Barrington Tops National Park
The Barrington Tops National Park is a protected national park located in the Hunter Valley 200 kilometres north of Sydney in New South Wales, Australia. Gazetted in 1969, the 76,512-hectare park is situated between Scone, Dungog and East Gresford; the park is part of the Barrington Tops group World Heritage Site Gondwana Rainforests of Australia inscribed in 1986 and added to the Australian National Heritage List in 2007. It is part of the Barrington Tops and Gloucester Tops Important Bird Area. Barrington Tops is part of a spur of the Great Dividing Range. Barrington Tops is a plateau between two of the large peaks in the range, The park is believed to be an extinct volcano and the mountain ranges are made up of a mixture of sedimentary rocks with a granite top. Erosion has weathered the granite and rounded granite boulders can be seen in some areas of the park. Estimates put the age of the rock at 300 to 400 million years, well before Australia separated from Gondwana; the climate varies from temperate on the lower altitudes to subalpine at highest elevations.
A record low of −17 °C has been registered at 1,500 m above mean sea level. Rainfalls fluctuate between 750 millimetres in the northwest to more than 2,000 mm in the southeast; the ecology of the national park varies from subtropical rainforests in the gullies to subalpine and alpine regions on the mountain peaks. Snow falls on the mountain peaks every year and snows enough to close roads. Rainfall can exceed 1,500 mm per annum. A large variety of plants and animals reside in the park and the steepness of the terrain ensures that they are not disturbed by humans. Plant life includes a large variety of eucalypt trees including Snow Gums and temperate rainforest trees like Antarctic beech, tree ferns, a large variety of mosses and ferns and a wide range of edible plants such as the native raspberry, the native cherry and the lilli pilli; the remoteness and inaccessibility of a large part of the park has allowed some of the more sensitive animals to remain undisturbed. A large number of fauna have been catalogued in the park including some that were thought to be extinct.
Some of the more common animals include: barking and sooty owls, eastern grey kangaroos, pademelons, rosellas, kookaburras and echidnas. It supports a globally important population of rufous scrub-birds, as well as flame robins, pale-yellow robins, paradise riflebirds, green catbirds, regent bowerbirds and Australian logrunners. Animals such as quolls, native rats and platypus may be seen. Not all of the animals in the park are desirable; the traditional owners of the area are the indigenous people of Australia, known as Australian Aborigines, include the Gringai clan, the Wonnarua people, the Worimi people and Birpai. In 1969 the area between Mount Barrington, Mount Royal and the Gloucester Tops was declared the Barrington Tops National Park. In 1986 it was listed as a World Heritage Area and subsequently a Wilderness Area; some of the rivers flowing through the Barrington range have been classed as wild rivers meaning they are exceptionally pure and unpolluted. The highest peak is Brumlow Top.
A number of aircraft have crashed in and around the Barrington Tops, Aeroplane Hill being named after one of the crashes. The altitude, frequent fog & cloud and cold weather make this area hazardous to aircraft. One article refers to the "Devil's Triangle". 16 April 1945 - De Havilland Mosquito A52-70. Wreckage found January 1946 in the national park; the propellor and machine gun were on display at the Barrington Tops Guest House. 2 September 1948 - Australian National Airlines Douglas DC-3 VH-ANK. 13 killed. 14 September 1969 - Lockheed Hudson VH-SML crashed in the foothills. 3 killed. 25 September 1969 - RAAF Mirage III-O. Crew ejected safely. 9 August 1981 - Cessna 210 VH-MDX. 5 killed, multiple searches have not found wreckage or bodies. 3 August 1987 - Aermacchi MB-326H A7-079. Crew ejected. Wreckage located by bushwalkers 28 April 1995. Photo of crew being rescued from a tree; the Barrington Guest House was built from 1925 on the upper Williams River near Barrington Tops by Norman T. McLeod, licensee of the Royal Hotel in Dungog, using timber cut and milled from the property.
It stood on land consisting of 10.5 hectares of forest surrounded by National and State Parks and was opened in 1930 by Dr Sir Earle Page MHR Leader of the Country Party and former Treasurer of Australia and Prime Minister of Australia. The guest house was a popular venue for people to stay in the park, until it burned down in a fire at 11pm on 24 September 2006 due to an electrical fault, it was undergoing modernisation under new ownership at the time of the fire. There are plans to rebuild. Barrington Tops is a popular weekend destination from Newcastle. Numerous walking trails and camping grounds are scattered throughout the park; the park contains well marked and well-maintained gravel roads as well as specific 4WD tracks into less travelled areas. General sightseeing can be accomplished in a non-offroad vehicle; as well as camping facilities, the nearby towns of Gloucester and Dungog have many places to stay. The park is maintained by the NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service and rangers patrol the park daily.
Barrington Tops State Conservation Area Careys Peak List of mountains in New South Wales Mount Royal Range Protected areas of New South Wales "Manning River catc
Bago Bluff National Park
Bago Bluff is a national park in New South Wales, Australia 410 km northeast of Sydney. It is situated south west of Wauchope and includes parts of the former Broken Bago State Forest and a part of Lorne State Forest; the Bago Bluff National Park includes in the northern section the old Bago Bluff Flora Reserve and Six B Flora Reserve. Bago Bluff offers splendid views of the Hastings Valley from the top of the bluff which can be accessed via several forest roads from the south, including Bago Road; the park's northern boundary is on southern side of the Oxley Highway where there are two badly washed 4WD tracks into the park. Quarries in the park have yielded leaf and shell fossils. Birds that may be spotted in the park include: Australian magpies, golden whistlers, green winged pigeons, grey fantails, large-billed scrubwrens, spotted pardalotes, pied currawongs, striated thornbills and white-browed scrubwrens. Lantana has become a problem in the park where it is covering some of the tracks. Protected areas of New South Wales
Hat Head National Park
Hat Head is a national park in New South Wales, Australia, 461.7 kilometres via M1 and Pacific Highway/A1, northeast of Sydney. It lies within the Hastings-Macleay Important Bird Area. Hat Head National Park is located on the mid-north coast of New South Wales near South West Rocks and Kempsey; the Park consists of beaches, sand dunes, rocky headlands and wetlands. For the Dunghutti people some parts of the park remain a significant place as of their traditional land; the different areas of the park and the sea provided a rich source of food like shellfish. The park is culturally important to Aboriginal people as it contains ceremonial grounds, burial sites, shell middens and campsites. Hat Head National Park is rich with birdlife such as kookaburra, black swans, herons and honeyeaters. Hawks, falcons or eagles like white-bellied sea eagle soaring above the cliffs. Wildlife at Hat Head includes black sheoak, grass trees, glossy black cockatoo, red-necked and swamp wallabies as well as western grey kangaroos, sugar gliders, grey-headed flying fox and short-beaked echidna.
The regent skipper is only found in Limeburners Creek National Park. Several walking tracks and whale watching can be done or just relax at the rocky headlands. Birdwatchers can look for black swans and spoonbills in the park’s wetlands and eagles soaring above beach cliffs and shorebirds like curlews and plovers around the beach. Protected areas of New South Wales Smoky Cape, within the park Description National Park
International Union for Conservation of Nature
The International Union for Conservation of Nature is an international organization working in the field of nature conservation and sustainable use of natural resources. It is involved in data gathering and analysis, field projects and education. IUCN's mission is to "influence and assist societies throughout the world to conserve nature and to ensure that any use of natural resources is equitable and ecologically sustainable". Over the past decades, IUCN has widened its focus beyond conservation ecology and now incorporates issues related to sustainable development in its projects. Unlike many other international environmental organisations, IUCN does not itself aim to mobilize the public in support of nature conservation, it tries to influence the actions of governments and other stakeholders by providing information and advice, through building partnerships. The organization is best known to the wider public for compiling and publishing the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, which assesses the conservation status of species worldwide.
IUCN has a membership of over 1400 non-governmental organizations. Some 16,000 scientists and experts participate in the work of IUCN commissions on a voluntary basis, it employs 1000 full-time staff in more than 50 countries. Its headquarters are in Switzerland. IUCN has observer and consultative status at the United Nations, plays a role in the implementation of several international conventions on nature conservation and biodiversity, it was involved in establishing the World Wide Fund for Nature and the World Conservation Monitoring Centre. In the past, IUCN has been criticized for placing the interests of nature over those of indigenous peoples. In recent years, its closer relations with the business sector have caused controversy. IUCN was established in 1948, it was called the International Union for the Protection of Nature and the World Conservation Union. Establishment IUCN was established on 5 October 1948, in Fontainebleau, when representatives of governments and conservation organizations signed a formal act constituting the International Union for the Protection of Nature.
The initiative to set up the new organisation came from UNESCO and from its first Director General, the British biologist Julian Huxley. The objectives of the new Union were to encourage international cooperation in the protection of nature, to promote national and international action and to compile and distribute information. At the time of its founding IUPN was the only international organisation focusing on the entire spectrum of nature conservation Early years: 1948–1956 IUPN started out with 65 members, its secretariat was located in Brussels. Its first work program focused on saving species and habitats and applying knowledge, advancing education, promoting international agreements and promoting conservation. Providing a solid scientific base for conservation action was the heart of all activities. IUPN and UNESCO were associated, they jointly organized the 1949 Conference on Protection of Nature. In preparation for this conference a list of gravely endangered species was drawn up for the first time, a precursor of the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
In the early years of its existence IUCN depended entirely on UNESCO funding and was forced to temporarily scale down activities when this ended unexpectedly in 1954. IUPN was successful in engaging prominent scientists and identifying important issues such as the harmful effects of pesticides on wildlife but not many of the ideas it developed were turned into action; this was caused by unwillingness to act on the part of governments, uncertainty about the IUPN mandate and lack of resources. In 1956, IUPN changed its name to International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Increased profile and recognition: 1956–1965 In the 1950s and 1960s Europe entered a period of economic growth and formal colonies became independent. Both developments had impact on the work of IUCN. Through the voluntary involvement of experts in its Commissions IUCN was able to get a lot of work done while still operating on a low budget, it established links with the Council of Europe. In 1961, at the request of United Nations Economic and Social Council, the United Nations Economic and Social Council, IUCN published the first global list of national parks and protected areas which it has updated since.
IUCN's best known publication, the Red Data Book on the conservation status of species, was first published in 1964. IUCN began to play a part in the development of international treaties and conventions, starting with the African Convention on the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Environmental law and policy making became a new area of expertise. Africa was the focus of many of the early IUCN conservation field projects. IUCN supported the ‘Yellowstone model’ of protected area management, which restricted human presence and activity in order to protect nature. IUCN and other conservation organisations were criticized for protecting nature against people rather than with people; this model was also applied in Africa and played a role in the decision to remove the Maasai people from Serengeti National Park and the Ngorongoro Conservation Area. To establish a stable financial basis for its work, IUCN participated in setting up the World Wildlife Fund
Dorrigo National Park
Dorrigo National Park is a national park in New South Wales, Australia, 580 kilometres north of Sydney on Dome Road off the Waterfall Way, 5 kilometres east of the town of Dorrigo. The park is part of the New England Group of the World Heritage Site Gondwana Rainforests of Australia inscribed in 1986 and added to the Australian National Heritage List in 2007; the area protected by the park is recognised for its exceptional natural beauty with significant habitats of outstanding value to science and conservation. The Rainforest Centre is a major CERRA interpretation centre; the interactive display, The Rainforest Revealed, explains how the rainforest evolved and gives insights into the animal and plant species that live there. Several tracks in the park allow hikers to view the park's waterfalls and vistas to the coastal plain. A notable feature of the park is the Skywalk, an elevated walkway through and above the treetops, providing birdwatchers with an excellent view of local bird life. Protected areas of New South Wales Official website
Warrumbungle National Park
Warrumbungle National Park is a heritage listed national park located in the Orana region of New South Wales, Australia. The national park is located 550 kilometres northwest of Sydney and contained within 23,311 hectares; the park attracts 35,000 visitors per annum. The national park is based on the geographical Warrumbungle Mountain Range, sometimes shortened to the Warrumbungles, thus the park name is heard in the plural; the park lies within the Pilliga Important Bird Area, so identified by BirdLife International because of its importance for a range of woodland bird species, many of which are threatened. Warrumbungle National Park was added to the Australian National Heritage List in December 2006. On 4 July 2016, the park was the first within Australia to be certified as a Dark Sky Park by the International Dark Sky Association; the nearest towns to the park are Baradine, Coonamble, Gilgandra and Tooraweenah. Access via Coonabarabran to the east is by 27 kilometres of sealed road called the John Renshaw Parkway, built in 1966.
Via Coonamble to the west, access is by a 57 kilometres long road with some gravel. The park is contained within three local government areas: Warrumbungle Shire to the east, Gilgandra Shire to the south and Coonamble Shire to the west. Located within the large area of temperate savanna grasslands the park incorporates the most spectactular part of the Warrumbungle mountains, a region of past volcanic activity with unusual lava formations; some of the most well-known rock formations include Bluff Mountain, Mount Exmouth, The Breadknife, Split Rock, Fans Horizon and Crater Bluff. There are many scenic bushwalks and both rock climbing and abseiling are popular. Though the park preserved habitat for koalas in the past, a massive 2013 fire decimated the koala population. Located adjacent to the national park is the Siding Spring Observatory; the observatory opened in 1965, was constructed on the boundary of the park because the park provided a light-free environment. This scientific facility consists of several internationally important telescopes and has considerable socio-economic importance to the local Coonabarabran community.
There are four main campsites. All camping in the park is only permitted after obtaining a permit. There is a visitors centre for keys to a number of huts; the park caters for large school groups. There are free electric barbecues available however firewood is not supplied or to be collected within park grounds. A proposal to reserve the more scenic parts of the Warrumbungle Range as the Warrumbungle National Monument was first initiated by the National Parks and Primitive Areas Council in 1936; the area was first proclaimed as a reserve in 1953. In 1967 management of the park was signed over to the National Parks and Wildlife Service; the construction of a network of walking tracks done by hand was headed by the parks first ranger, Carl Dow. The park was added to the list of the National Heritage in December 2006, in recognition of the park's importance as an extensive and spectacular geomorphological site with bold volcanic landforms that are unrivalled anywhere else in Australia. In January 2013 about 80% of the national park was destroyed in a conflagration that burned much of the area surrounding the park as well as destroying dozens of homes.
The visitor centre and museum were wiped out, as well as railings and viewing platforms throughout the park. The park has since reopened, although some parts remain closed. Protected areas of New South Wales Warrumbungle National Park: Park management at the NSW Office of Environment and Heritage. NSW Parks and Wildlife Service Closure notice
International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication, such as a magazine. The ISSN is helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, other practices in connection with serial literature; the ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975. ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard; when a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type, a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in electronic media; the ISSN system refers to these types as electronic ISSN, respectively. Conversely, as defined in ISO 3297:2007, every serial in the ISSN system is assigned a linking ISSN the same as the ISSN assigned to the serial in its first published medium, which links together all ISSNs assigned to the serial in every medium.
The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers. As an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits; the last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the general form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows: NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character, C is in; the ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, C=5. To calculate the check digit, the following algorithm may be used: Calculate the sum of the first seven digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right—that is, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, respectively: 0 ⋅ 8 + 3 ⋅ 7 + 7 ⋅ 6 + 8 ⋅ 5 + 5 ⋅ 4 + 9 ⋅ 3 + 5 ⋅ 2 = 0 + 21 + 42 + 40 + 20 + 27 + 10 = 160 The modulus 11 of this sum is calculated. For calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right.
The modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker. ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris; the International Centre is an intergovernmental organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, the ISDS Register otherwise known as the ISSN Register. At the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept. An ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole. An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an anonymous identifier associated with a serial title, containing no information as to the publisher or its location. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change. Since the ISSN applies to an entire serial a new identifier, the Serial Item and Contribution Identifier, was built on top of it to allow references to specific volumes, articles, or other identifiable components.
Separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic media versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. A CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved. However, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial; this "media-oriented identification" of serials made sense in the 1970s. In the 1990s and onward, with personal computers, better screens, the Web, it makes sense to consider only content, independent of media; this "content-oriented identification" of serials was a repressed demand during a decade, but no ISSN update or initiative occurred. A natural extension for ISSN, the unique-identification of the articles in the serials, was the main demand application. An alternative serials' contents model arrived with the indecs Content Model and its application, the digital object identifier, as ISSN-independent initiative, consolidated in the 2000s. Only in 2007, ISSN-L was defined in the