledge forward, Hodgkin organised a conference in Cambridge in 1915, the German branch, Versöhnungsbund, was founded later. It held its first conference in 1932, but in 1933, Schultze was arrested twenty-seven times during World War I and was forced to live in exile during the Nazi period. FOR Germany was officially reestablished just in 1956 with Dr Siegmund Schultze as President, more than a thousand members enrolled in the American Fellowship before and during the war, for the U. S. A.
begun on April 6,1917. 600 people in England went to prison for helping more than 16.000 imprisoned during the war, when conscription began in Britain in 1916 and in the United States many FOR members refused military service. IFOR first secretary was the Swiss pacifist Pierre Cérésole jailed several times for his peace witness and he established the Service Civil, initially organizing work camps in areas torn apart by war, with volunteers from former enemy countries. Relief for the victims of war was carried out, and international conferences, immediately after Bilthoven IFOR apponted travelling secretaries such as John Nevin Sayre, André Trocmé, Muriel Lester, Henri Rose and Percy Bartlett. The first one gathered 200 delegates from 20 nations in Sonntagberg in Austria, in 1932, the IFOR led a Youth Crusade across Europe in support of the Geneva World Disarmament Conference. Protestants and Catholics from all over converged on Geneva by various routes, reaching over 50,000 people and presenting to the Conference a petition calling for total disarmament among the nations.
At the end of the 1930s, given the international situation, IFOR established Embassies of Reconciliation that initiated peace efforts not only in Europe but in Japan. Ambassadors of Reconciliation, such as George Lansbury, Muriel Lester and Anne Seesholtz, visited many world leaders, including Adolf Hitler, Benito Mussolini, Leon Blum and Franklin D Roosevelt. Muriel Lester, English social worker, served as IFOR travelling secretary throughout the world, when World War II broke out and communications became almost impossible. In many countries IFOR members suffered persecution for publicly preaching pacifism, iFORs members, especially in America tried by inter-church mediation to find ways of ending the war, to help coscientious objectors, and struggled against internment of Japanese Americans. In France, IFOR members André and Magda Trocmé, with the help of the villagers of le Chambon sur Lignon, in Belgium, feminist Magda Yoors Peeters defends Jewish refugees and conscientious objectors.
After the war, travelling secretaries continued their work, new Zealand pacifist Ormond Burton represented the IFOR in that nation. From such labors arose Servicio Paz y Justicia throughout Latin America, sERPAJs founder Adolfo Perez Esquivel from Argentina was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1980
Baarn is a municipality and a town in the Netherlands, in the province of Utrecht. The municipality of Baarn consists of the towns, Baarn. Baarn, the town of the municipality, received city rights in 1391. The town lies about 8 km east of Hilversum, in 2001, the town of Baarn had a population of 22,871. The urban area of the town was 4.66 km2, the royal family owns several houses around Baarn. The Soestdijk Palace in Baarn was the home of Queen Emma, Queen Juliana, a piece of forest, the Baarnse Bos, is adjacent to the palace and historically belonged to it. Baarns shopping facilities are located in the Laanstraat. Other visitor destinations include het Cantonspark and Kasteel Groeneveld, in the north and east there are polders, and the river Eem. Recreation resources include the woodlands south-west of Baarn, connecting Baarn to Soestdijk, the Scout Centre Buitenzorg is located in Baarn. To the south lay the road towards the city of Amersfoort. 10 km long straight of polder road, connects the town of Baarn to various roads in Soest, due to good communications to Amsterdam, the town is home to a number of boutique international firms such as SEI Investments Company, Bain & Co and Cerberus Capital Management.
Unilevers Conimex and software company Seyoda Games are located in Baarn, Baarn has a railway station - Baarn railway station, with trains going every half-hour to Utrecht and Amsterdam. The A1 motorway runs just north of Baarn, media related to Baarn at Wikimedia Commons Official website
Amersfoort is a municipality and the second largest city of the province of Utrecht in central Netherlands. The city is growing quickly but has a well-preserved and protected medieval centre, Amersfoort is one of the largest railway junctions in the country, because of its location on two of the Netherlands main east-west and north-south rail lines. It celebrated its 750th birthday as a city in 2009, hunter gatherers set up camps in the Amersfoort region in the Mesolithic period. Archaeologists have found traces of these camps, such as the remains of hearths, the city grew around what is now known as the central square, the Hof, where the Bishops of Utrecht established a court in order to control the Gelderse Vallei area. It was granted city rights in 1259 by the bishop of Utrecht, a first defensive wall, made out of brick, was finished around 1300. Soon after, the need for enlargement of the city became apparent and around 1380 the construction of a new wall was begun, the famous Koppelpoort, a combined land and water gate, is part of this second wall.
The first wall was demolished and houses were built in its place, todays Muurhuizen Street is at the exact location of the first wall, the fronts of the houses are built on top of the first city walls foundations. The Onze-Lieve-Vrouwentoren tower is one of the tallest medieval church towers in the Netherlands at 98 metres, the construction of the tower and the church was started in 1444. It is now the point of the RD coordinate system, the coordinate grid used by the Dutch topographical service. The inner city of Amersfoort has been preserved well since the Middle Ages, in the Middle Ages, Amersfoort was an important centre for the textile industry, and there were a large number of breweries. In the 18th century the city flourished because of the cultivation of tobacco, after the 1920s growth stalled again, until in 1970 the national government designated Amersfoort, numbering some 70,000 inhabitants, as a growth city. In 2009 the population was 140,000 plus, with an expected 150,000 by 2012, after four days of battle, the population was allowed to return.
There was a functioning Jewish community in the town, at the beginning of the war numbering about 700 people, half of them were deported and killed, mainly in Auschwitz and Sobibor. In 1943, the synagogue, dating from 1727, was damaged on the orders of the Nazi-controlled city government. It was restored and opened again after the war, and has served since by a succession of rabbis. There was a camp near the city of Amersfoort during the war. The camp, officially called Polizeiliches Durchgangslager Amersfoort, better known as Kamp Amersfoort, was located in the neighbouring municipality of Leusden. After the war the leader of the camp, Joseph Kotälla and he died in captivity in 1979
A train station, railway station, railroad station, or depot is a railway facility where trains regularly stop to load or unload passengers or freight. It generally consists of at least one platform and a station building providing such ancillary services as ticket sales. If a station is on a line, it often has a passing loop to facilitate traffic movements. The smallest stations are most often referred to as stops or, in parts of the world. Stations may be at level, underground, or elevated. Connections may be available to intersecting rail lines or other modes such as buses. In British usage, the station is commonly understood to mean a railway station unless otherwise qualified. In the United States, the most common term in contemporary usage is train station, Railway station and railroad station are less frequent. Outside North America, a depot is place where buses, trains, or other vehicles are housed and maintained and from which they are dispatched for service. The two-storey Mount Clare station in Baltimore, which survives as a museum, first saw service as the terminus of the horse-drawn Baltimore.
The oldest terminal station in the world was Crown Street railway station in Liverpool, built in 1830, as the first train on the Liverpool-Manchester line left Liverpool, the station is slightly older than the Manchester terminal at Liverpool Road. The station was the first to incorporate a train shed, the station was demolished in 1836 as the Liverpool terminal station moved to Lime Street railway station. Crown Street station was converted to a goods station terminal, the first stations had little in the way of buildings or amenities. The first stations in the modern sense were on the Liverpool and Manchester Railway, manchesters Liverpool Road Station, the second oldest terminal station in the world, is preserved as part of the Museum of Science and Industry in Manchester. It resembles a row of Georgian houses, dual-purpose stations can sometimes still be found today, though in many cases goods facilities are restricted to major stations. In rural and remote communities across Canada and the United States, such stations were known as flag stops or flag stations.
Many stations date from the 19th century and reflect the architecture of the time. Countries where railways arrived may still have such architecture, as stations often imitated 19th-century styles, various forms of architecture have been used in the construction of stations, from those boasting grand, Baroque- or Gothic-style edifices, to plainer utilitarian or modernist styles
Service Civil International
Service Civil International is an international non-governmental voluntary service organisation and peace movement with 43 branches and groups worldwide. The organisation was founded in 1920 by Swiss engineer Pierre Cérésole and it is known as International Voluntary Service in a number of English-speaking countries and as Voluntary Service International in Ireland. SCI believes that all people are capable of living together with mutual respect, SCI was born out of a passionate search for peace, immediately after World War I. Among the small group of volunteers were three German volunteers. They built temporary homes for the villagers and cleared the farm land, in 1924, Cérésole organised a second international workcamp in Les Ormonts, which helped to clear rubble after an avalanche. This service was promoted as a service for conscientious objectors. In the following years more relief services were organized, the largest has been in 1928 in Liechtenstein with more than 700 volunteers from 28 countries, which cleared the Rhine valley plain after a heavy flood in 1927.
In the first decade of SCI, workcamps were used relief services for regions affected by natural disasters and unemployed men build a swimming pool and layout a public park. Developmental aid, in 1931, Cérésole got acquainted with Gandhi, in 1934, he travelled to India in order to organize workcamps for a region affected by the 1934 Nepal–Bihar earthquake. This project was repeated in 1935 and 1936, further development aid projects followed after World War II. Humanitarian help, in 1937, SCI was mandated by a group of aid organizations to give humanitarian help for children during the Spanish Civil war. Evacuation services and food and clothing distribution were carried out in the part of the Spanish Republic, twenty years later, humanitarian help was given to war orphans in Tunisia during the Algerian War. Besides those two projects, humanitarian help never got any further importance in SCI, since 1920, SCI organised workcamps and activities with no formal structure in France, Great Britain and other countries.
As the idea workcamps expanded to other countries after World War II an international association of SCI branches with a secretariat in Paris was founded. The volunteer exchange and workcamp organisation were improved, the number of workcamps and volunteers increased tremendously,1947,46 workcamps in 9 countries 1968,298 workcamps in 24 countries. In the 60s regional coordination structures for Africa and Europa were set up, in 1950, SCI was invited by the recent independent India in order to carry out construction of houses for refugees in Faridabad and. A small group of volunteer was able to recruit many local volunteers. The conflict between India and Pakistan inspired them to organise workcamps in Pakistan since 1951, as consequence, several local branches and groups of SCI were founded in Asia
Groenekan is a village in the Dutch province of Utrecht. It is a part of the municipality of De Bilt, in 2001, the village of Groenekan had 829 inhabitants. The built-up area of the town was 0.28 km², the statistical area Groenekan, which can include the peripheral parts of the village, as well as the surrounding countryside, has a population of around 1879
Hollandsche Rading is a town in the Dutch province of Utrecht. It is a part of the municipality of De Bilt, Hollandsche Rading has a railway station on the route between Utrecht and Hilversum. In 2001, the town of Hollandsche Rading had 785 inhabitants, the built-up area of the town was 0.24 km², and contained 307 residences. Including both the village itself and the area, the neighbourhood Hollandsche Rading has about 1690 inhabitants. The name means Border of Holland, the village is located on the border between the provinces Utrecht and North Holland