In bookbinding, finishing refers to the process of decorating the outside of a book, including the lettering of the spine and covers, any additional tooling, any inlays and onlays. Finishing can include the gilding or other decoration of the edges of the book's pages. Early codices, such as Coptic bindings had simple finishing, including blind tooling and leather strips woven through covering material. In traditional bookbinding, finishing is done by hand, is a skilled process; until the second half of the 20th century, finishing was performed by men who specialized in gilding. In the broadest sense, any book with decoration other than its covering material can be considered finished, though the term is applied only to books that have been decorated extensively by hand. Etherington, Don. Bookbinding and the Conservation of Books. Washington, DC: Library of Congress. ISBN 0-8444-0366-0
Book design is the art of incorporating the content, format and sequence of the various components and elements of a book into a coherent unit. In the words of the renowned typographer Jan Tschichold, book design, "though forgotten today and rules upon which it is impossible to improve, have been developed over centuries. To produce perfect books, these rules have to be brought back to life and applied". Richard Hendel describes book design as "an arcane subject", refers to the need for a context to understand what that means. Modern books are paginated consecutively, all pages are counted in the pagination whether or not the numbers appear; the page number, or folio, is most found at the top of the page, flush left verso, flush right recto. The folio may be printed at the bottom of the page, in that location it is called a drop folio. Drop folios appear either centered on each page or flush left verso and flush right recto. Front matter comprises the first section of a book, is the smallest section in terms of the number of pages.
Front-matter pages are traditionally numbered in lower-case Roman numerals, which prevents renumbering the remainder of a book when front-matter content is added at the last moment, such as a dedication page or additional acknowledgments. Page number is omitted on blank pages and display pages, it is either omitted or a drop folio is used on the opening page of each section of the front matter. Front matter appears only in the first of a multi-volume work, although some elements may appear in each volume; the following table defines some common types of front matter, the "voice" in which each can be said to be given: The structure of a work—and of its body matter—is described hierarchically. Volumes A volume is a set of leaves bound together, thus each work is divided into volumes. Books and parts Single-volume works account for most of the non-academic consumer market in books. A single volume may embody either the whole of a book. Chapters and sections A chapter or section may be contained within a book.
When both chapters and sections are used in the same work, the sections are more contained within chapters than the reverse. Modules and units In some books the chapters are grouped into bigger parts, sometimes called modules; the numbering of the chapters can begin again at the start of every module. In educational books the chapters are called units; the first page of the actual text of a book is the opening page, which incorporates special design features, such as initials. Arabic numbering starts at this first page. If the text is introduced by a second half title or opens with a part title, the half title or part title counts as page one; as in the front matter, page numbers are omitted on blank pages, are either omitted or a drop folio is used on the opening page of each part and chapter. On pages containing only illustrations or tables, page numbers are omitted, except in the case of a long sequence of figures or tables; the following are two instructive examples: The Lord of the Rings has three parts, with each part containing two books, each containing, in turn, multiple chapters.
The Christian Bible comprises two "testaments". In turn, each book contains multiple chapters, which are traditionally divided into "verses" each containing one independent clause; the back matter known as end matter, if used consists of one or more of the following components: Arabic numbering continues for the back matter. The front cover is the front of the book, is marked appropriately by text or graphics in order to identify it as such; the front cover contains at least the title or author, with an appropriate illustration. On the inside of the cover page, extending to the facing page is the front endpaper sometimes referred as FEP; the free half of the end paper is called a flyleaf. Traditionally, in hand-bound books, the endpaper was just a sheet of blank or ornamented paper physically masking and reinforcing the connection between the cover and the body of the book. In modern publishing it can be either plain, as in many text-oriented books, or variously ornamented and illustrated in books such as picture books, other children's literature, some arts and craft and hobbyist books, novelty/gift-market and coffee table books, graphic novels.
These books have an audience and traditions of their own where the graphic design and immediacy is important and publishing tradition and formality are less important. The spine is the vertical edge of a book as it stands on a bookshelf, it is customary for it to have printed text on it. In texts published or printed in the United States and the United Kingdom, the spine text, when vertical, runs from the top to the bottom, such that it is right side up when the book is lying flat with the front cover on top. In books from continental Europe, vertical spine text traditionally runs from the bottom up, th
A factory or manufacturing plant is an industrial site consisting of buildings and machinery, or more a complex having several buildings, where workers manufacture goods or operate machines processing one product into another. Factories arose with the introduction of machinery during the Industrial Revolution when the capital and space requirements became too great for cottage industry or workshops. Early factories that contained small amounts of machinery, such as one or two spinning mules, fewer than a dozen workers have been called "glorified workshops". Most modern factories have large warehouses or warehouse-like facilities that contain heavy equipment used for assembly line production. Large factories tend to be located with access to multiple modes of transportation, with some having rail and water loading and unloading facilities. Factories may either make discrete products or some type of material continuously produced such as chemicals and paper, or refined oil products. Factories manufacturing chemicals are called plants and may have most of their equipment – tanks, pressure vessels, chemical reactors and piping – outdoors and operated from control rooms.
Oil refineries have most of their equipment outdoors. Discrete products may be final consumer goods, or parts and sub-assemblies which are made into final products elsewhere. Factories may make them from raw materials. Continuous production industries use heat or electricity to transform streams of raw materials into finished products; the term mill referred to the milling of grain, which used natural resources such as water or wind power until those were displaced by steam power in the 19th century. Because many processes like spinning and weaving, iron rolling, paper manufacturing were powered by water, the term survives as in steel mill, paper mill, etc. Max Weber considered production during ancient times as never warranting classification as factories, with methods of production and the contemporary economic situation incomparable to modern or pre-modern developments of industry. In ancient times, the earliest production limited to the household, developed into a separate endeavour independent to the place of inhabitation with production at that time only beginning to be characteristic of industry, termed as "unfree shop industry", a situation caused under the reign of the Egyptian pharaoh, with slave employment and no differentiation of skills within the slave group comparable to modern definitions as division of labour.
According to translations of Demosthenes and Herodotus, Naucratis was a, or the only, factory in the entirety of ancient Egypt. A source of 1983, states the largest factory production in ancient times was of 120 slaves within 4th century BC Athens. An article within the New York Times article dated 13 October 2011 states: "In African Cave, Signs of an Ancient Paint Factory" –... discovered at Blombos Cave, a cave on the south coast of South Africa where 100,000-year-old tools and ingredients were found with which early modern humans mixed an ochre-based paint. Although The Cambridge Online Dictionary definition of factory states: a building or set of buildings where large amounts of goods are made using machines elsewhere:... the utilization of machines presupposes social cooperation and the division of labour The first machine is stated by one source to have been traps used to assist with the capturing of animals, corresponding to the machine as a mechanism operating independently or with little force by interaction from a human, with a capacity for use with operation the same on every occasion of functioning.
The wheel was invented c. 3000 BC, the spoked wheel c. 2000 BC. The Iron Age began 1200–1000 BC. However, other sources define machinery as a means of production. Archaeology provides a date for the earliest city as 5000 BC as Tell Brak, therefore a date for cooperation and factors of demand, by an increased community size and population to make something like factory level production a conceivable necessity. According to one text the water-mill was first made in 555 A. D. by Belisarius, although according to another they were known to Pliny the Elder and Vitruvius in the first century B. C. By the time of the 4th century A. D. mills with a capacity to grind 3 tonnes of cereal an hour, a rate sufficient to meet the needs of 80,000 persons, were in use by the Roman Empire. The Venice Arsenal provides one of the first examples of a factory in the modern sense of the word. Founded in 1104 in Venice, Republic of Venice, several hundred years before the Industrial Revolution, it mass-produced ships on assembly lines using manufactured parts.
The Venice Arsenal produced nearly one ship every day and, at its height, employed 16,000 people. One of the earliest factories was John Lombe's water-powered silk mill at Derby, operational by 1721. By 1746, an integrated brass mill was working at Warmley near Bristol. Raw material went in at one end, was smelted into brass and was turned into pans, pins and other goods. Housing was provided for workers on site. Josiah Wedgwood in Staffordshire and Matthew Boulton at his Soho Manufactory were other prominent early industrialists, who employed the factory system; the factory system began widespread use somewhat when cotton spinning was mechanized. Richard Arkwright is the person credited with inventing the prototype of the modern factory. After he patented his water frame in 1769, he established Cromford Mill, in Derbyshire, England expanding the village of Cromford to accommodate the migrant workers new to the area; the factory system was a new way of organizing labour made necessary by the developm
A slipcase is a four or five-sided box made of high-quality cardboard, into which binders, books or book sets are slipped for protection, leaving the spine exposed. Special editions of books are slipcased. A few publishers, such as the Folio Society, publish all their books in slipcases. Protective slipcases may be issued for cassettes, compact discs or DVDs instead of or in addition to the more common jewel cases or DVD keep case, may be chosen for aesthetic or economic reasons. Larger slipcases that are designed to house one or more jewel cases or DVD keep cases are used in packaging for special edition releases of CDs or DVDs. Solander box The dictionary definition of slipcase at Wiktionary
Artists' books are works of art that utilize the form of the book. They are published in small editions, though they are sometimes produced as one-of-a-kind objects. Artists' books have employed a wide range of forms, including scrolls, fold-outs, concertinas or loose items contained in a box. Artists have been active in printing and book production for centuries, but the artist's book is a late 20th-century form with roots in earlier avant-garde movements, such as Dada, Constructivism and Fluxus. Artists' books are books or book-like objects over the final appearance of which an artist has had a high degree of control. Artists' books are made for a variety of reasons, they are created to make art, interactive, portable and shared. Many artists books become sculptural objects, they may be created in order to make art accessible to people outside of the formal contexts of galleries or museums. Whilst artists have been involved in the production of books in Europe since the early medieval period, most writers on the subject cite the English visionary artist and poet William Blake as the earliest direct antecedentBooks such as Songs of Innocence and of Experience were written, printed and bound by Blake and his wife Catherine, the merging of handwritten texts and images created intensely vivid, hermetic works without any obvious precedents.
These works would set the tone for artists' books, connecting self-publishing and self-distribution with the integration of text and form. All of these factors have remained key concepts in artists' books up to the present day; as Europe plunged headlong towards World War I, various groups of avant-garde artists across the continent started to focus on pamphlets, posters and books. This was as a way to gain publicity within an increasing print-dominated world, but as a strategy to bypass traditional gallery systems, disseminate ideas and to create affordable work that might be seen by people who would not otherwise enter art galleries; this move toward radicalism was exemplified by the Italian Futurists, by Filippo Marinetti in particular. The publication of the "Futurist Manifesto", 1909, on the front cover of the French daily newspaper Le Figaro was an audacious coup de théâtre that resulted in international notoriety. Marinetti used the ensuing fame to tour Europe, kickstarting movements across the continent that all veered towards book-making and pamphleteering.
In London, for instance, Marinetti's visit directly precipitated Wyndham Lewis' founding of the Vorticist movement, whose literary magazine BLAST is an early example of a modernist periodical, while David Bomberg's book Russian Ballet, with its interspersing of a single spaced text interspersed with abstract colour lithographs, is a landmark in the history of English language artists' books. With regards to the creation of Artists' books, the most influential offshoot of futurist principles, occurred in Russia. Marinetti visited in 1914, proselytizing on behalf of Futurist principles of speed and cacophony. Centred in Moscow, around the Gileia Group of Transrational poets David and Nikolai Burliuk, Elena Guro, Vasili Kamenski and Velimir Khlebnikov, the Russian futurists created a sustained series of artists' books that challenged every assumption of orthodox book production. Whilst some of the books created by this group would be straightforward typeset editions of poetry, many others played with form, structure and content that still seems contemporary.
Key works such as Worldbackwards, by Khlebnikov and Kruchenykh, Natalia Goncharova, Larionov Rogovin and Tatlin, Transrational Boog by Aliagrov and Kruchenykh & Olga Rozanova and Universal War by Kruchenykh used hand-written text, integrated with expressive lithographs and collage elements, creating small editions with dramatic differences between individual copies. Other titles experimented with materials such as wallpaper, printing methods including carbon copying and hectographs, binding methods including the random sequencing of pages, ensuring no two books would have the same contextual meaning. Russian futurism evolved into Constructivism after the Russian Revolution, centred on the key figures of Malevich and Tatlin. Attempting to create a new proletarian art for a new communist epoch, constructivist books would have a huge impact on other European avant-gardes, with design and text-based works such as El Lissitsky's For The Voice having a direct impact on groups inspired by or directly linked to communism.
Dada in Zurich and Berlin, the Bauhaus in Weimar and De Stijl in the Netherlands all printed numerous books and theoretical tracts within the newly emerging International Modernist style. Artist's books from this era include Kurt Schwitters and Kate Steinitz's book The Scarecrow, Theo van Doesburg's periodical De Stijl. Dada was started at the Cabaret Voltaire, by a group of exiled artists in neutral Switzerland during World War I. Influenced by the sound poetry of Wassily Kandinsky, the Blaue Reiter Almanac that Kandinsky had edited with Marc, artists' books, periodicals and absurdist theatre were central to each of Dada's main incarnations. Berlin Dada in particular, started by Richard Huelsenbeck after leaving Zurich in 1917, would publish a number of incendiary artists' books, such as George Grosz's The Face Of The Dominant Class, a series of politically motivated satirical lithographs about the German bourge
Publishing is the dissemination of literature, music, or information. It is the activity of making information available to the general public. In some cases, authors may be their own publishers, meaning originators and developers of content provide media to deliver and display the content for the same; the word "publisher" can refer to the individual who leads a publishing company or an imprint or to a person who owns/heads a magazine. Traditionally, the term refers to the distribution of printed works such as newspapers. With the advent of digital information systems and the Internet, the scope of publishing has expanded to include electronic resources such as the electronic versions of books and periodicals, as well as micropublishing, blogs, video game publishers, the like. Publishing includes the following stages of development: acquisition, copy editing, printing and distribution. Publication is important as a legal concept: As the process of giving formal notice to the world of a significant intention, for example, to marry or enter bankruptcy As the essential precondition of being able to claim defamation.
Self-publishing: The author has to meet the total expense to get the book published. The author should retain full rights known as vanity publishing. Publishing became possible with the invention of writing, became more practical upon the introduction of printing. Prior to printing, distributed works were copied manually, by scribes. Due to printing, publishing progressed hand-in-hand with the development of books; the Chinese inventor Bi Sheng made movable type of earthenware circa 1045, but there are no known surviving examples of his printing. Around 1450, in what is regarded as an independent invention, Johannes Gutenberg invented movable type in Europe, along with innovations in casting the type based on a matrix and hand mould; this invention made books less expensive to produce, more available. Early printed books, single sheets and images which were created before 1501 in Europe are known as incunables or incunabula. "A man born in 1453, the year of the fall of Constantinople, could look back from his fiftieth year on a lifetime in which about eight million books had been printed, more than all the scribes of Europe had produced since Constantine founded his city in A.
D. 330."Eventually, printing enabled other forms of publishing besides books. The history of modern newspaper publishing started in Germany in 1609, with publishing of magazines following in 1663. Publishing has been handled by publishers, with the history of self-publishing progressing until the advent of computers brought us electronic publishing, made evermore ubiquitous from the moment the world went online with the Internet; the establishment of the World Wide Web in 1989 soon propelled the website into a dominant medium of publishing, as websites are created by anyone with Internet access. The history of wikis started shortly thereafter, followed by the history of blogging. Commercial publishing progressed, as printed forms developed into online forms of publishing, distributing online books, online newspapers, online magazines. Since its start, the World Wide Web has been facilitating the technological convergence of commercial and self-published content, as well as the convergence of publishing and producing into online production through the development of multimedia content.
Book and magazine publishers spend a lot of commissioning copy. At a small press, it is possible to survive by relying on commissioned material, but as activity increases, the need for works may outstrip the publisher's established circle of writers. For works written independently of the publisher, writers first submit a query letter or proposal directly to a literary agent or to a publisher. Submissions sent directly to a publisher are referred to as unsolicited submissions, the majority come from unpublished authors. If the publisher accepts unsolicited manuscripts the manuscript is placed in the slush pile, which publisher's readers sift through to identify manuscripts of sufficient quality or revenue potential to be referred to acquisitions editors for review; the acquisitions editors send their choices to the editorial staff. The time and number of people involved in the process are dependent on the size of the publishing company, with larger companies having more degrees of assessment between unsolicited submission and publication.
Unsolicited submissions have a low rate of acceptance, with some sources estimating that publishers choose about three out of every ten thousand unsolicited manuscripts they receive. Many book publishers around the world maintain a strict "no unsolicited submissions" policy and will only accept submissions via a literary agent; this policy shifts the burden of assessing and developing writers out of the publisher and onto the literary agents. At these publishers, unsolicited manuscripts are thrown out, or sometimes returned, if the author has provided pre-paid postage. Established authors may be represented by a literary agent to market their work to publishers and n
Lamination is the technique/process of manufacturing a material in multiple layers, so that the composite material achieves improved strength, sound insulation, appearance or other properties from the use of differing materials. A laminate is a permanently assembled object by heat, welding, or adhesives. There are different lamination processes, depending on the type of materials to be laminated; the materials used in laminates can be the same or different, depending on the processes and the object to be laminated. An example of the type of laminate using different materials would be the application of a layer of plastic film—the "laminate"—on either side of a sheet of glass—the laminated subject. Vehicle windshields are made by laminating a tough plastic film between two layers of glass; this is to prevent shards of glass detaching from the windshield in case it breaks. Plywood is a common example of a laminate using the same material in each layer. Glued and laminated dimensioned timber is used in the construction industry to make wooden beams, with sizes larger and stronger than can be obtained from single pieces of wood.
Another reason to laminate wooden strips into beams is quality control, as with this method each and every strip can be inspected before it becomes part of a stressed component. Electrical equipment such as transformers and motors use steel laminations to form the core of coils used to produce magnetic fields; the thin laminations reduce the loss due to eddy currents. Examples of laminate materials include melamine adhesive countertop surfacing and plywood. Decorative laminates are produced with decorative papers with a layer of overlay on top of the decorative paper, set before pressing them with thermoprocessing into high-pressure decorative laminates. A new type of HPDL is produced using real wood multilaminar veneer as top surface. High-pressure laminates consists of laminates "molded and cured at pressures not lower than 1,000 lb per sq in. and more in the range of 1,200 to 2,000 lb per sq in.. Meanwhile, low pressure laminate is defined as "a plastic laminate molded and cured at pressures in general of 400 pounds per square inch.
Corrugated fiberboard boxes are examples of laminated structures, where an inner core provides rigidity and strength, the outer layers provide a smooth surface. Laminating paper products, such as photographs, can prevent them from becoming creased, water damaged, stained, abraded, or marked by grease or fingerprints. Photo identification cards and credit cards are always laminated with plastic film. Boxes and other containers are laminated using a UV coating. Lamination is used in sculpture using wood or resin. An example of an artist who used lamination in his work is the American Floyd Shaman. Further, laminates can be used to add properties to a surface printed paper, that would not have them otherwise. Sheets of vinyl impregnated with ferro-magnetic material can allow portable printed images to bond to magnets, such as for a custom bulletin board or a visual presentation. Specially surfaced plastic sheets can be laminated over a printed image to allow them to be safely written upon, such as with dry erase markers or chalk.
Multiple translucent printed images may be laminated in layers to achieve certain visual effects or to hold holographic images. Many printing businesses that do commercial lamination keep a variety of laminates on hand, as the process for bonding many types is similar when working with arbitrarily thin material. Three types of laminators are used most in digital imaging: Pouch laminators Heated roll laminators Cold roll laminators Laminate plastic film is categorized into these five categories: Standard thermal laminating films Low-temperature thermal laminating films Heat set laminating films Pressure-sensitive films Liquid laminate Lamination paper Laminated bow Cladding Composite laminates Carbon-fibre reinforced plastic Composite material Epoxy Glass-reinforced plastic Sandwich-structured composite Wood Delamination Void