Presidency University, Kolkata
Presidency University, Kolkata known as Hindu College and Presidency College, is a public state university located in College Street, Kolkata. It is considered to be one of the best liberal arts and science institutions in India; the institution was elevated to University status in 2010, before which it was functioning as a top constituent college under the University of Calcutta for a period of around 193 years. The University had its bicentenary celebrations in 2017. In its first cycle as a university, Presidency received the highest possible A rating by the NAAC. Presidency has been recognized as an "Institute of National Eminence" by the UGC, it appeared in the inaugural top 50 of NIRF rankings in 2016. However, NIRF rankings in 2017 and 2018 excluded Universities like Presidency University which taught only science and humanities but not engineering, agriculture etc. With the creation of the Supreme Court of Calcutta in 1773 many Hindus of Bengal showed eagerness to learn the English language.
David Hare, in collaboration with Raja Radhakanta Deb had taken steps to introduce English education in Bengal. Babu Buddinath Mukherjee advanced the introduction of English as a medium of instruction further by enlisting the support of Sir Edward Hyde East, Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Fort William who called a meeting of'European and Hindu Gentlemen' in his house in May 1816; the purpose of the meeting was to "discuss the proposal to establish an institution for giving a liberal education to the children of the members of the Hindu Community". The proposal was received with a donation of over Rs. 100, 000 was promised for the setting up of the new college. Raja Ram Mohan Roy showed full sympathy for the scheme but chose not to come out in support of the proposal publicly for fear of "alarming the prejudices of his orthodox countrymen and thus marring the whole idea"; the College was formally opened on Monday, 20 January 1817 with 20'scholars'. The foundation committee of the college, which oversaw its establishment, was headed by Raja Rammohan Roy.
The control of the institution was vested in a body of four Directors. The first Governors of the college were Maharaja Tejchandra Bahadur of Burdwan and Gopee Mohan Thakoor; the first Directors were Gopi Mohun Deb of Sobhabazar, Joykissen Sinha, Radha Madhab Banerjee and Gunganarain Doss. Buddinath Mukherjee was appointed as the first Secretary of the college; the newly established college admitted Hindu students from affluent and progressive families, but admitted non-Hindu students such as Muslims, Jews and Buddhists. At first the classes were held in a house belonging to Gorachand Bysack of Garanhatta, rented by the college. In January 1818 the college moved to'Feringhi Kamal Bose's house', located nearby in Chitpore. From Chitpore, the college moved to Bowbazar and to the building that now houses the Sanskrit College on College Street. In 1972, an unsigned article was released by the faculty members of the college demanding that the college be given full university status, it is an open secret that the author of the article was Dipak Banerjee, the legendary economics professor of the college.
The state government under the chief ministership of Siddhartha Shankar Ray, showed the willingness to listen to the demands of the faculty members, but it was still too early to grant full autonomy to the college. In 2007, the state government, under the chief ministership of Buddhadeb Bhattacharya and Higher Education ministership of Sudarshan Raychaudhuri, appointed a seven-member committee, under the leadership of Chittotosh Mookerjee; the other members of the committee included Ashes Prasad Mitra, Barun De, Bimal Jalan and Subimal Sen, to look into the possibility of upgrading the status of the college. The report of the committee suggested that the state government, while granting the college partial autonomy, should create more prfessorships and scholarships for meritorious students, thus making it possible for the grant of full autonomy to the college in future. In 2009, the Governing Body of the college unanimously adopted the proposal that the college should be given full university status.
On 16 December 2009, the Government of West Bengal tabled a bill in Bidhansabha titled the Presidency University Act, 2009, in which the West Bengal Legislative Assembly granted full university status to the college. The bill stated that once the college becomes a full state-aided university it will be renamed Presidency University; the new logo of the Presidency University has been created by Sabyasachi Dutta as reported in a letter to the Editor of Anandabazar Patrika on 1 April 2013. On 19 March 2010, the West Bengal Government passed the Presidency University Bill, 2009 in the State Legislative Assembly. On 7 July 2010, the governor of West Bengal, M K Narayanan gave his assent to the Presidency University Bill. On 23 July 2010, the Government of West Bengal published the gazette notification completing all the legal formalities for Presidency to become a full university. Amiya Bagchi was given the responsibility of chairing a committee set up to select and appoint the first vice chancellor of the university.
Amita Chatterjee, a retired professor of philosophy at Jadavpur University, was appointed as the first vice-chancellor of Presidency University on 5 October 2010. In 2011, Higher Education Minister Bratya Basu suggested that a mentor group, along the lines of the Nalanda mentor group, would be formed to oversee the work of the university. At the beginning of June 2011, the chief minister of West Bengal, Mamata Banerjee, announced that a committee would be formed with Amartya Sen as its chief mentor and Harvard-based Sugata Bose as its chairman to oversee the runnin
Chief Economic Adviser to the Government of India
The Chief Economic Adviser is a post in Government of India and is equivalent to rank of Secretary to the Government of India. The CEA is the ex-officio cadre controlling authority of the Indian Economic Service; the office of Economic Adviser is attached to the Minister of Industry. Http://www.eaindustry.nic.in/ Media related to Chief Economic Adviser to the Government of India at Wikimedia Commons
Reserve Bank of India
The Reserve Bank of India is India's central banking institution, which controls the issuance and supply of the Indian rupee. Until the Monetary Policy Committee was established in 2016, it controlled monetary policy in India, it commenced its operations on 1 April 1935 in accordance with the Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934. The original share capital was divided into shares of 100 each paid, which were owned by private shareholders. Following India's independence on 15 August 1947, the RBI was nationalised on 1 January 1949; the RBI plays an important part in the Development Strategy of the Government of India. It is a member bank of the Asian Clearing Union; the general superintendence and direction of the RBI is entrusted with the 21-member central board of directors: the governor. Each of these local boards consists of five members who represent regional interests, the interests of co-operative and indigenous banks; the central bank was an independent apex monetary authority which regulates banks and provides important financial services like storing of foreign exchange reserves, control of inflation, monetary policy report till August 2016.
A central bank is known by different names in different countries. The functions of a central bank vary from country to country and are autonomous or quasi-autonomous body and perform or through another agency vital monetary functions in the country. A central bank is a vital financial apex institution of an economy and the key objects of central banks may differ from country to country still they perform activities and functions with the goal of maintaining economic stability and growth of an economy; the bank is active in promoting financial inclusion policy and is a leading member of the Alliance for Financial Inclusion. The bank is referred to by the name Mint Street. RBI is known as banker's bank; the preamble of the Reserve Bank of India describes the basic functions of the reserve bank as: "to regulate the issue of Bank notes and keeping of reserves with a view to securing monetary stability in India and to operate the currency and credit system of the country to its advantage. The Reserve Bank of India was established following the Reserve Bank of India Act of 1934.
Though owned it was nationalised in 1949 and since fully owned by Government of India. The Reserve Bank of India was founded on 1 April 1935 to respond to economic troubles after the First World War; the Reserve Bank of India was conceptualized based on the guidelines presented by the Central Legislative Assembly which passed these guidelines as the RBI Act 1934. RBI was conceptualized as per the guidelines, working style and outlook presented by Dr. B. R. Ambedkar in his book titled “The Problem of the Rupee – Its origin and its solution” and presented to the Hilton Young Commission; the bank was set up based on the recommendations of the 1926 Royal Commission on Indian Currency and Finance known as the Hilton–Young Commission. The original choice for the seal of RBI was The East India Company Double Mohur, with the sketch of the Lion and Palm Tree. However, it was decided to replace the lion with the national animal of India; the Preamble of the RBI describes its basic functions to regulate the issue of bank notes, keep reserves to secure monetary stability in India, to operate the currency and credit system in the best interests of the country.
The Central Office of the RBI was established in Calcutta but was moved to Bombay in 1937. The RBI acted as Burma's central bank until April 1947 though Burma seceded from the Indian Union in 1937. After the Partition of India in August 1947, the bank served as the central bank for Pakistan until June 1948 when the State Bank of Pakistan commenced operations. Though set up as a shareholders’ bank, the RBI has been owned by the Government of India since its nationalization in 1949. RBI has monopoly of note issue. In the 1950s, the Indian government, under its first Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru, developed a centrally planned economic policy that focused on the agricultural sector; the administration nationalized commercial banks and established, based on the Banking Companies Act, 1949, a central bank regulation as part of the RBI. Furthermore, the central bank was ordered to support economic plan with loans; as a result of bank crashes, the RBI was requested to establish and monitor a deposit insurance system.
Meant to restore the trust in the national bank system, it was initialized on 7 December 1961. The Indian government founded funds to promote the economy, used the slogan "Developing Banking"; the government of India nationalized a lot of institutes. As a result, the RBI had to play the central part in controlling and supporting this public banking sector. In 1969, the Indira Gandhi-headed government nationalized 14 major commercial banks. Upon Indira Gandhi's return to power in 1980, a further six banks were nationalized; the regulation of the economy and the financial sector was reinforced by the Government of India in the 1970s and 1980s. The central bank became the central p
Rajasthan is a state in northern India. The state covers an area of 342,239 square kilometres or 10.4 percent of the total geographical area of India. It is the seventh largest by population. Rajasthan is located on the northwestern side of India, where it comprises most of the wide and inhospitable Thar Desert and shares a border with the Pakistani provinces of Punjab to the northwest and Sindh to the west, along the Sutlej-Indus river valley. Elsewhere it is bordered by five other Indian states: Punjab to the north. Major features include the ruins of the Indus Valley Civilisation at Balathal. Rajasthan is home to three national tiger reserves, the Ranthambore National Park in Sawai Madhopur, Sariska Tiger Reserve in Alwar and Mukundra Hill Tiger Reserve in Kota; the state was formed on 30 March 1949 when Rajputana – the name adopted by the British Raj for its dependencies in the region – was merged into the Dominion of India. Its capital and largest city is Jaipur. Other important cities are Jodhpur, Bikaner and Udaipur.
Rajasthan means "Land of Kings" or "King's Abode". The oldest reference to Rajasthan is found in a stone inscription dated back to 625 A. D; the print mention of the name "Rajasthan" appears in the 1829 publication Annals and Antiquities of Rajast'han or the Central and Western Rajpoot States of India, while the earliest known record of "Rajputana" as a name for the region is in George Thomas's 1800 memoir Military Memories. John Keay, in his book India: A History, stated that "Rajputana" was coined by the British in 1829, John Briggs, translating Ferishta's history of early Islamic India, used the phrase "Rajpoot princes" rather than "Indian princes". Parts of what is now Rajasthan were part of the Vedic Civilisation and Indus Valley Civilization. Kalibangan, in Hanumangarh district, was a major provincial capital of the Indus Valley Civilization.. Another archeological excavation at Balathal site in Udaipur district shows a settlement contemporary with the Harrapan civilization dating back to 3000 - 1500 BC. Stone Age tools dating from 5,000 to 200,000 years were found in Bundi and Bhilwara districts of the state.
Matsya Kingdom of the Vedic civilisation of India, is said to corresponded to the former state of Jaipur in Rajasthan and included the whole of Alwar with portions of Bharatpur. The capital of Matsya was at Viratanagar, said to have been named after its founder king Virata. Bhargava identifies the two districts of Jhunjhunu and Sikar and parts of Jaipur district along with Haryana districts of Mahendragarh and Rewari as part of Vedic state of Brahmavarta. Bhargava locates the present day Sahibi River as the Vedic Drishadwati River, which along with Saraswati River formed the borders of the Vedic state of Brahmavarta. Manu and Bhrigu narrated the Manusmriti to a congregation of seers in this area only. Ashrams of Vedic seers Bhrigu and his son Chayvan Rishi, for whom Chyawanprash was formulated, were near Dhosi Hill part of which lies in Dhosi village of Jhunjhunu district of Rajasthan and part lies in Mahendragarh district of Haryana; the Western Kshatrapas, the Saka rulers of the western part of India, were successors to the Indo-Scythians, were contemporaneous with the Kushans, who ruled the northern part of the Indian subcontinent.
The Indo-Scythians invaded the area of Ujjain and established the Saka era, marking the beginning of the long-lived Saka Western Satraps state. Gurjars ruled for many dynasties in this part of the country, the region was known as Gurjaratra. Up to the 10th century AD all of North India acknowledged the supremacy of the Gurjars, with their seat of power at Kannauj; the Gurjar Pratihar Empire acted as a barrier for Arab invaders from the 8th to the 11th century. The chief accomplishment of the Gurjara-Pratihara Empire lies in its successful resistance to foreign invasions from the west, starting in the days of Junaid. Historian R. C. Majumdar says that this was acknowledged by the Arab writers, he further notes that historians of India have wondered at the slow progress of Muslim invaders in India, as compared with their rapid advance in other parts of the world. Now there seems little doubt that it was the power of the Gurjara Pratihara army that barred the progress of the Arabs beyond the confines of Sindh, their only conquest for nearly 300 years.
Traditionally the Rajputs, Jats, Bhils, Charans, Bishnois, Sermals, PhulMali and other tribes made a great contribution in building the state of Rajasthan. All these tribes suffered great difficulties in protecting the land. Millions of them were killed trying to protect their land. Bhils once ruled Kota. Meenas were rulers of Bundi and the Dhundhar region. Hem Chandra Vikramaditya, the Hindu Emperor, was born in the village of Machheri in Alwar District in 1501, he won 22 battles against Afghans, from Punjab to Bengal including states of Ajmer and Alwar in Rajasthan, defeated Akbar's forces twice at Agra and Delhi in 1556 at Battle of Delhi before acceding to the throne of Delhi and establishing the "Hindu Raj" in North India, albeit for
C. D. Deshmukh
Sir Chintaman Dwarakanath Deshmukh, CIE, ICS was an Indian civil servant and the first Indian to be appointed as the Governor of the Reserve Bank of India in 1943 by the British Raj authorities. He subsequently served as the Finance Minister in the Union Cabinet, it was during this time that he became a founding member of the Governing Body of NCAER, the National Council of Applied Economic Research in New Delhi, India's first independent economic policy institute established in 1956 at the behest of Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru. After resignation from Union Cabinet he worked as Chairman of UGC, he served as Vice-Chancellor of University of Delhi. He was President of Indian Statistical Institute from 1945 to 1964, Honorary Chairman of National Book Trust, he served as Lifetime President of it. He was chairman of Indian Institute of Public Administration. Chintaman Deshmukh was born in a Marathi-speaking Chandraseniya Kayastha Prabhu family to Dwarakanath Ganesh Deshmukh, a lawyer and Bhagirathibai on 14 January 1896 in Nategaon, near Fort Raigad, Maharashtra.
He was schooled at the Elphinstone High School, Bombay. In 1912, Deshmukh passed the Matriculation Examination of the University of Bombay with record marks and secured the first Jagannath Shankarseth Scholarship in Sanskrit. In 1915 he went to England and graduated with a degree in Natural Sciences Tripos from Jesus College, Cambridge in 1917, he was awarded the Frank Smart Prize in Botany and was president of the Majlis Society. In 1918 he sat for, topped, the Indian Civil Service Examination held only in London. Deshmukh returned to India in 1920 and worked in the Central Provinces and Berar where he went on to hold several posts including as undersecretary to the government, Deputy Commissioner and Settlement Officer and as secretary to the Secretary-General at the Second Round Table Conference of 1931 becoming secretary to the finance and public works department, he served as Joint Secretary to Government of India in the departments of education and health and was Custodian of Enemy Property.
Deshmukh joined the Reserve Bank of India in 1939 and served successively as its Secretary to the Board, Deputy Governor and the Governor. He was appointed Governor of the Reserve Bank of India in August 1943 and is one of the eight Deputy Governors of the Bank who have gone on to become its Governor; as Governor, Deshmukh helped establish the Industrial Finance Corporation and focused on the promotion of rural credit. Deshmukh's tenure saw the RBI begin a Research and Statistics department, the demonetisation of bank notes of ₹ 500 and above, the ceasing of the RBI's role as the central banks of Burma and State Bank of Pakistan and the enactment of the Banking Companies Act, 1949 that laid down the framework for regulation of India's banking sector; the RBI was nationalised on 1 January 1949 through the RBI Act, 1948. Deshmukh opposed this proposal for nationalisation but agreed to continue as the chairman of the board of directors presiding over the transition of the bank from a private to a nationalised institution.
In July 1949 Benegal Rama Rau succeeded Deshmukh as the Governor of the RBI. Deshmukh was a member of a five-member delegation representing India at the Bretton Woods Conference that established the International Monetary Fund and International Bank for Reconstruction and Development. On the issue of quotas, Deshmukh suggested that India walk out of the conference since the original hierarchy would have excluded India from being automatically represented through an executive director at the IMF; the delegation succeeded in bringing the issues of poverty and development into the agenda of the IBRD. It is said that John Maynard Keynes was so impressed by the “dignity and reasonableness” of Deshmukh that he recommended Deshmukh head the IMF as its first managing director a suggestion, however rejected by the United States, he was a member of the Board of Governors of both of these institutions from 1946-1956. In 1950, he was elected Chairman of the Joint Annual Meeting of the Boards of Governors of these institutions at its Paris Conference.
Following Partition, the division of income tax revenue and jute export duty between the Union and the states of India had to be decided based on the changed geographical realities. The Government of India appointed Deshmukh to resolve this matter pending the establishment of a Finance Commission; the Deshmukh Award, effected in 1950, factored in population in deciding the division of revenue and recommended grants in aid for various states and remained in force until April 1952. Deshmukh was one of 5 members of the Planning Commission when it was constituted in 1950 by a cabinet resolution. Deshmukh succeeded John Mathai as the Union Finance Minister in 1950 after Mathai resigned in protest over the transfer of certain powers to the Planning Commission; as Finance Minister, Deshmukh continued to remain a member of the Planning Commission. His successors as Finance Minister were made members of the Commission thus establishing a convention of the Finance Minister being an ex officio member of the Commission.
Deshmukh's term as Finance Minister covered the period of the First Five Year Plan. He employed deficit financing as a key tool in bringing about planned investment but inflation and revenue deficits became major challenges during this period. Deshmukh was chairman of a panel of economists that recommended the proposed Second Five Year Plan with its capital intensive model of development. Deshmukh envisioned a significant role for the village and cottage industries in curbing unemployment and inflation caused by deficit financing an
The Indian rupee is the official currency of India. The rupee is subdivided into 100 paise, though as of 2018, coins of denomination of 50 paise or half rupee is the lowest value in use; the issuance of the currency is controlled by the Reserve Bank of India. The Reserve Bank manages currency in India and derives its role in currency management on the basis of the Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934. In 2012, a new rupee symbol'₹', was adopted, it was designed by D. Udaya Kumar, it was derived from the combination of the Devanagari consonant "र" and the Latin capital letter "R" without its vertical bar. The parallel lines at the top are said to make an allusion to the tricolour Indian flag, depict an equality sign that symbolises the nation's desire to reduce economic disparity; the first series of coins with the new rupee symbol started in circulation on 8 July 2011. Before this India used to use Rs for Re to depict one rupee. On 8 November 2016 the Government of India announced the demonetisation of ₹500 and ₹1000 banknotes with effect from midnight of the same day, making these notes invalid.
A newly redesigned series of ₹500 banknote, in addition to a new denomination of ₹2000 banknote is in circulation since 10 November 2016. ₹1000 has been suspended. On 25 August 2017, a new denomination of ₹200 banknote was added to Indian currency to fill the gap of notes due to high demand for this note after demonetisation. In July 2018, the Reserve Bank of India released the ₹100 banknote; the word "rupee" was derived from Hindustani rupaya. Panini characterised rūpya as a stamped rūpa. Arthashastra, written by Chanakya, prime minister to the first Maurya emperor Chandragupta Maurya, mentions silver coins as rūpyarūpa. Other types of coins including gold coins, copper coins and lead coins are mentioned; the history of the Indian rupee traces back to Ancient India in circa 6th century BCE, ancient India was one of the earliest issuers of coins in the world, along with the Chinese wen and Lydian staters. Arthashastra, written by Chanakya, prime minister to the first Maurya emperor Chandragupta Maurya, mentions silver coins as rūpyarūpa, other types including gold coins, copper coins and lead coins are mentioned.
Rūpa means example, rūpyarūpa, rūpya -- wrought silver, rūpa -- form. During his five-year rule from 1540 to 1545, Sultan Sher Shah Suri issued a coin of silver, weighing 178 grains, termed the Rupiya. During Babar's time, the brass to silver exchange ratio was 50:2; the silver coin remained in use during Maratha era as well as in British India. Among the earliest issues of paper rupees include; the rupee was a silver coin. This had severe consequences in the nineteenth century when the strongest economies in the world were on the gold standard; the discovery of large quantities of silver in the United States and several European colonies resulted in a decline in the value of silver relative to gold, devaluing India's standard currency. This event was known as "the fall of the rupee." India was unaffected by the imperial order-in-council of 1825, which attempted to introduce British sterling coinage to the British colonies. British India, at that time, was controlled by the British East India Company.
The silver rupee continued as the currency of India through the British Raj and beyond. In 1835, British India adopted a mono-metallic silver standard based on the rupee. Following the First war of Independence in 1857, the British government took direct control of British India. Since 1851, gold sovereigns were produced en masse at the Royal Mint in New South Wales. In an 1864 attempt to make the British gold sovereign the "imperial coin", the treasuries in Bombay and Calcutta were instructed to receive gold sovereigns; as the British government gave up hope of replacing the rupee in India with the pound sterling, it realised for the same reason it could not replace the silver dollar in the Straits Settlements with the Indian rupee. Since the silver crisis of 1873, a number of nations adopted the gold standard. Around 1875, Britain started paying India for exported goods in India Council Bills. "If, the India Council in London should not step in to sell bills on India, the merchants and bankers would have to send silver to make good the balances.
Thus a channel for the outflow of silver was stopped, in 1875, by the India Council in London.""The great importance of these Bills, however, is the effect they have on the Market Price of Silver: and they have in fact been one of the most potent factors in recent years in causing the diminution in the Value of Silver'as compared to Gold.""The Indian and Chinese products for which silver is paid were and are, since 1873–74 low in price, it there fore takes less silver to purchase a larger quantity of Eastern commodities. Now, on taking the several agents into united consideration, it will not seem mysterious why silv
New Delhi is an urban district of Delhi which serves as the capital of India and seat of all three branches of the Government of India. The foundation stone of the city was laid by Emperor George V during the Delhi Durbar of 1911, it was designed by Sir Edwin Lutyens and Sir Herbert Baker. The new capital was inaugurated on 13 February 1931, by Viceroy and Governor-General of India Lord Irwin. Although colloquially Delhi and New Delhi are used interchangeably to refer to the National Capital Territory of Delhi, these are two distinct entities, with New Delhi forming a small part of Delhi; the National Capital Region is a much larger entity comprising the entire NCT along with adjoining districts in neighboring states. Calcutta was the capital of India during the British Raj, until December 1911. Calcutta had become the centre of the nationalist movements since the late nineteenth century, which led to the Partition of Bengal by Viceroy of British India, Lord Curzon; this created massive political and religious upsurge including political assassinations of British officials in Calcutta.
The anti-colonial sentiments amongst the public led to complete boycott of British goods, which forced the colonial government to reunite Bengal and shift the capital to New Delhi. Old Delhi had served as the political and financial centre of several empires of ancient India and the Delhi Sultanate, most notably of the Mughal Empire from 1649 to 1857. During the early 1900s, a proposal was made to the British administration to shift the capital of the British Indian Empire, as India was named, from Calcutta on the east coast, to Delhi; the Government of British India felt that it would be logistically easier to administer India from Delhi, in the centre of northern India. The land for building the new city of Delhi was acquired under the Land Acquisition Act 1894. During the Delhi Durbar on 12 December 1911, George V Emperor of India, along with Queen Mary, his consort, made the announcement that the capital of the Raj was to be shifted from Calcutta to Delhi, while laying the foundation stone for the Viceroy's residence in the Coronation Park, Kingsway Camp.
The foundation stone of New Delhi was laid by King George V and Queen Mary at the site of Delhi Durbar of 1911 at Kingsway Camp on 15 December 1911, during their imperial visit. Large parts of New Delhi were planned by Edwin Lutyens, who first visited Delhi in 1912, Herbert Baker, both leading 20th-century British architects; the contract was given to Sobha Singh. The original plan called for its construction in Tughlaqabad, inside the Tughlaqabad fort, but this was given up because of the Delhi-Calcutta trunk line that passed through the fort. Construction began after World War I and was completed by 1931; the city, dubbed "Lutyens' Delhi" was inaugurated in ceremonies beginning on 10 February 1931 by Lord Irwin, the Viceroy. Lutyens designed the central administrative area of the city as a testament to Britain's imperial aspirations. Soon Lutyens started considering other places. Indeed, the Delhi Town Planning Committee, set up to plan the new imperial capital, with George Swinton as chairman, John A. Brodie and Lutyens as members, submitted reports for both North and South sites.
However, it was rejected by the Viceroy when the cost of acquiring the necessary properties was found to be too high. The central axis of New Delhi, which today faces east at India Gate, was meant to be a north-south axis linking the Viceroy's House at one end with Paharganj at the other. Owing to space constraints and the presence of a large number of heritage sites in the North side, the committee settled on the South site. A site atop the Raisina Hill Raisina Village, a Meo village, was chosen for the Rashtrapati Bhawan known as the Viceroy's House; the reason for this choice was that the hill lay directly opposite the Dinapanah citadel, considered the site of Indraprastha, the ancient region of Delhi. Subsequently, the foundation stone was shifted from the site of Delhi Durbar of 1911–1912, where the Coronation Pillar stood, embedded in the walls of the forecourt of the Secretariat; the Rajpath known as King's Way, stretched from the India Gate to the Rashtrapati Bhawan. The Secretariat building, the two blocks of which flank the Rashtrapati Bhawan and houses ministries of the Government of India, the Parliament House, both designed by Baker, are located at the Sansad Marg and run parallel to the Rajpath.
In the south, land up to Safdarjung's Tomb was acquired to create what is today known as Lutyens' Bungalow Zone. Before construction could begin on the rocky ridge of Raisina Hill, a circular railway line around the Council House, called the Imperial Delhi Railway, was built to transport construction material and workers for the next twenty years; the last stumbling block was the Agra-Delhi railway line that cut right through the site earmarked for the hexagonal All-India War Memorial and Kingsway, a problem because the Old Delhi Railway Station served the entire city at that time. The line was shifted to run along the Yamuna river, it began operating in 1924; the New Delhi Railway Station opened in 1926, with a single platform at Ajmeri Gate near Paharganj, was completed in time for the city's inauguration in 1931. As construction of the Viceroy's House, Central Secretariat, Parliament House, All-India War Memorial was winding down, the building of a shopping district and a new plaza, Connaught Place, began in 1929, was completed by 1933.
Named after Prince Arthur, 1st Duke of Connaught, it was designed by Robert Tor Russell, chief architect to the P