Limburg is the southernmost of the 12 provinces of the Netherlands. It is in the southeastern part of the country, stretched out from the north, where it touches the province of Gelderland, to the south, where it internationally borders Belgium, its northern part has the North Brabant province to its west. Its long eastern boundary is the international border with the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia. Much of the west border runs along the River Maas, bordering the Flemish province of Limburg, a small part of the Walloon province of Liège. On the south end, it has borders with the Flemish exclave of Voeren and its surrounding part of Liège, Wallonia; the Vaalserberg is on the extreme south-eastern point, marking the tripoint of Netherlands and Belgium. Limburg's major cities are the provincial capital Maastricht, as well as Heerlen, Sittard-Geleen in the south, Venlo in the north and Roermond and Weert in the middle. More than half of the population 620,000 people, live in the south of Limburg, which corresponds to one-third of the province's area proper.
In South Limburg, most people live in the urban agglomerations of Maastricht and Sittard-Geleen. Limburg has a distinctive character; the social and economic trends that have affected the province in recent decades have generated a process of change and renewal which has enabled Limburg to transform its peripheral location into a globalized regional nexus, linking the Netherlands to the Ruhr metro area and the southern part of the Benelux region. A less appreciated consequence of this international gateway location is rising international crime drug-related in the southernmost part of the province. Limburg's name derives from the fortified town of the same name, situated on the river Vesdre near the High Fens, now in the nearby Belgian province of Liège, its name is derived from the Germanic elements *lindo, "lime tree," and burg, "fortification." Limburg town was the seat of the medieval Duchy of Limburg. None of present-day Limburg was part of this duchy, which had its northern border along what is the modern southern border of South Limburg.
South Limburg in the Middle Ages was made up of the lands of Valkenburg and Herzogenrath, which under the rule of the Duchy of Brabant came to be known collectively as the Lands of Overmaas. The Duchy of Limburg and its dependencies first came under Brabantian control in 1288, as a result of the Battle of Worringen in the 15th century under the Duchy of Burgundy. By 1473, the Lands of Overmaas and the Duchy of Limburg formed one unified delegation to the States General of the Burgundian Netherlands. Both the terms Overmaas and Limburg came to be used loosely to refer to this sparsely populated province of the so-called Seventeen Provinces. Maastricht was never part of this polity; the central and northern part of present-day Limburg belonged to different political entities, notably the Duchy of Jülich and the Duchy of Guelders. After 1794, the French unified the region, along with Belgian Limburg, removed all ties to the old feudal society; the new name, as with all the names of the départements, was based on natural features, in this case Meuse-Inférieure or Neder-Maas.
After the defeat of Napoleon the newly-created United Kingdom of the Netherlands desired a new name for this province. It was decided that the historic connection to the town and duchy of Limburg was to be restored, albeit only in name, it is important to note that the history given below is that of the region, the current province Limburg of the Netherlands. There existed no polity or other entity going by that name covering this territory until 1815. For centuries, the strategic location of the current province made it a much-coveted region among Europe's major powers. Romans, Habsburg Spaniards, Habsburg Austrians and French have all ruled parts of Limburg. For long periods of history the region was not united under the same rule; the first inhabitants of whom traces have been found were Neanderthals. In Neolithic times flint was mined in underground mines, including one at Rijckholt, open to visitors. Just after the Roman conquest the Eburones, the inhabitants of most of the area of current Limburg, were annihilated by the legions of Julius Caesar with help of neighbour tribes, this as a punishment for a successful ambush set by their leader Ambiorix.
After this genocide the area was repopulated with a diverse set of peoples that under Roman rules, amalgated in the Tungri. The southern part of current Limburg, along the Via Belgica was Romanized and a few still existing towns and cities were founded in this period, including Mosa Trajectum and Coriovallum. Bishop Servatius introduced Christianity in Roman Maastricht, where he died in 384; as Roman authority in the area weakened, Franks took over from the Romans, the area, now called Austrasia, flourished under their rule. The middle and southern part of the current province formed an important part of the heartland of Austrasia. In 714 Susteren Abbey was founded, as far as is known the first proprietary abbey in the current Netherlands. Main benefactor was the consort of Pepin of Herstal. Charles Martel was born in nearby Herstal and Charlemagne had close links with the area, he made Aachen the capital of the Frankish empire. In 870 the treaty of Meerssen, the third partition
The Netherlands is a country located in Northwestern Europe. The European portion of the Netherlands consists of twelve separate provinces that border Germany to the east, Belgium to the south, the North Sea to the northwest, with maritime borders in the North Sea with Belgium and the United Kingdom. Together with three island territories in the Caribbean Sea—Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba— it forms a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands; the official language is Dutch, but a secondary official language in the province of Friesland is West Frisian. The six largest cities in the Netherlands are Amsterdam, The Hague, Utrecht and Tilburg. Amsterdam is the country's capital, while The Hague holds the seat of the States General and Supreme Court; the Port of Rotterdam is the largest port in Europe, the largest in any country outside Asia. The country is a founding member of the EU, Eurozone, G10, NATO, OECD and WTO, as well as a part of the Schengen Area and the trilateral Benelux Union.
It hosts several intergovernmental organisations and international courts, many of which are centered in The Hague, dubbed'the world's legal capital'. Netherlands means'lower countries' in reference to its low elevation and flat topography, with only about 50% of its land exceeding 1 metre above sea level, nearly 17% falling below sea level. Most of the areas below sea level, known as polders, are the result of land reclamation that began in the 16th century. With a population of 17.30 million people, all living within a total area of 41,500 square kilometres —of which the land area is 33,700 square kilometres —the Netherlands is one of the most densely populated countries in the world. It is the world's second-largest exporter of food and agricultural products, owing to its fertile soil, mild climate, intensive agriculture; the Netherlands was the third country in the world to have representative government, it has been a parliamentary constitutional monarchy with a unitary structure since 1848.
The country has a tradition of pillarisation and a long record of social tolerance, having legalised abortion and human euthanasia, along with maintaining a progressive drug policy. The Netherlands abolished the death penalty in 1870, allowed women's suffrage in 1917, became the world's first country to legalise same-sex marriage in 2001, its mixed-market advanced economy had the thirteenth-highest per capita income globally. The Netherlands ranks among the highest in international indexes of press freedom, economic freedom, human development, quality of life, as well as happiness; the Netherlands' turbulent history and shifts of power resulted in exceptionally many and varying names in different languages. There is diversity within languages; this holds for English, where Dutch is the adjective form and the misnomer Holland a synonym for the country "Netherlands". Dutch comes from Theodiscus and in the past centuries, the hub of Dutch culture is found in its most populous region, home to the capital city of Amsterdam.
Referring to the Netherlands as Holland in the English language is similar to calling the United Kingdom "Britain" by people outside the UK. The term is so pervasive among potential investors and tourists, that the Dutch government's international websites for tourism and trade are "holland.com" and "hollandtradeandinvest.com". The region of Holland consists of North and South Holland, two of the nation's twelve provinces a single province, earlier still, the County of Holland, a remnant of the dissolved Frisian Kingdom. Following the decline of the Duchy of Brabant and the County of Flanders, Holland became the most economically and politically important county in the Low Countries region; the emphasis on Holland during the formation of the Dutch Republic, the Eighty Years' War and the Anglo-Dutch Wars in the 16th, 17th and 18th century, made Holland serve as a pars pro toto for the entire country, now considered either incorrect, informal, or, depending on context, opprobrious. Nonetheless, Holland is used in reference to the Netherlands national football team.
The region called the Low Countries and the Country of the Netherlands. Place names with Neder, Nieder and Nedre and Bas or Inferior are in use in places all over Europe, they are sometimes used in a deictic relation to a higher ground that consecutively is indicated as Upper, Oben, Superior or Haut. In the case of the Low Countries / Netherlands the geographical location of the lower region has been more or less downstream and near the sea; the geographical location of the upper region, changed tremendously over time, depending on the location of the economic and military power governing the Low Countries area. The Romans made a distinction between the Roman provinces of downstream Germania Inferior and upstream Germania Superior; the designation'Low' to refer to the region returns again in the 10th century Duchy of Lower Lorraine, that covered much of the Low Countries. But this time the corresponding Upper region is Upper Lorraine, in nowadays Northern France; the Dukes of Burgundy, who ruled the Low Countries in the 15th century, used the term les pays de par deçà for the Low Countries as opposed to les pays de par delà for their original
Sittard is a city in the Netherlands, situated in the southernmost province of Limburg. The town has some 48,400 inhabitants. In its east, Sittard borders the German municipality of Selfkant; the city centre is located at 45 m above sea level. Archaeological discoveries have dated the first settlement in the Sittard area around 5000 B. C. Present day Sittard is assumed to have been founded around 850 A. D. and to have been built around a motte. Sittard was first mentioned in 1157, it was granted city rights by the Duke of Limburg in 1243. In 1400 it was sold to the Duchy of Jülich, remained in its possession until 1794; the city was destroyed and rebuilt due to fires and various conflicts during the 15th-17th century. It was a stronghold until it was destroyed in 1677, during the Franco-Dutch War. Under French occupation, Sittard was part of the Roer department. Since 1814, it has been part of the Netherlands, except for the years 1830-1839, when it joined the Belgian Revolution. During the Second World War, it was occupied by the Germans, who incorporated several small municipalities, like Broeksittard, into Sittard.
The city was liberated September 18 -- 1944 by the 2nd Armored Division. The historic town was spared destruction, despite lying in the frontline for over four months, in which over 4000 shells and rockets struck the city. After World War II, Sittard expanded and many new neighbourhoods were built; the coal mines in the region were the driving force of a booming economy, until closed in the 1960s and 70s. It now has office premises. Sittard has a small historic city centre with numerous architectural monuments, including several old churches, monasteries and a few half-timbered houses; the central market square has many bars. The city has retained part of its city wall. On the south-eastern side of the city centre, the St Rosa chapel crowns the Kollenberg hill. Museum "Het Domein" is situated in a converted nineteenth century school building in the city centre, it focuses on urban history and archaeology. There is a Commonwealth War Cemetery, where 239 soldiers of the Commonwealth Nations lie buried.
Among them Dennis Donnini, the youngest to have received the Victoria Cross in World War II. Sittard houses a large DSM office; the head office of the plant hire company Boels Rental is located in Sittard. There are several schools for higher vocational education and training in the city, including faculties of the Hogeschool Zuyd and Fontys Hogescholen. Large schools for secondary education in Sittard are'Trevianum' and'Da Capo'. Sittard is the home of the professional football club Fortuna Sittard and of the handball club Sittardia; the biggest Kennedy march of the Netherlands ends in Sittard. Eddy Beugels, cyclist Rens Blom, athletics Mike van Diem, film director Jo Erens, singer Toon Hermans, comedian Wim Hof, Iceman Francine Houben, director of Mecanoo Jan Nolten, cyclist Jan Notermans, soccer Huub Stevens, soccer Arnold Vanderlyde, boxer Joost Zweegers and pianist of Novastar Laurence Stassen, VNL politician The Sittard dialect is a particular variant of Limburgish. Valjevo, Serbia. Hasselt, Belgium Vansittart, surname derived from the city
Limburgish called Limburgan, Limburgian, or Limburgic, is a group of East Low Franconian varieties spoken in the Belgian and Dutch provinces both named Limburg and some neighbouring areas of Germany. The area in which it is spoken fits within a wide circle from Venlo to Düsseldorf to Aachen to Maastricht to Tienen and back to Venlo. In some parts of this area it is used as the colloquial language in daily speech, it shares many characteristics with both German and Dutch and is considered as a variant of one of these languages. Within the modern communities of the Belgian and Dutch provinces of Limburg, intermediate idiolects are very common, which combine standard Dutch with the accent and some grammatical and pronunciation tendencies derived from Limburgish; this "Limburgish Dutch" is confusingly often referred to as "Limburgish", although in Belgium such intermediate idiolects tend to be called tussentaal, no matter the exact dialect/language with which standard Dutch is combined. The name Limburgish derives only indirectly from the now Belgian town of Limbourg, the capital of the Duchy of Limburg during the Middle Ages.
More directly it is derived from the more modern name of the Province of Limburg in the Kingdom of the Netherlands, split today into a Belgian Limburg and a Dutch Limburg. In the area around the old Duchy of Limburg the main language today is French, but there is a particular Limburgish language, sometimes referred to as "Low Dietsch dialects". People from Limburg call their language Plat, the same as Low German speakers do; this plat refers to the fact that the language is spoken in the low plains country, as opposed to the use of High in High German languages, which are derived from dialects spoken in the more mountainous southerly regions. The word can be associated with platteland; the general Dutch term for the language of ordinary people in former ages was Dietsch or Duutsch, as it still exists in the term Low Dietsch. This term is derived from Proto-Germanic "þiudiskaz", meaning "of the people". In Dutch the word "plat" means "flat", but refers to the way a language is spoken: "plat" means "slang" in that case.
Limburgish has overlapping definition areas, depending on the criteria used: All dialects spoken within the political boundary of the two Limburg provinces. Limburgish according to Jo Daan, the associative "arrow" method of Meertens Institute. South Lower Franconian, isogloss definition between the Uerdingen and Benrath lines by Wenker and Goossens. Western limit of Limburgish pitch accent Southeast Limburgish dialect. Except for the Southeast Limburgish dialect, Modern Limburgish descends from some of the dialects that formed the offspring of Old Dutch in the Early Middle Ages, its history being at least as long as that of other Low Franconian languages, of which some yielded Standard Dutch. Being a variety of Franconian descent, Limburgish can today be considered as a regional language overarched by two succeeding Dachsprachen, which are Dutch in Belgium and the Netherlands and German in Germany. Under the influence of the Merovingian and the Carolingian dynasty, Eastern Low Franconian underwent much influence from the neighbouring High German languages.
This resulted among other things in the partial participation of Eastern Low Franconian in the High German consonant shift in the 10th and the 11th century, which makes the Limburgish-speaking area part of the so-called Rhenish fan. It is this trait which distinguishes Limburgish from Western Low Franconian. In the past, all Limburgish dialects were therefore sometimes seen as West Central German, part of High German; this difference is caused by a difference in definition: the latter stance defines a High German variety as one that has taken part in any of the first three phases of the High German consonant shift. It is most common in linguistics to consider Limburgish as Low Franconian. From the 13th century on, the Duchy of Brabant extended its power; as a consequence, at first the western and also the eastern variants of Limburgish underwent great influence of Brabantian. When Standard Dutch was formed out of elements of different Low Franconian dialects in the 16th century, the Limburgish dialects spoken in the Low Countries had little or no influence on this process.
As a result, Limburgish – although being a variety of Low Franconian – still has a considerable distance from Standard Dutch with regards to phonology and lexicon today. Moreover, being of East Low Franconian origin, it has many distinctive features in comparison with the West Low Franconian varieties such as the Hollandic dialect, the Brabantian dialect and South Guelderish. In German sources, the dialects linguistically counting as Limburgish spoken to the east of the river Rhine are called Bergish. West of the river Rhine they are called "Low Rhenish", considered a transitional zone between Low Franconian and Ripuarian, thus German linguists tended to call these dialects L
Beekdaelen is a municipality in the province of Limburg, situated in the southern Netherlands. It was formed as a merger of Nuth and Schinnen. Beekdaelen has 35,853 inhabitants, it does not have a capital. The town hall of the municipality is situated in the village Nuth; the other fourteen villages in the municipality are Amstenrade with 2,670 inhabitants, Bingelrade with 796 inhabitants, Doenrade with 1,122 inhabitants, Hulsberg with 3,954 inhabitants, Jabeek with 752 inhabitants, Merkelbeek with 1,564 inhabitants, Vaesrade with 6,380 inhabitants, Oirsbeek with 3,733 inhabitants, Puth with 2,004 inhabitants, Schimmert with 3,236 inhabitants, Schinnen with 2,692 inhabitants, Schinveld with 4,629 inhabitants, Sweikhuizen with 690 inhabitants, Wijnandsrade with 1,631 inhabitants. The other population centres belong to one of the following villages. Dutch Topographic map of the municipality of Beekdaelen, November 2018 Media related to Beekdaelen at Wikimedia Commons Official website