The Wii U is a home video game console developed by Nintendo, and the successor to the Wii. The console was released in November 2012 and was the first eighth-generation video game console, as it competes with Sonys PlayStation 4, the Wii U is the first Nintendo console to support HD graphics. The systems primary controller is the Wii U GamePad, which features a touchscreen, and combines directional buttons, analog sticks. The screen can be used either as a supplement to the display, or in supported games. Online functionality centers around the Nintendo Network platform and Miiverse, a social networking service which allows users to share content in game-specific communities. The Wii U was met with slow consumer adoption, with low sales primarily credited to a lineup of launch titles, third-party support. Wii U production officially ended in January 2017, on March 3,2017, Nintendo released a new flagship home console, the Nintendo Switch. With Wii U, Nintendo wished to bring back core gamers and it was decided that a new console would have to be developed to accommodate significant structural changes.
Ideas on which direction to take for the new led to a lot of debate within the company. The concept of a touchscreen embedded within the controller was originally inspired by the light on the Wii disc tray that illuminates to indicate new messages. Miyamoto and his team wanted to include a screen to provide game feedback. However, Nintendo president Satoru Iwata stated that he saw no significant reason to include HD into the Wii, miyamoto expressed Nintendos interest in working with HD graphics, but clarified that the company is primarily focused on gameplay. Iwata mentioned that the Wiis successor might be 3D-compatible but concluded that the rates of 3D televisions should increase to at least 30% first. Fils-Aimé stated that Nintendos next home console would likely not feature stereoscopic 3D, in April 2011, an uncredited source indicated that Nintendo was planning to unveil a successor to the Wii known as Project Café at its E32011 presentation. Café was claimed to be a high definition console, would have backward compatibility with Wii software.
On April 25,2011, Nintendo released a statement announcing a system to succeed the Wii to be released during 2012. Speaking at a conference, Iwata stated the Wii successor would offer something new for home game systems. He confirmed that the device would not launch in fiscal year 2012, Game was teased, and Electronic Arts then-CEO John Riccitiello appeared on-stage to discuss the companys prospective plans for products on Wii U
Linux is a Unix-like computer operating system assembled under the model of free and open-source software development and distribution. The defining component of Linux is the Linux kernel, an operating system kernel first released on September 17,1991 by Linus Torvalds, the Free Software Foundation uses the name GNU/Linux to describe the operating system, which has led to some controversy. Linux was originally developed for computers based on the Intel x86 architecture. Because of the dominance of Android on smartphones, Linux has the largest installed base of all operating systems. Linux is the operating system on servers and other big iron systems such as mainframe computers. It is used by around 2. 3% of desktop computers, the Chromebook, which runs on Chrome OS, dominates the US K–12 education market and represents nearly 20% of the sub-$300 notebook sales in the US. Linux runs on embedded systems – devices whose operating system is built into the firmware and is highly tailored to the system.
This includes TiVo and similar DVR devices, network routers, facility automation controls, many smartphones and tablet computers run Android and other Linux derivatives. The development of Linux is one of the most prominent examples of free, the underlying source code may be used and distributed—commercially or non-commercially—by anyone under the terms of its respective licenses, such as the GNU General Public License. Typically, Linux is packaged in a known as a Linux distribution for both desktop and server use. Distributions intended to run on servers may omit all graphical environments from the standard install, because Linux is freely redistributable, anyone may create a distribution for any intended use. The Unix operating system was conceived and implemented in 1969 at AT&Ts Bell Laboratories in the United States by Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie, Douglas McIlroy, first released in 1971, Unix was written entirely in assembly language, as was common practice at the time. Later, in a key pioneering approach in 1973, it was rewritten in the C programming language by Dennis Ritchie, the availability of a high-level language implementation of Unix made its porting to different computer platforms easier.
Due to an earlier antitrust case forbidding it from entering the computer business, as a result, Unix grew quickly and became widely adopted by academic institutions and businesses. In 1984, AT&T divested itself of Bell Labs, freed of the legal obligation requiring free licensing, the GNU Project, started in 1983 by Richard Stallman, has the goal of creating a complete Unix-compatible software system composed entirely of free software. Later, in 1985, Stallman started the Free Software Foundation, by the early 1990s, many of the programs required in an operating system were completed, although low-level elements such as device drivers and the kernel were stalled and incomplete. Linus Torvalds has stated that if the GNU kernel had been available at the time, although not released until 1992 due to legal complications, development of 386BSD, from which NetBSD, OpenBSD and FreeBSD descended, predated that of Linux. Torvalds has stated that if 386BSD had been available at the time, although the complete source code of MINIX was freely available, the licensing terms prevented it from being free software until the licensing changed in April 2000
MPEG-1 is a standard for lossy compression of video and audio. Today, MPEG-1 has become the most widely compatible lossy audio/video format in the world, perhaps the best-known part of the MPEG-1 standard is the MP3 audio format it introduced. The MPEG-1 standard is published as ISO/IEC11172 – Information technology—Coding of moving pictures, MPEG was formed to address the need for standard video and audio formats, and to build on H.261 to get better quality through the use of more complex encoding methods. Development of the MPEG-1 standard began in May 1988, fourteen video and fourteen audio codec proposals were submitted by individual companies and institutions for evaluation. The codecs were extensively tested for computational complexity and subjective quality and this specific bitrate was chosen for transmission over T-1/E-1 lines and as the approximate data rate of audio CDs. The codecs that excelled in testing were utilized as the basis for the standard and refined further, with additional features.
The reported completion date of the MPEG-1 standard varies greatly, a complete draft standard was produced in September 1990. The draft standard was publicly available for purchase, the standard was finished with the 6 November 1992 meeting. The Berkeley Plateau Multimedia Research Group developed an MPEG-1 decoder in November 1992, due in part to the similarity between the two codecs, the MPEG-2 standard includes full backwards compatibility with MPEG-1 video, so any MPEG-2 decoder can play MPEG-1 videos. This means that MPEG-1 coding efficiency can vary depending on the encoder used. The first three parts of ISO/IEC11172 were published in August 1993, the ISO patent database lists one patent for ISO11172, US4,472,747, which expired in 2003. The near-complete draft of the MPEG-1 standard was publicly available as ISO CD11172 by December 6,1991, a May 2009 discussion on the whatwg mailing list mentioned US5,214,678 patent as possibly covering MPEG audio layer II. Filed in 1990 and published in 1993, this patent is now expired, most popular software for video playback includes MPEG-1 decoding, in addition to any other supported formats.
The popularity of MP3 audio has established a massive installed base of hardware that can play back MPEG-1 Audio, virtually all digital audio devices can play back MPEG-1 Audio. Many millions have been sold to-date, before MPEG-2 became widespread, many digital satellite/cable TV services used MPEG-1 exclusively. The widespread popularity of MPEG-2 with broadcasters means MPEG-1 is playable by most digital cable and satellite set-top boxes, MPEG-1 was used for full-screen video on Green Book CD-i, and on Video CD. The Super Video CD standard, based on VCD, uses MPEG-1 audio exclusively, the DVD-Video format uses MPEG-2 video primarily, but MPEG-1 support is explicitly defined in the standard. The DVD-Video standard originally required MPEG-1 Layer II audio for PAL countries, MPEG-1 Layer II audio is still allowed on DVDs, although newer extensions to the format, like MPEG Multichannel, are rarely supported
The Nintendo Switch is the seventh major home video game console developed by Nintendo. Known in development as the NX, it was unveiled in October 2016, Nintendo considers the Switch a hybrid console, it is designed primarily as a home console, with the main unit inserted onto a docking station to connect to a television. Alternatively, it can be removed from the dock and used similarly to a computer through its LCD touchscreen. The Switch supports both physical flash ROM cartridges and digital content for games and software, and does not use region locking. From 2014, Nintendo had several quarters of financial losses due to poor sales of its previous console, the Wii U. Then-Nintendo president Satoru Iwata pushed the company towards mobile gaming and novel hardware, the Switchs design is aimed at a wider demographic of video game players through the multiple modes of use, while retaining Nintendos hardware uniqueness and innovation. Nintendo saw 2014 as one of its largest financial losses in its modern history, the company had been hesitant about this market, with then-president Satoru Iwata considering that they would cease to be Nintendo and lose their identity if they attempted to enter it.
Following Iwatas death in July 2015, Kimishima was named as president of Nintendo, in an interview with Asahi Shimbun, Kimishima stated that the Switch was designed to provide a new way to play that would have a larger impact than the Wii U. In some cases, games for the Switch are designed to encourage social interactions in groups, Kimishima said that as Nintendo is an entertainment company, they see games on the Switch that encourage enjoyable social interactions such as these as supporting their ultimate goals. EPD deputy general manager Yoshiaki Koizumi served as the producer of the Switch during development. According to Miyamoto, the Switchs development within Nintendo was headed by employees, with him saying. its really been them that have put this forward. For Miyamoto, his limited involvement allowed him to more time on Nintendos software titles being developed at the time. The development of the Switch continued Nintendos blue ocean approach for the competitive console marketplace, One choice made by the development team was to use an existing system on a chip rather than creating their own as they had done on previous consoles.
Koizumi said that this break from tradition was to help be able to gain more third-party support for the console by using an SOC they could easily port to. The first public news of the Switch hardware was alongside the announcement of Nintendo, at this stage, Nintendo referred to the console under the codename NX, and described it as a brand new concept. At an investors meeting in April 2016, Nintendo announced that it planned to release the NX worldwide in March 2017. At a Nintendo shareholders meeting following the conference, Miyamoto stated that the company had concerns that competitors could copy ideas from the NX if they revealed it too soon. The following month, rumors began to surface surrounding the nature of the console, including its use of Nvidia Tegra hardware, and being a hybrid device intended for both home and mobile use
The Xbox 360 is a home video game console developed by Microsoft. As the successor to the original Xbox, it is the console in the Xbox series. The Xbox 360 competed with Sonys PlayStation 3 and Nintendos Wii as part of the generation of video game consoles. The Xbox 360 was officially unveiled on MTV on May 12,2005, with detailed launch, the Xbox 360 features an online service, Xbox Live, which was expanded from its previous iteration on the original Xbox and received regular updates during the consoles lifetime. In addition to multimedia features, the Xbox 360 allows users to stream media from local PCs. Several peripherals have been released, including controllers, expanded hard drive storage. The release of additional services and peripherals helped the Xbox brand grow from gaming-only to encompassing all multimedia. Launched worldwide across 2005–2006, the Xbox 360 was initially in short supply in many regions, including North America, the earliest versions of the console suffered from a high failure rate, indicated by the so-called Red Ring of Death, necessitating an extension of the devices warranty period.
Microsoft released two redesigned models of the console, the Xbox 360 S in 2010, and the Xbox 360 E in 2013. As of June 2014,84 million Xbox 360 consoles have sold worldwide, making it the sixth-highest-selling video game console in history. The Xbox 360s successor, the Xbox One, was released on November 22,2013, on April 20,2016, Microsoft announced that it would end the production of new Xbox 360 hardware, although the company will continue to support the platform. Known during development as Xbox Next, Xbox 2, Xbox FS or NextBox, in February 2003, planning for the Xenon software platform began, and was headed by Microsofts Vice President J Allard. That month, Microsoft held an event for 400 developers in Bellevue, that month, Peter Moore, former president of Sega of America, joined Microsoft. On August 12,2003, ATI signed on to produce the graphic processing unit for the new console, before the launch of the Xbox 360, several Alpha development kits were spotted using Apples Power Mac G5 hardware.
This was because the systems PowerPC970 processor running the same PowerPC architecture that the Xbox 360 would eventually run under IBMs Xenon processor, the cores of the Xenon processor were developed using a slightly modified version of the PlayStation 3s Cell Processor PPE architecture. According to David Shippy and Mickie Phipps, the IBM employees were hiding their work from Sony and Toshiba, jeff Minter created the music visualization program Neon which is included with the Xbox 360. The Xbox 360 was released on November 22,2005, in the United States and Canada, December 2,2005, in Europe and December 10,2005, in Japan. It was launched in Mexico, Chile, Hong Kong, South Korea, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and Russia
Multimedia is content that uses a combination of different content forms such as text, images, animations and interactive content. Multimedia contrasts with media that use only rudimentary computer displays such as text-only or traditional forms of printed or hand-produced material, Multimedia devices are electronic media devices used to store and experience multimedia content. Multimedia is distinguished from mixed media in art, for example. The term rich media is synonymous with interactive multimedia, the term multimedia was coined by singer and artist Bob Goldstein to promote the July 1966 opening of his LightWorks at LOursin show at Southampton, Long Island. Goldstein was perhaps aware of an American artist named Dick Higgins, two years later, in 1968, the term multimedia was re-appropriated to describe the work of a political consultant, David Sawyer, the husband of Iris Sawyer—one of Goldsteins producers at LOursin. In the intervening forty years, the word has taken on different meanings, in the late 1970s, the term referred to presentations consisting of multi-projector slide shows timed to an audio track.
However, by the 1990s multimedia took on its current meaning, in the 1993 first edition of Multimedia, Making It Work, Tay Vaughan declared Multimedia is any combination of text, graphic art, sound and video that is delivered by computer. When you allow the user – the viewer of the project – to control what, when you provide a structure of linked elements through which the user can navigate, interactive multimedia becomes hypermedia. The German language society Gesellschaft für deutsche Sprache recognized the words significance, the institute summed up its rationale by stating has become a central word in the wonderful new media world. In common usage, multimedia refers to an electronically delivered combination of media including video, still images, much of the content on the web today falls within this definition as understood by millions. That era saw a boost in the production of educational multimedia CD-ROMs, the term video, if not used exclusively to describe motion photography, is ambiguous in multimedia terminology.
Video is often used to describe the format, delivery format. Multiple forms of content are often not considered modern forms of presentation such as audio or video. Likewise, single forms of content with single methods of information processing are often called multimedia. Performing arts may be considered multimedia considering that performers and props are multiple forms of content and media. Multimedia presentations may be viewed by person on stage, transmitted, a broadcast may be a live or recorded multimedia presentation. Broadcasts and recordings can be analog or digital electronic media technology. Digital online multimedia may be downloaded or streamed, streaming multimedia may be live or on-demand
The Xbox One is a home video game console developed by Microsoft. It is the first Xbox game console to be released in China, Microsoft marketed the device as an all-in-one entertainment system. The Xbox One mainly competes against consoles such as Sonys PlayStation 4, the console optionally includes a redesigned Kinect sensor, marketed as the Kinect 2.0, providing improved motion tracking and voice recognition for use in its graphical user interface and games. The Xbox One offers the ability for users to record and share clips from gameplay or live-stream directly to Twitch, the consoles controller was redesigned over the Xbox 360s, with a redesigned body, D-pad and triggers capable of delivering directional haptic feedback. The Xbox One received mostly positive reception for its refined design, multimedia features. Its original user interface was panned for being nonintuitive, although changes made to it and its Kinect received praise for its improved motion-tracking accuracy, its face recognition logins, and its voice commands.
A redesigned model known as Xbox One S was released in August 2016, it has a design, native support for 4K video playback and upscaling. It was praised for its size, its on-screen visual improvements, and its lack of an external power supply. Xbox One is the successor to Xbox 360, Microsofts previous video game console, over the years, the 360 had received a number of small hardware revisions to reduce the units size and improve its reliability. Initial hardware for the 360s successor, commonly referred to by the industry as the Xbox 720, was reportedly under development as early as May 2011, the official developer kit was codenamed Durango, and appeared to be available to developers by mid-2012. The console was unveiled under the name Xbox One on May 21,2013 in a press conference designed to cover the units broad multimedia. A second press event for the console was held during E32013, at that time, Microsoft announced that the console would be released in 21 different markets on November 22,2013, but this was amended down to 13.
The change, which pushed the date for the other eight markets to 2014, was attributed to unforeseen complexity in localizing the devices voice recognition capabilities. Later, in September 2014, the Xbox One was released in 26 markets, including remaining markets in Europe, the Japanese market, from the first announcement to the actual launch of the product, Microsoft made some significant changes to the console. These policies were reversed in June 2013, at the time of the security breach, Microsoft was in the development stage for its next-generation gaming system. Between 2011 and 2013, the hackers spent hundreds of hours searching through Microsofts network copying log-in credentials, source code, technical specifications, Group members say they were driven by an immense curiosity about Microsofts then-unreleased Xbox One console and associated software. The original Xbox Ones exterior casing consists of a two-tone liquid black finish, with finished in a matte grey. The matte side of the top of the consists of a large air vent
The Wii is a home video game console released by Nintendo on November 19,2006. As a seventh-generation console, the Wii competed with Microsofts Xbox 360, Nintendo states that its console targets a broader demographic than that of the two others. The Wii introduced the Wii Remote controller, which can be used as a pointing device. Another notable feature of the console is the now defunct WiiConnect24, like other seventh-generation consoles, it features a game download service, called Virtual Console, which features emulated games from past systems. It succeeded the GameCube, and early models are fully backward-compatible with all GameCube games, Nintendo first spoke of the console at the E32004 press conference and unveiled it at E32005. Nintendo CEO Satoru Iwata revealed a prototype of the controller at the September 2005 Tokyo Game Show, at E32006, the console won the first of several awards. By December 8,2006, it had completed its launch in the four key markets, in late 2011, Nintendo released a reconfigured model, the Wii Family Edition, which lacks Nintendo GameCube compatibility, this model was not released in Japan.
The Wii Mini, Nintendos first major redesign since the compact SNES. The Wii Mini can only play Wii optical discs, as it omits GameCube compatibility and all networking capabilities, the Wiis successor, the Wii U, was released on November 18,2012. On October 20,2013, Nintendo confirmed it had discontinued production of the Wii in Japan and Europe, although the Wii Mini is still in production, the console was conceived in 2001, as the Nintendo GameCube was first released. According to an interview with Nintendo game designer Shigeru Miyamoto, the concept involved focusing on a new form of player interaction, the consensus was that power isnt everything for a console. Too many powerful consoles cant coexist and its like having only ferocious dinosaurs. They might fight and hasten their own extinction, in 2003, game engineers and designers were brought together to develop the concept further. By 2005 the controller interface had taken form, but a showing at that years Electronic Entertainment Expo was canceled.
Miyamoto stated that the company had some troubleshooting to do, so we decided not to reveal the controller and instead we displayed just the console. Nintendo president Satoru Iwata unveiled and demonstrated the Wii Remote at the September Tokyo Game Show, the Nintendo DS is said to have influenced the Wiis design. Designer Kenichiro Ashida noted, We had the DS on our minds as we worked on the Wii and we thought about copying the DSs touch-panel interface and even came up with a prototype. The idea was rejected because of the notion that the two gaming systems would be identical
Android (operating system)
Android is a mobile operating system developed by Google, based on the Linux kernel and designed primarily for touchscreen mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets. In addition to devices, Google has further developed Android TV for televisions, Android Auto for cars. Variants of Android are used on notebooks, game consoles, digital cameras, beginning with the first commercial Android device in September 2008, the operating system has gone through multiple major releases, with the current version being 7.0 Nougat, released in August 2016. Android applications can be downloaded from the Google Play store, which features over 2.7 million apps as of February 2017, Android has been the best-selling OS on tablets since 2013, and runs on the vast majority of smartphones. In September 2015, Android had 1.4 billion monthly active users, Android is popular with technology companies that require a ready-made, low-cost and customizable operating system for high-tech devices. The success of Android has made it a target for patent, Android Inc.
was founded in Palo Alto, California in October 2003 by Andy Rubin, Rich Miner, Nick Sears, and Chris White. Rubin described the Android project as tremendous potential in developing smarter mobile devices that are aware of its owners location. The early intentions of the company were to develop an operating system for digital cameras. Despite the past accomplishments of the founders and early employees, Android Inc. operated secretly and that same year, Rubin ran out of money. Steve Perlman, a friend of Rubin, brought him $10,000 in cash in an envelope. In July 2005, Google acquired Android Inc. for at least $50 million and its key employees, including Rubin and White, joined Google as part of the acquisition. Not much was known about Android at the time, with Rubin having only stated that they were making software for mobile phones, at Google, the team led by Rubin developed a mobile device platform powered by the Linux kernel. Google marketed the platform to handset makers and carriers on the promise of providing a flexible, upgradeable system, Google had lined up a series of hardware components and software partners and signaled to carriers that it was open to various degrees of cooperation.
Speculation about Googles intention to enter the communications market continued to build through December 2006. In September 2007, InformationWeek covered an Evalueserve study reporting that Google had filed several patent applications in the area of mobile telephony, the first commercially available smartphone running Android was the HTC Dream, known as T-Mobile G1, announced on September 23,2008. Since 2008, Android has seen numerous updates which have improved the operating system, adding new features. Each major release is named in order after a dessert or sugary treat, with the first few Android versions being called Cupcake, Eclair. In 2010, Google launched its Nexus series of devices, a lineup in which Google partnered with different device manufacturers to produce new devices and introduce new Android versions
International Electrotechnical Commission
The IEC manages three global conformity assessment systems that certify whether equipment, system or components conform to its International Standards. The first International Electrical Congress took place in 1881 at the International Exposition of Electricity, at that time the International System of Electrical and Magnetic Units was agreed to. The IEC was instrumental in developing and distributing standards for units of measurement, particularly Gauss, Hertz and it first proposed a system of standards, the Giorgi System, which ultimately became the SI, or Système International d’unités. In 1938, it published a multilingual international vocabulary to unify terminology relating to electrical and this effort continues, and the International Electrotechnical Vocabulary remains an important work in the electrical and electronic industries. The CISPR – in English, the International Special Committee on Radio Interference – is one of the groups founded by the IEC, originally located in London, the commission moved to its current headquarters in Geneva in 1948.
It has regional centres in Asia-Pacific, Latin America and North America, the IEC is the worlds leading international organization in its field, and its standards are adopted as national standards by its members. The work is done by some 10,000 electrical and electronics experts from industry, academia, test labs, IEC standards have numbers in the range 60000–79999 and their titles take a form such as IEC60417, Graphical symbols for use on equipment. Following the Dresden Agreement with CENELEC the numbers of older IEC standards were converted in 1997 by adding 60000, for example IEC27 became IEC60027. Standards of the 60000 series are preceded by EN to indicate that the IEC standard is adopted by CENELEC as a European standard. The IEC cooperates closely with the International Organization for Standardization and the International Telecommunication Union, Standards developed jointly with ISO such as ISO/IEC26300, ISO/IEC27001, and CASCO ISO/IEC17000 series, carry the acronym of both organizations.
The use of the ISO/IEC prefix covers publications from ISO/IEC Joint Technical Committee 1 - Information Technology, as well as conformity assessment standards developed by ISO CASCO, other standards developed in cooperation between IEC and ISO are assigned numbers in the 80000 series, such as IEC 82045-1. IEC standards are being adopted by other certifying bodies such as BSI, CSA, UL & ANSI/INCITS, SABS, SAI, SPC/GB, IEC standards adopted by other certifying bodies may have some noted differences from the original IEC standard. The IEC is made up of members, called national committees, national committees are constituted in different ways. Some NCs are public sector only, some are a combination of public and private sector, about 90% of those who prepare IEC standards work in industry