Miss Universe 2018
Miss Universe 2018, the 67th Miss Universe pageant, was held on 17 December 2018 at IMPACT Arena, Muang Thong Thani in Nonthaburi Province, northern suburb of Bangkok, Thailand. Demi-Leigh Nel-Peters of South Africa crowned her successor Catriona Gray of the Philippines by the end of the event; the show was hosted by comedian Steve Harvey and supermodel Ashley Graham, while television personality Carson Kressley and runway coach Lu Sierra provided commentary and analysis throughout the event. American singer-songwriter Ne-Yo performed during the competition. Contestants from 94 countries and territories participated in this year's pageant, surpassing the previous record of 92 contestants in 2017. Angela Ponce of Spain became the first transgender contestant to compete for the Miss Universe title; the Miss Universe Organization was in talks to host the Miss Universe 2018 competition in China. Negotiations collapsed after the Chinese refused to broadcast the pageant live, due to the large time difference between China and the United States.
Afterwards, the MUO opened negotiations with the Philippines, after they had hosted 2016. In April 2018, then-Secretary of Tourism Wanda Tulfo Teo spoke with President of the Philippines Rodrigo Duterte regarding the possibility of hosting the pageant in Boracay in November 2018, which by will be newly rehabilitated after being closed to tourists for six months. On 6 May, Tulfo-Teo announced that the Philippines had a "90% chance" of hosting the pageant and disclosed that the tourism department would be looking for sponsors, since the LCS Holdings Inc. of Chavit Singson, the major sponsor of the Miss Universe 2016 had declined financing the 2018 pageant. On 18 May 2018, Tulfo's successor Bernadette Romulo-Puyat announced that the country dropped the hosting bid due to budget constraints and other concerns. Romulo-Puyat pointed out that the Philippines had hosted the pageant and had no reason to do so again so soon. On 31 July 2018 it was announced by MUO President Paula Shugart, in a live press conference at Bangkok Art and Culture Centre, that the 2018 pageant would be held in Bangkok, Thailand on 17 December.
The city has hosted the Miss Universe pageant twice, in 1992 and 2005. Current Miss Universe Demi-Leigh Nel-Peters, alongside with two former Miss Universes Apasra Hongsakula and Natalie Glebova, participated in the announcement. Unlike in recent years, the contestants were trimmed down to 20 semifinalists, compared to 16 in 2017 and 13 in 2016; the initial semifinalists were selected through a closed-door interview and a preliminary competition—in swimwear and evening gown—held several days before the finals night. The continental format, introduced in the 2017 edition, remained—consisting of five semifinalists from Europe, five from the Americas, five from Africa and Asia-Pacific, five wildcards—regardless of continental grouping; the top 20 were tasked to give an opening statement—a 15-second statement about the contestant—to the judges and viewing public, after which the judges narrowed downed the semifinalists to the top 10, who competed in both swimsuit and evening gown. After the swimwear and evening gown competitions, the judges selected the top five to compete in the preliminary question and answer round.
After said segment, the judges selected the final three. The top three participated in the final word and final look portions, after which the judges chose Miss Universe 2018 and her two runners-up. For this edition, there was no online voting component for viewers at home; the seven judges for both the preliminary competition and the final telecast were an all-female panel which included: Liliana Gil Valletta – businesswoman Janaye Ingram – political organizer and Miss New Jersey USA 2004 Monique Lhuillier – fashion designer Michelle McLean – Miss Universe 1992 from Namibia Iman Oubou – scientist and medical missionary Bui Simon – Miss Universe 1988 from Thailand Richelle Singson-Michael – businesswoman 94 contestants competed for the title. Miss Spain, Ángela Ponce, was the first transgender Miss Universe contestant; the organizers tweeted. She failed to make the Top 20; the rules were changed to allow transgender women to compete after the Miss Universe Organization, owned at the time by the future US President Donald Trump, was criticized in 2012, threatened with legal action, for disqualifying Jenna Talackova from their Miss Canada contest after discovering she was transgender.
Armenia Kyrgyzstan Mongolia Last competed in 2015: GreeceLast competed in 2016: Belize Denmark Hungary Kenya Kosovo Switzerland Austria – The local franchisee returned the license to Miss Universe Organization. Ethiopia – No national pageant was held. Guyana – Guyana will not be allowed to participate in this year's Miss Universe pageant, according to the most recent franchise holder Jyoti Hardat, who says the country is being barred because of the "nasty emails" and "death threats" sent to the Miss Universe Organisation in the ensuing controversy over last year's delegate. Iraq – No national pageant held nor contestant designation announced. Romania – No national pageant held nor contestant designation announced. Slovenia – Due to internal problems at the local franchise, the Miss Universe Slovenia 2018 has been canceled. Tanzania – No national pageant was held. Trinidad and Tobago – The local franchisee announced that the national contest will not be held this year. In the same statement it was announced that no other form of local selection would be held and no candidate would be sent to Bangkok.
This was contrary to previous reports stating that Martrecia Alleyne, the first runner-up at National Pageant in 2017 was appointed as Miss
Miss Universe 1960
Miss Universe 1960, the 9th Miss Universe pageant, was held on 9 July 1960 at the Miami Beach Auditorium in Miami Beach, Florida, USA. Linda Bement of USA became the third American to win the crown and was handed over the title by Akiko Kojima of Japan. Denmark — Antje Moller was disqualified at 16 years old and was replaced by Lizzie Ellinor Hess. Cameroon - Sale Assouen Haiti - Claudinette Fourchard Mexico - Lorena Velásquez Poland - Marzena Malinowska Tahiti - Maria Flohr Burma - Miss Amity Italy - Miss Photogenic West, Donald. "Miss Universe 1960". Pageantopolis.com. Retrieved November 21, 2018
Bea Rose Monterde Santiago known as Bea Santiago, is a Filipino actress and beauty queen, crowned Miss International 2013 on December 17, 2013. Prior to her win at Binibining Pilipinas, she was a Mutya ng Pilipinas 2011 titleholder who represented the Filipino Community in Canada, she was a fashion model for Elite Model Management before joining Binibining Pilipinas 2013. Santiago was born in Muntinlupa, moved to Cataingan and was raised by her grandparents, she studied High School in Liceo de Masbate. She is the eldest of three children. At 15, she and her family moved to Canada where she studied Communications at York University and became a model under Elite Model Management. Santiago participated in the 2011 edition of Mutya ng Pilipinas, where she won the Mutya ng Pilipinas Overseas Communities title. Santiago represented the Philippines in Miss Tourism Queen of the Year International 2012, where she placed in the Top 10. Santiago represented Masbate at the Binibining Pilipinas 2013 Gold Edition and won Binibining Pilipinas International 2013 and Binibining Avon special award.
She was crowned by Binibining Pilipinas International 2012, Nicole Schmitz at a pageant held at the Smart Araneta Coliseum on April 14, 2013. She was declared one of the winners along with Ariella Arida. Twenty-three-year-old Bea Rose Santiago represented the Philippines in the Miss International 2013 Beauty Pageant held in Tokyo, Japan in December 2013, she won beating 66 other contestants and became the fifth Filipino to win the title after Gemma Cruz in 1964, Aurora Pijuan in 1970, Melanie Marquez in 1979 and Lara Quigaman in 2005. In an interview after her win, she dedicated her crown to the victims of Typhoon Haiyan. During her reign as Miss International 2013, Bea traveled to Japan, Myanmar for doing charity with ICA. Official Bb. Pilipinas website
Filipinos are the people who are native to or identified with the country of the Philippines. Filipinos come from various ethnolinguistic groups that are native to the islands or migrants from various Asia Pacific regions. There are more than 175 ethnolinguistic groups, each with its own language, identity and history; the modern Filipino identity, with its Austronesian roots, was influenced by Spain and the United States. The name Filipino was derived from the term las Islas Filipinas, the name given to the archipelago in 1543 by the Spanish explorer and Dominican priest Ruy López de Villalobos, in honour of Philip II of Spain. During the Spanish colonial period the term Filipino was used to classify Spaniards born in the Philippine islands, while indigenous peoples of the islands were called Indio. Historian Ambeth Ocampo has suggested that the first documented use of the word to Filipino to refer to Indios was the Spanish-language poem A la juventud filipina, published in 1879 by José Rizal..
The lack of the letter "F" in the pre-1987 Tagalog alphabet caused the letter "P" to be substituted for "F", though the alphabets and/or writing scripts of some non-Tagalog ethnic groups included the letter "F". Upon official adoption of the modern, 28-letter Filipino alphabet in 1987, the term Filipino was preferred over Pilipino. Locally, some still use "Pilipino" to refer to the people and "Filipino" to refer to the language, but in international use "Filipino" is the usual form for both. A number of Filipinos refer to themselves colloquially as "Pinoy", a slang word formed by taking the last four letters of "Filipino" and adding the diminutive suffix "-y". Other collective endonyms for the Filipino people include: "Patria Adorada" as popularized by Jose Rizal through his poem "Mi último adiós", "Bayang Pilipino" or the more poetic "Sambayanáng Pilipino". In 2010, a metatarsal from "Callao Man", discovered in 2007, was dated through uranium-series dating as being 67,000 years old. Prior to that, the earliest human remains found in the Philippines were thought to be the fossilized fragments of a skull and jawbone, discovered in the 1960s by Dr. Robert B.
Fox, an anthropologist from the National Museum. Anthropologists who examined these remains agreed; these include the Homo sapiens. The "Tabon Man" fossils are considered to have come from a third group of inhabitants, who worked the cave between 22,000 and 20,000 BCE. An earlier cave level lies so far below the level containing cooking fire assemblages that it must represent Upper Pleistocene dates like 45 or 50 thousand years ago. Researchers say this indicates that the human remains were pre-Mongoloid, from about 40,000 years ago. Mongoloid is the term which anthropologists applied to the ethnic group which migrated to Southeast Asia during the Holocene period and evolved into the Austronesian people, a group of Malayo-Polynesian-speaking people including those from Indonesia, the Philippines, Malagasy, the non-Chinese Taiwan Aboriginals or Rhea's. Fluctuations in ancient shorelines between 150,000 BC and 17,000 BC connected the Malay Archipelago region with Maritime Southeast Asia and the Philippines.
This may have enabled ancient migrations into the Philippines from Maritime Southeast Asia 50,000 BC to 13,000 BC. A January 2009 study of language phylogenies by R. D. Gray at the University of California, Los Angeles published in the journal Science, suggests that the population expansion of Austronesian peoples was triggered by rising sea levels of the Sunda shelf at the end of the last ice age; this was a two-pronged expansion, which moved north through the Philippines and into Taiwan, while a second expansion prong spread east along the New Guinea coast and into Oceania and Polynesia. The Negritos are descendants of the indigenous populations of the Sunda landmass and New Guinea, pre-dating the Mongoloid peoples who entered Southeast Asia. Multiple studies show that Negritos from Southeast Asia to New Guinea share a closer cranial affinity with Australo-Melanesians, they were the ancestors of such tribes of the Philippines as the Aeta, Ayta, Ati and other similar groups. Today they comprise just 0.03% of the total Philippine population.
The majority of present-day Filipinos are a product of the long process of evolution and movement of people. After the mass migrations through land bridges, migrations continued by boat during the maritime era of South East Asia; the ancient races became homogenized into the Malayo-Polynesians which colonized the majority of the Philippine and Indonesian archipelagos. Since at least the 3rd century, various ethnic groups established several communities; these were formed by the assimilation of various native Philippine kingdoms. South Asian and East Asian people together with the people of the Indonesian archipelago and the Malay Peninsula, traded with Filipinos and introduced Hinduism and Buddhism to the native tribes of the Philippines. Most of these people stayed in the Philippines where they were absorbed into local societies. Many of the barangay were, to a varying extent, under the de jure jurisprudence of one of several neighboring empires, among them the Malay Srivijaya, Javanese Majapahit, Malacca, Indian Chola and Khmer empires, although de facto had established their own independent system of rule.
Trading links with Sumatra, Java, Malay Peninsu
Pia Angela Alonzo Wurtzbach known in the Philippine entertainment and modeling industry as Pia Romero, is a Filipina-German beauty pageant titleholder and actress, crowned Miss Universe 2015 on December 20, 2015. She won the third Miss Universe crown for the Philippines at the Binibining Pilipinas 2015 pageant on March 15, 2015, she has served as a UNAIDS Goodwill Ambassador for Asia & the Pacific since 2016. Wurtzbach is the third Filipina to win the title of Miss Universe, following Gloria Diaz who won in 1969 and Margarita Moran who won in 1973. Wurtzbach was born in Germany to a German father and Filipino mother, her middle name "Alonzo" is her mother's maiden name, as per the naming practice in the Philippines. The family would settle, however, in Iligan in the Philippines and would move to Cagayan de Oro in the country's Northern Mindanao region where she attended kindergarten at Kong Hua School and primary school at Corpus Christi School, her parents separated when she was 9 years old and she became the family's main breadwinner by doing modeling and acting.
After being raised in the Philippines, she spent several years in England. She finished her secondary education at ABS-CBN Distance Learning Center in Quezon City, Metro Manila and studied culinary arts at the Center for Asian Culinary Studies in San Juan, Metro Manila. Wurtzbach speaks fluent Cebuano and Filipino, she speaks basic German, which she described as "enough to get myself a bratwurst". Wurtzbach is a professional model, host and TV personality, she began acting at age four under the stage name Pia Romero. Managed by ABS-CBN Corporation's talent agency, Star Magic, she was included on the Star Circle Batch 11. Among her TV credits are the teen-oriented series K2BU, the concert variety program ASAP, the romance anthology Your Song, the sitcom show Bora, the drama series Sa Piling Mo, she appeared in films such as Kung Ako Na Lang Sana, All My Life, All About Love. She went on to become a stylist, makeup artist and beauty writer for Philippine Daily Inquirer's 2bU section, she had to temporary quit showbiz in order to focus on the Miss Universe Pageant.
In Oct 2017, she returned to ABS-CBN. Wurtzbach joined the Binibining Pilipinas Pageant three times before winning the Binibining Pilipinas Universe title. During Binibining Pilipinas 2013, she was named as the 1st Runner-up, she joined the Binibining Pilipinas 2014, but only placed in the top 15. A controversy erupted, she was asked a question in Tagalog by a Filipino judge, Senator Sonny Angara, which she answered in Tagalog. Online commentators wondered if the question and answer in Tagalog cost her points from the international judges and, any title that year. On her third attempt for the title in 2015, she won the highest title, Miss Universe Philippines and went on to compete in the Miss Universe 2015 Pageant. During the question and answer portion of the pageant she was asked by then-Camarines Sur Representative Leni Robredo: "Social media is now a powerful tool on communication. Can you tell us your thoughts about internet censorship?" She answered: I think that we should be careful about what we post online our thoughts and our opinions, that we don’t hurt anybody selfies, we have to be careful with what we post in our bodies, in our faces.
So always think before you click. Wurtzbach represented the Philippines in the 2015 Miss Universe contest held on December 20, 2015 in Las Vegas, United States. During the first question and answer round, Wurtzbach was asked by host Steve Harvey, "earlier this year, there was a controversy in the Philippines about the United States reopening a military base in your country. Do you think the United States should have a military presence in your country?" Wurtzbach answered: I think that the United States and the Philippines have always had a good relationship with each other. We were colonized by the Americans and we have their culture in our traditions up to this day and I think that we're welcoming with the Americans and I don't see any problem with that at all. In the final question and answer portion, the top three contestants were asked the same question by Harvey: "Why should you be the next Miss Universe?" and she replied: To be a Miss Universe is both an honor and responsibility. If I were to be Miss Universe, I will use my voice to influence the youth, I would raise awareness to certain causes like HIV awareness, timely and relevant to my country, the Philippines.
I want to show the world, the universe rather. Thank you. Wurtzbach's answer references the pageant's motto "Confidently Beautiful". At the end of the show, host Steve Harvey mistakenly announced Miss Colombia Ariadna Gutiérrez as the winner. However, after Gutiérrez's crowning, Harvey returned to the stage and stated that he had misread the results and that Wurtzbach was Miss Universe 2015. Paulina Vega removed the crown from Gutiérrez's head and placed it on Wurtzbach's head. Wurtzbach is the third Miss Universe from the Philippines after Gloria Diaz in 1969, Margarita Moran in 1973. On January 21, 2016, she traveled to Bali, Indonesia to shoot a commercial for C 1000, a vitamin brand available in Indonesia. Two days on January 23, 2016, she arrived in the Philippines for a week-long homecoming celebration with visits to the cities of Manila, Makati and Quezon City, she made courtesy calls to the Congress of the Philippines, Senate of the Philippines and Malacañang Palace. On February 1, 2016, she
Gloria Maria Aspillera Daza, better known as Gloria Diaz, is a Filipino actress, TV host and beauty queen, the first Filipina to win the Miss Universe crown in 1969 in Miami Beach, Florida. Cited as being part of the Díaz clan in newspapers, she is one of twelve children, her sister, Rio Díaz, was an actress and beauty titlist. While studying in college, Díaz was scouted by a pageant aficionado and was convinced to join the sixth edition of Binibining Pilipinas, her looks and, more her wit captivated the audience and she was crowned Binibining Pilipinas - Universe 1969 at 18 years old. Díaz was sent to Miami Beach, Florida, U. S. to compete in Miss Universe 1969. Arriving at the pageant as an early favorite, Díaz did not disappoint and sailed throughout all the pageant's event that led up to the final at the Miami Beach Auditorium. Making it to the Top 5, she participated in the final question round and her answer to the question regarding "men in the moon" charmed the audience and the judges.
She was crowned Miss Universe on 19 July 1969 and becoming the first Filipino to win the Miss Universe crown. News of her victory were communicated to the crew members of the Apollo 11 during their mission. During her reign, Díaz travelled to several countries to promote the advocacies supported by the Miss Universe Organization as well as appeared in many public and television events in the United States. For several decades now, Díaz has been considered a brilliant actress within the world of Philippine cinema and television. Shortly after her reign as Miss Universe ended, she pursued an acting career in the Philippines and in 1975, she was cast in her breakthrough performance as Isabel in the critically acclaimed Ang Pinakamagandang Hayop sa Balat ng Lupa, her performance in the film was met with praise by film critics and was considered one of the most promising breakthroughs of any actress in Philippine cinema. That year, she was nominated for a FAMAS Award for Best Performance by an Actress in a Lead Role.
Díaz continued acting in film for many years before trying out starring in television. It was in 1996, she garnered popularity after appearing in the sitcom Kool Ka Lang on GMA in 1998. That same year, she appeared in the biopic Jose Rizal, where she played Rizal's mother Dona Teodora Alonzo, her portrayal of Rizal's mother won her Best Supporting Actress at the 1998 Metro Manila Film Festival. In 2006, Díaz was cast in the psychological thriller Nasaan Ka Man, alongside award-winning actress Hilda Koronel and Claudine Barretto, Diether Ocampo and Jericho Rosales. For her role as Lilia, a woman trying to suppress her distraught as she tries to keep her family together, she was once again nominated and awarded the FAMAS for Best Supporting Actress. Díaz once again won a FAMAS Award for Best Supporting Actress for her role in the acclaimed Sagrada Familia. On television, she has appeared in Glamorosa, May Isang Pangarap and Dream Dad, she has been part of blockbuster comedies such as 2012's Sisterakas and 2013's Kung Fu Divas.
After 8 years from ABS-CBN Diaz returned to the rival network GMA Network for the comedy-drama series Pamilya Roces. Díaz obtained her high school diploma from the basic education department of St. Scholastica's College Manila, she is separated from businessman Gabriel "Bong" Daza, with whom she has two daughters and Ava and son Raphael. In a TV Patrol interview shortly after the Miss Universe 2010 pageant on 23 August, Díaz commented on Binibining Pilipinas contestant Venus Raj becoming 4th runner-up, she suggested in the interview that Raj and other Filipinas would benefit from answering pageant questions via the use of an interpreter rather than in English. Díaz further said that: "Because when you think about a Cebuana can hardly speak English and of course Tagalog. Maybe she should answer in Bisaya."Her remark sparked outrage amongst many Cebuanos, who felt that Díaz insulted their English proficiency. Cebuano politicians such as Cebu Governor Gwendolyn Garcia and Congresswoman Rachel del Mar called on her to apologise.
In response to the controversy, Díaz saw no need to apologize and instead clarified her remarks: Let me clarify it once and for all. People should have the right to answer in whatever language they want to say it in. If they're Cebuanos, they can say it in Cebuano. I did not say. If you're Ilocano, say it in Ilocano, but if you're Ilocano who speaks good English, say it in English. If you're Cebuano who can speak Spanish, if you're comfortable with Spanish, say it in Spanish. That's that's what I meant. On 1 September 2010, the Vice Mayors' League of the Philippines-Cebu passed a resolution declaring Díaz a persona non grata within Cebu City. 1. 1 Some sources reported her given name as Gloria Maria, however Maria is not indicated on her birth certificate. Gloria Diaz on IMDb
A beauty pageant or beauty contest is a competition that has traditionally focused on judging and ranking the physical attributes of the contestants, although most contests have evolved to incorporate personality traits, intelligence and answers to judges' questions as judged criteria. The term refers to contests for women such as the Big Four international beauty pageants; the organizers of each pageant may determine the rules of the competition, including the age range of contestants. The rules may require the contestants to be unmarried, be "virtuous", "amateur", available for promotions, besides other criteria, it may set the clothing standards in which contestants will be judged, including the type of swimsuit. Beauty pageants are multi-tiered, with local competitions feeding into the larger competitions. For example, the international pageants have thousands of local competitions. Child beauty pageants focus on beauty, sportswear modelling and personal interviews. Adult and teen pageants focus on makeup and gowns, swimsuit modelling, personal interviews.
A winner of a beauty contest is called a beauty queen. The rankings of the contestants are referred to as placements. Possible awards of beauty contests include titles, tiaras or crowns, scepters, savings bonds and cash prizes; however and teen pageants have been moving more towards judging speaking. Some pageants award college scholarships, to multiple runners-up. European festivals dating to the medieval era provide the most direct lineage for beauty pageants. For example, English May Day celebrations always involved the selection of a May Queen. In the United States, the May Day tradition of selecting a woman to serve as a symbol of bounty and community ideals continued, as young beautiful women participated in public celebrations. A beauty pageant was held during the Eglinton Tournament of 1839, organized by Archibald Montgomerie, 13th Earl of Eglinton, as part of a re-enactment of a medieval joust, held in Scotland; the pageant was won by Georgiana Seymour, Duchess of Somerset, the wife of Edward Seymour, 12th Duke of Somerset, sister of Caroline Norton, she was proclaimed as the "Queen of Beauty".
Entrepreneur Phineas Taylor Barnum staged the first modern American pageant in 1854, but his beauty contest was closed down after public protest. Beauty contests became more popular in the 1880s. In 1888, the title of'beauty queen' was awarded to an 18-year-old Creole contestant at a pageant in Spa, Belgium. All participants had to supply a photograph and a short description of themselves to be eligible to enter and a final selection of 21 was judged by a formal panel; such events were not regarded as respectable. Beauty contests came to be considered more respectable with the first modern "Miss America" contest held in 1921; the oldest pageant still in operation today is the Miss America pageant, organized in 1921 by a local businessman as a means to entice tourists to Atlantic City, New Jersey. The pageant hosted the winners of local newspaper beauty contests in the "Inter-City Beauty" Contest, attended by over one hundred thousand people. Sixteen-year-old Margaret Gorman of Washington, D. C. was crowned Miss America 1921, having won both the popularity and beauty contests, was awarded $100.
In May 1920, promoter C. E. Barfield of Galveston, Texas organized a new event known as "Splash Day" on the island; the event featured a "Bathing Girl Revue" competition as the centerpiece of its attractions. The event was the kick-off of the summer tourist season in the city and was carried forward annually; the event became known outside of Texas and, beginning in 1926, the world's first international contest was added, known as the International Pageant of Pulchritude. This contest is said to have served as a model for modern pageants, it featured contestants from England, Russia and many other nations and the title awarded at the time was known as "Miss Universe". The event was discontinued in the United States in 1932 because of the Depression; the popularity of the Miss America pageant prompted other organizations to establish similar contests in the 1950s and beyond. Some were significant; the Miss World contest started in 1951, Miss Universe started in 1952 as did Miss USA. Miss International started in 1960.
Miss Asia Pacific International started in 1968. The Miss Black America contest started in 1968 in response to the exclusion of African American women from the Miss America pageant; the Miss Universe Organization started the Miss Teen USA in 1983 for the 14-19 age group. Miss Earth started in 2001, which channels the beauty pageant entertainment industry as an effective tool to promote the preservation of the environment; these contests continue to this day. The requirement for contestants to wear a swimsuit was a controversial aspect of the various competitions; the controversy was heightened with the increasing popularity of the bikini after its introduction in 1946. The bikini was banned for the Miss America contest in 1947 because of Roman Catholic protesters; when the Miss World contest started in 1951, there was an outcry when the winner was crowned in a bikini. Pope Pius XII condemned the crowning as sinful, countries with religious traditions threatened to withdraw delegates; the bikini was banned for other contests.
It was not until the late 1990s that they became permitted again, but still generated controversy when finals were held in countries where bikinis were disapproved. For example, in 2003, Vida Samadzai from Afghanistan caused