8 Spruce Street
8 Spruce Street known as Beekman Tower and marketed as New York by Gehry, is a 76-story skyscraper designed by architect Frank Gehry in the New York City borough of Manhattan at 8 Spruce Street, between William and Nassau Streets, in Lower Manhattan, just south of City Hall Park and the Brooklyn Bridge. 8 Spruce Street is one of the tallest residential towers in the world, it was the tallest residential tower in the Western Hemisphere at the time of opening in February 2011. The building was developed by Forest City Ratner, designed by Frank Gehry Architects and WSP Cantor Seinuk Structural Engineers, constructed by Kreisler Borg Florman, it contains a public elementary school owned by the Department of Education. Above that and grade-level retail, the tower contains only residential rental units, a rarity in New York's Financial District; the skyscraper's structural frame is made of reinforced concrete, form-wise it falls within the architectural style of Deconstructivism along with Aqua, a skyscraper in Chicago begun after but completed before 8 Spruce.
The school is sheathed in reddish-tan brick, covers 100,000 square feet of the first five floors of the building. It hosts over 600 students enrolled in pre-kindergarten through eighth grade classes. A fourth floor roof deck holds 5,000 square feet of outdoor play space. Above the elementary school is a 904-unit luxury residential tower clad in stainless steel; the apartments range from 500 square feet to 1,600 square feet, consist of studios, one-, two- and three-bedroom units. All units are priced with no low or moderate income-restricted apartments. All units are rental-only; the building included space for New York Downtown Hospital next door. The hospital was allocated 25,000 square feet, of parking below ground, it was never used. As of 2016, it is a commercially-operated valet parking garage. There are public plazas on both the east and west sides of the building, one 11,000 square feet and the other somewhat smaller. Street-level retail, totaling 1,300 to 2,500 square feet, is included as part of the project.
Early reviews of the 8 Spruce Street tower have been favorable. In The New York Times, architecture critic Nicolai Ouroussoff praised the building's design as a welcome addition to the skyline of New York, calling it: "the finest skyscraper to rise in New York since Eero Saarinen's CBS Building went up 46 years ago". New Yorker magazine's Paul Goldberger described it as "one of the most beautiful towers downtown". Comparing Gehry's tower to the nearby Woolworth Building, completed in 1913, Goldberger said, "It is the first thing built downtown since that deserves to stand beside it."CityRealty architecture critic Carter Horsely hailed the project, saying "the building would have been an unquestioned architectural masterpiece if the south façade had continued the crinkling and if the base had continued the stainless-steel cladding. So, it is as majestic as its cross-town rival, the great neo-Gothic Woolworth Building designed by Cass Gilbert at 233 Broadway on the other side of City Hall Park."
Gehry designed both the exterior and amenities spaces, along with all 20 model apartments. The building received the Emporis Skyscraper Award for 2011. 11 Hoyt List of tallest buildings in New York City List of tallest buildings in the United States List of tallest buildings in the world List of works by Frank Gehry List of tallest residential buildings in the world Official website
Venice, Los Angeles
Venice is a residential and recreational beachfront neighborhood within Los Angeles, California. It is located within the urban region of western Los Angeles County known as the Westside. Venice was founded in 1905 as a seaside resort town, it was an independent city until 1926. Today, Venice is known for its canals and the circus-like Ocean Front Walk, a two-and-a-half-mile pedestrian promenade that features performers, mystics and vendors. In the half of the 2010s, the neighborhood has faced severe gentrification raising real-estate prices and thereby pushing out long-term inhabitants. In 1839, a region called La Ballona that included the southern parts of Venice, was granted by the Mexican government to Machados and Talamantes, giving them title to Rancho La Ballona; this became part of Port Ballona. Venice called "Venice of America," was founded by tobacco millionaire Abbot Kinney in 1905 as a beach resort town, 14 miles west of Los Angeles, he and his partner Francis Ryan had bought two miles of oceanfront property south of Santa Monica in 1891.
They built a resort town on the north end of the property, called Ocean Park, soon annexed to Santa Monica. After Ryan died and his new partners continued building south of Navy Street. After the partnership dissolved in 1904, who had won the marshy land on the south end of the property in a coin flip with his former partners, began to build a seaside resort like the namesake Italian city; when Venice of America opened on July 4, 1905, Kinney had dug several miles of canals to drain the marshes for his residential area, built a 1,200-foot -long pleasure pier with an auditorium, ship restaurant, dance hall, constructed a hot salt-water plunge, built a block-long arcaded business street with Venetian architecture. Kinney hired artist Felix Peano to design the columns of the buildings.:22 Included in the capitals are several faces, modeled after Kinney himself and a local girl named Nettie Bouck. Tourists arriving on the "Red Cars" of the Pacific Electric Railway from Los Angeles and Santa Monica rode the Venice Miniature Railway and gondolas to tour the town.
The biggest attraction was Venice's mile-long sloping beach. Cottages and housekeeping tents were available for rent; the population soon exceeded 10,000. Attractions on the Kinney Pier became more amusement-oriented by 1910, when a Venice Miniature Railway, Virginia Reel, Racing Derby, other rides and game booths were added. Since the business district was allotted only three one-block-long streets, the City Hall was more than a mile away, other competing business districts developed; this created a fractious political climate. Kinney, governed with an iron hand and kept things in check; when he died in November 1920, Venice became harder to govern. With the amusement pier burning six weeks in December 1920, Prohibition, the town's tax revenue was affected; the Kinney family rebuilt their amusement pier to compete with Ocean Park's Pickering Pleasure Pier and the new Sunset Pier. When it opened it had two roller coasters, a new Racing Derby, a Noah's Ark, a Mill Chutes, many other rides. By 1925 with the addition of a third coaster, a tall Dragon Slide, Fun House, Flying Circus aerial ride, it was the finest amusement pier on the West Coast.
Several hundred thousand tourists visited on weekends. In 1923 Charles Lick built the Lick Pier at Navy Street in Venice, adjacent to the Ocean Park Pier at Pier Avenue in Ocean Park. Another pier was planned for Venice in 1925 at Leona Street. For the amusement of the public, Kinney hired aviators to do aerial stunts over the beach. One of them, movie aviator and Venice airport owner B. H. DeLay, implemented the first lighted airport in the United States on DeLay Field, he initiated the first aerial police in the nation, after a marine rescue attempt was thwarted. DeLay performed many of the world's first aerial stunts for motion pictures in Venice. By 1925, Venice's politics had become unmanageable, its roads and sewage systems badly needed repair and expansion to keep up with its growing population. When it was proposed that Venice be annexed to Los Angeles, the board of trustees voted to hold an election. Annexation was approved in the election in November 1925, Venice was formally annexed to Los Angeles in 1926.
Los Angeles proceeded to remake Venice in its own image. It was felt that the town needed more streets—not canals—and most of them were paved in 1929 after a three-year court battle led by canal residents. Following their annexation to Los Angeles, its Parks and Recreation department intended to close Venice's three amusement piers, but had to wait until the first of the tidelands leases expired in 1946. In 1929, oil was discovered south of Washington Street on the Venice Peninsula, now known as the Marina Peninsula neighborhood of Los Angeles. Within two years, 450 oil wells covered the area, drilling waste clogged the remaining waterways, it was a short-lived boom that provided needed income to the community, which suffered during the Great Depression. The wells produced oil into the 1970s. Los Angeles had neglected Venice so long that, by the 1950s, it had become the "Slum by the Sea." With the exception of new police and fire stations in 1930, the city spent little on improvements after annexation.
The city did not pave Trolleyway until 1954 when state funds became available. Low rents for run-down bungalows attrac
Anaheim Ice known as Disney Ice, is an indoor ice rink complex in Anaheim, California. It is known for being one of the major works of architect Frank Gehry, it is the practice and training rink of the Anaheim Ducks of the National Hockey League, hosts youth hockey, figure skating events, public skating. Additionally, it serves as the home rink for the University of Southern California club hockey team, was the site of the 2010 PAC-8 Hockey Conference Tournament, hosted by USC. Disney Ice was commissioned by Disney's then-CEO Michael Eisner, who said, "I was looking for the next generation of American architects -- and he was on the list of architects who were pushing the envelope. We bought a hockey team. We needed a practice rink." The facility resembles a pair of huge quonset huts, has a wooden interior with laminated beams and braces, producing "a nautical effect that recalls the inverted ship shape of Gehry's Disney Concert Hall". It opened in 1995; when the Anaheim Ducks were sold to Henry Samueli and his wife Susan in 2005, Disney Ice was sold to the Samuelis, who renamed it Anaheim Ice.
The Ducks will relocate their practices to the Great Park ICE at Orange County Great Park in 2019. Official website
BP Pedestrian Bridge
The BP Pedestrian Bridge, or BP Bridge, is a girder footbridge in the Loop community area of Chicago, United States. It spans Columbus Drive to connect Maggie Daley Park with Millennium Park, both parts of the larger Grant Park. Designed by Pritzker Prize-winning architect Frank Gehry and structurally engineered by Skidmore and Merrill, it opened along with the rest of Millennium Park on July 16, 2004. Gehry had been courted by the city to design the bridge and the neighboring Jay Pritzker Pavilion, agreed to do so after the Pritzker family funded the Pavilion. Named for energy firm BP, which donated $5 million toward its construction, it is the first Gehry-designed bridge to have been completed. BP Bridge is described as snakelike because of its curving form. Designed to bear a heavy load without structural problems caused by its own weight, it has won awards for its use of sheet metal; the bridge is known for its aesthetics, Gehry's style is seen in its biomorphic allusions and extensive sculptural use of stainless steel plates to express abstraction.
The pedestrian bridge serves. It is a connecting link between Millennium Park and destinations to the east, such as the nearby lakefront, other parts of Grant Park and a parking garage. BP Bridge uses a concealed box girder design with a concrete base, its deck is covered by hardwood floor boards, it is designed without handrails. The total length is 935 feet, with a five percent slope on its inclined surfaces that makes it barrier free and accessible. Although the bridge is closed in winter because ice cannot be safely removed from its wooden walkway, it has received favorable reviews for its design and aesthetics. Since the mid-19th century, Grant Park has been Chicago's "front yard", with Lake Michigan to the east and the Loop to the west. Columbus Drive runs north–south through Grant Park, with Daley Bicentennial Plaza in the northeast corner of the park. West of Columbus Drive, the northwest corner of the park had been Illinois Central rail yards and parking lots until 1997, when it became available for development by the city as Millennium Park.
Millennium Park is north of Monroe Street and the Art Institute, east of Michigan Avenue, south of Randolph Street. For 2007, Millennium Park trailed only Navy Pier as a Chicago tourist attraction. In February 1999, the city announced it was negotiating with Frank Gehry to design a proscenium arch and orchestra enclosure for a band shell in the new park, as well as a pedestrian bridge crossing Columbus Drive between Millennium Park and Daley Bicentennial Plaza; the city sought donors to cover the cost of Gehry's work, which would become Jay Pritzker Pavilion and the BP Pedestrian Bridge. At the time, the Chicago Tribune dubbed Gehry "the hottest architect in the universe" in reference to the acclaim for his Guggenheim Museum Bilbao. Millennium Park project manager Edward Uhlir said "Frank is just the cutting edge of the next century of architecture", noted that no other architect was being sought. Gehry was approached several times by Skidmore, Owings & Merrill architect Adrian Smith on behalf of the city.
In April 1999, the city announced that the Pritzker family had donated $15 million to fund Gehry's band shell and an additional nine donors committed a total of $10 million more to the park. That same day, Gehry agreed to the design request. In November 1999, when he unveiled his initial plans for the bridge and band shell, Gehry admitted the bridge's design was underdeveloped because funding for it was not yet committed. At this early point, the need for a sound barrier for Columbus Drive traffic noise was recognized, although Gehry indicated this might take the form of a berm, or raised barrier; the need to fund a bridge to span the eight-lane Columbus Drive was evident, but some planning for the park was delayed in anticipation of details on the redesign of Soldier Field. In January 2000, the city announced plans to expand the park to include features that became Cloud Gate, Crown Fountain, the McDonald's Cycle Center, the BP Pedestrian Bridge; that month, Gehry unveiled his next design, which depicted a winding bridge.
While the neighboring Jay Pritzker Pavilion changed little from Gehry's 1999 design when built, the bridge went through several proposed designs. The proposal made in early 2000, expected to be executed in 2002, included a bridge, a mere 170 feet long and 20 feet wide; that design was not approved, Chicago Mayor Richard M. Daley's disapproval of Gehry's subsequent design of an 800–900-foot bridge caused Gehry to come up with ten more designs; the first of these plans was for a Z-shaped bridge that would have run northwest–southeast with western ramps in Millennium Park, leading south, eastern ramps in the empty north section of Daley Bicentennial Plaza, leading north. It would have required elevators to conform to the Americans with Disabilities Act; this plan was abandoned. Gehry had only designed two bridges both in the mid-1990s but neither was built; the final design for the bridge was revealed in an exhibit at the Chicago Cultural Center on June 10, 2000. As designed and built, the bridge is 935 feet long and 20 feet wide, with a 14-foot-6-inch Columbus Drive clearance.
The clearance was designed to exceed the 14-foot standard set by the United States Department of Transportation Federal Highway Administration for urban area interstate bridge clear
The IAC Building, InterActiveCorp's headquarters located at 555 West 18th Street on the northeast corner of Eleventh Avenue in the Chelsea neighborhood of Manhattan, New York City, is a Frank Gehry-designed building, completed in 2007. The building was Gehry's first in New York and featured the world's largest high definition screen at the time in its lobby. Reminiscent of several other Gehry designs, the building appears to consist of two major levels: a large base of twisted tower-sections packed together like the cells of a bee hive, with a second bundle of lesser diameter sitting on top of the first; the cell units have the appearance of sails skinned over the skeleton of the building. The full-height windows fade from clear to white on the bottom edges of each story; the overall impression is of two tall stories, which belies its actual 10-story structure. Vanity Fair commented that the building is one of the world's most attractive office buildings. Barry Diller, the head of IAC, intimately involved with the project, mandated that the facade be covered in smooth glass rather than wrinkling titanium, as Gehry had planned.
Diller said he chose Gehry to design the building because he wanted a space where workers "could collaborate and be in an open atmosphere" which he did not think could be done as in a typical boxy building. The IAC Building is featured in the movies The Other Guys and Wall Street: Money Never Sleeps IAC Video Wall Notes Official website
Los Angeles the City of Los Angeles and known by its initials L. A. is the most populous city in California, the second most populous city in the United States, after New York City, the third most populous city in North America. With an estimated population of four million, Los Angeles is the cultural and commercial center of Southern California; the city is known for its Mediterranean climate, ethnic diversity and the entertainment industry, its sprawling metropolis. Los Angeles is the largest city on the West Coast of North America. Los Angeles is in a large basin bounded by the Pacific Ocean on one side and by mountains as high as 10,000 feet on the other; the city proper, which covers about 469 square miles, is the seat of Los Angeles County, the most populated county in the country. Los Angeles is the principal city of the Los Angeles metropolitan area, the second largest in the United States after that of New York City, with a population of 13.1 million. It is part of the Los Angeles-Long Beach combined statistical area the nation's second most populous area with a 2015 estimated population of 18.7 million.
Los Angeles is one of the most substantial economic engines within the United States, with a diverse economy in a broad range of professional and cultural fields. Los Angeles is famous as the home of Hollywood, a major center of the world entertainment industry. A global city, it has been ranked 6th in the Global Cities Index and 9th in the Global Economic Power Index; the Los Angeles metropolitan area has a gross metropolitan product of $1.044 trillion, making it the third-largest in the world, after the Tokyo and New York metropolitan areas. Los Angeles hosted the 1932 and 1984 Summer Olympics and will host the event for a third time in 2028; the city hosted the Miss Universe pageant twice, in 1990 and 2006, was one of 9 American cities to host the 1994 FIFA men's soccer World Cup and one of 8 to host the 1999 FIFA women's soccer World Cup, hosting the final match for both tournaments. Home to the Chumash and Tongva, Los Angeles was claimed by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo for Spain in 1542 along with the rest of what would become Alta California.
The city was founded on September 4, 1781, by Spanish governor Felipe de Neve. It became a part of Mexico in 1821 following the Mexican War of Independence. In 1848, at the end of the Mexican–American War, Los Angeles and the rest of California were purchased as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, becoming part of the United States. Los Angeles was incorporated as a municipality on April 4, 1850, five months before California achieved statehood; the discovery of oil in the 1890s brought rapid growth to the city. The completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, delivering water from Eastern California assured the city's continued rapid growth; the Los Angeles coastal area was settled by the Chumash tribes. A Gabrieleño settlement in the area was called iyáangẚ, meaning "poison oak place". Maritime explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area of southern California for the Spanish Empire in 1542 while on an official military exploring expedition moving north along the Pacific coast from earlier colonizing bases of New Spain in Central and South America.
Gaspar de Portolà and Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí, reached the present site of Los Angeles on August 2, 1769. In 1771, Franciscan friar Junípero Serra directed the building of the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, the first mission in the area. On September 4, 1781, a group of forty-four settlers known as "Los Pobladores" founded the pueblo they called El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles,'The Town of Our Lady the Queen of the Angels'; the present-day city has the largest Roman Catholic Archdiocese in the United States. Two-thirds of the Mexican or settlers were mestizo or mulatto, a mixture of African and European ancestry; the settlement remained a small ranch town for decades, but by 1820, the population had increased to about 650 residents. Today, the pueblo is commemorated in the historic district of Los Angeles Pueblo Plaza and Olvera Street, the oldest part of Los Angeles. New Spain achieved its independence from the Spanish Empire in 1821, the pueblo continued as a part of Mexico.
During Mexican rule, Governor Pío Pico made Los Angeles Alta California's regional capital. Mexican rule ended during the Mexican–American War: Americans took control from the Californios after a series of battles, culminating with the signing of the Treaty of Cahuenga on January 13, 1847. Railroads arrived with the completion of the transcontinental Southern Pacific line to Los Angeles in 1876 and the Santa Fe Railroad in 1885. Petroleum was discovered in the city and surrounding area in 1892, by 1923, the discoveries had helped California become the country's largest oil producer, accounting for about one-quarter of the world's petroleum output. By 1900, the population had grown to more than 102,000; the completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, under the supervision of William Mulholland, assured the continued growth of the city. Due to clauses in the city's charter that prevented the City of Los Angeles from selling or providing water from the aqueduct to any area outside its borders, many adjacent city and communities became compelled to annex themselves into Los Angeles.
Los Angeles created the first municipal zoning ordinance in the United States. On September 14, 1908, the Los Angeles City Council promulgated residential and industrial land use zones; the new ordinance established three residential zones of a single type, where industrial uses were