Sir Douglas Mawson OBE FRS FAA was an Australian geologist, Antarctic explorer, academic. Along with Roald Amundsen, Robert Falcon Scott, Sir Ernest Shackleton, he was a key expedition leader during the Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration; the Mawson Station in the Australian Antarctic Territory is named in his honour. Mawson was born on 5 May 1882 to Margaret Ann Moore, he was born in Shipley, West Yorkshire, but was less than two years old when his family immigrated to Australia and settled at Rooty Hill, now in the western suburbs of Sydney. He attended Fort Street Model School and the University of Sydney, where he graduated in 1902 with a Bachelor of Engineering degree, he was appointed geologist to an expedition to the New Hebrides in 1903. That year he published a geological paper on Mittagong, New South Wales, his major influences in his geological career were Professor Edgeworth David and Professor Archibald Liversidge. He became a lecturer in petrology and mineralogy at the University of Adelaide in 1905.
He first described the mineral davidite. Mawson joined Ernest Shackleton's Nimrod Expedition to the Antarctic intending to stay for the duration of the ship's presence in the first summer. Instead both he and his mentor, Edgeworth David, stayed an extra year. In doing so they became, in the company of Alistair Mackay, the first to climb the summit of Mount Erebus and to trek to the South Magnetic Pole, which at that time was over land. Mawson turned down an invitation to join Robert Falcon Scott's Terra Nova Expedition in 1910. Mawson chose to lead his own expedition, the Australasian Antarctic Expedition, to King George V Land and Adelie Land, the sector of the Antarctic continent south of Australia, which at the time was entirely unexplored; the objectives were to carry out geographical exploration and scientific studies, including a visit to the South Magnetic Pole. Mawson raised the necessary funds in a year, from British and Australian governments, from commercial backers interested in mining and whaling.
The expedition, using the ship SY Aurora commanded by Captain John King Davis, departed from Hobart on 2 December 1911, landed at Cape Denison on Commonwealth Bay on 8 January 1912, established the Main Base. A second camp was located to the west on the ice shelf in Queen Mary Land. Cape Denison proved to be unrelentingly windy, they wintered through nearly constant blizzards. Mawson brought the first aeroplane to Antarctica; the aircraft, a Vickers R. E. P. Type Monoplane, was to be flown by Francis Howard Bickerton; when it was damaged in Australia shortly before the expedition departed, plans were changed so it was to be used only as a tractor on skis. However, the engine did not operate well in the cold, it was removed and returned to Vickers in England; the aircraft fuselage. On 1 January 2009, fragments of it were rediscovered by the Mawson's Huts Foundation, restoring the original huts. Mawson's exploration program was carried out by five parties from the Main Base and two from the Western Base.
Mawson himself was part of a three-man sledging team, the Far Eastern Party, with Xavier Mertz and Lieutenant Belgrave Ninnis, who headed east on 10 November 1912, to survey King George V Land. After five weeks of excellent progress mapping the coastline and collecting geological samples, the party was crossing the Ninnis Glacier 480 km east of the main base. Mertz was skiing and Mawson was on his sled with his weight dispersed, but Ninnis was jogging beside the second sled. Ninnis fell through a crevasse, his body weight is to have breached the snow bridge covering it; the six best dogs, most of the party's rations, their tent, other essential supplies disappeared into the massive crevasse. Mertz and Mawson spotted one dead and one injured dog on a ledge 165 ft below them, but Ninnis was never seen again. After a brief service and Mertz turned back immediately, they had plenty of fuel and a primus. They sledged for 27 hours continuously to obtain a spare tent cover they had left behind, for which they improvised a frame from skis and a theodolite.
Their lack of provisions forced them to use their remaining sled dogs to feed the other dogs and themselves: Their meat was stringy and without a vestige of fat. For a change we sometimes chopped it up finely, mixed it with a little pemmican, brought all to the boil in a large pot of water. We were exceedingly hungry. Only a few ounces were used of the stock of ordinary food, to, added a portion of dog's meat, never large, for each animal yielded so little, the major part was fed to the surviving dogs, they ate the skin, until nothing remained. There was a quick deterioration in the men's physical condition during this journey. Both men suffered dizziness. Mawson noticed a dramatic change in his travelling companion. Mertz wished only to remain in his sleeping bag, he began to deteriorate with diarrhoea and madness. On one occasion Mertz refused to believe he was suffering from frostbite and bit off the
Red tide is a common name for algal blooms, which are large concentrations of aquatic microorganisms, such as protozoans and unicellular algae. The upwelling of nutrients from the sea floor following massive storms, provides for the algae and triggers bloom events. Harmful algal blooms can occur worldwide, natural cycles can vary regionally; the growth and persistence of an algal bloom depends on wind direction and strength, temperature and salinity. Red tide species can be found in oceans and estuaries, but they cannot thrive in freshwater environments. Certain species of phytoplankton and dinoflagellates found in red tides contain photosynthetic pigments that vary in color from brown to red; when the algae are present in high concentrations, the water may appear to be murky. The most conspicuous effects of red tides are the associated wildlife mortalities and harmful human exposure; the production of natural toxins such as brevetoxins and ichthyotoxins are harmful to marine life. Gonyaulax Karenia Gymnodinium Dinophysis Noctiluca Chattonella Ceratium Amoebophyre terrarium Red tides occur off coasts all over the world.
Marine dinoflagellates produce ichthyotoxins. Where red tides occur, dead fish wash up on shore for up to two weeks after a red tide has been through the area. In addition to killing fish, the toxic algae contaminate shellfish; some mollusks are not susceptible to the toxin, store it in their fatty tissues. Shellfish consume the organisms responsible for red concentrate saxitoxin in their tissues. Saxitoxin blocks. Other animals that eat the shellfish are susceptible to the neurotoxin, leading to neurotoxic shellfish poisoning and sometimes death. Most mollusks and clams filter feed, which results in higher concentrations of the toxin than just drinking the water. Scaup, for example, are diving ducks whose diet consists of mollusks; when scaup eat the filter-feeding shellfish that are concentrated with high levels of the red tide toxin, their population becomes a prime target for poisoning. However birds that do not eat mollusks can be affected by eating dead fish on the beach or drinking the water.
The toxins released by the blooms can kill marine animals including dolphins, sea turtles and manatees. Fish such as Atlantic herring, American pollock, winter flounder, Atlantic salmon, cod were dosed orally with these toxins in an experiment. Within minutes of receiving doses of the toxin, fish started to exhibit a loss of equilibrium and began to swim in an irregular, jerking pattern followed by paralysis and shallow, arrhythmic breathing and death after about an hour. Scientists concluded. Humans are affected by the red tide species by ingesting improperly harvested shellfish, breathing in aerosolized brevetoxins and in some cases skin contact; the brevetoxins bind to voltage-gated sodium channels, important structures of cell membranes. Binding results in persistent activation of nerve cells, which interferes with neural transmission leading to health problems; these toxins are created as a metabolic product. The two major types of brevetoxin compounds have distinct backbone structures. PbTx-2 is the primary intracellular brevetoxin produced by K. brevis blooms.
However, over time, the PbTx-2 brevetoxin can be converted to PbTx-3 through metabolic changes. Researchers found that PbTx-2 has been the primary intracellular brevetoxin that converts overtime into PbTx-3. In most cases like in the U. S. the seafood consumed by humans is tested for toxins by the USDA to ensure safe consumption. However, improper harvesting of shellfish can cause paralytic shellfish poisoning and neurotoxic shellfish poisoning in humans; some symptoms include drowsiness, nausea, loss of motor control, numbing or aching of extremities and respiratory paralysis. Reports of skin irritation after swimming in the ocean during a red tide are common, so people should try to avoid the red tide when it is in the area; when the red tide cells rupture, they release extracellular brevetoxins into the environment. Some of those stay in the ocean. During onshore winds, brevetoxins can become aerosolized by bubble-mediated transport, causing respiratory irritation, bronchoconstriction and wheezing, among other symptoms.
On a windy day, avoiding contact with the aerosolized toxin is recommended. These individuals report a decrease in respiratory function after only 1 hour of exposure to a K. brevis red-tide beach and these symptoms may last for days. People with severe or persistent respiratory conditions may experience stronger adverse reactions; the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Ocean Service provides a public conditions report identifying possible respiratory irritation impacts in areas affected by red tides. The ICD-10 Diagnosis Code as provided by the Center for Disease Control is Z77.121. It is applicable to the following: Contact with and exposure to algae bloom NOS Contact with and exposure to blue-green algae bloom Contact with and exposure to brown tide Contact with and exposure to cyanobacteria bloom Contact with and exposure to Florida red tide Contact with and exposure to pfiesteria piscicida Contact with and exposure to red tide Red tide is a colloquial term used to refer to one of a variety of natural
Ecology is the branch of biology which studies the interactions among organisms and their environment. Objects of study include interactions of organisms that include biotic and abiotic components of their environment. Topics of interest include the biodiversity, distribution and populations of organisms, as well as cooperation and competition within and between species. Ecosystems are dynamically interacting systems of organisms, the communities they make up, the non-living components of their environment. Ecosystem processes, such as primary production, nutrient cycling, niche construction, regulate the flux of energy and matter through an environment; these processes are sustained by organisms with specific life history traits. Biodiversity means the varieties of species and ecosystems, enhances certain ecosystem services. Ecology is not synonymous with natural history, or environmental science, it overlaps with the related sciences of evolutionary biology and ethology. An important focus for ecologists is to improve the understanding of how biodiversity affects ecological function.
Ecologists seek to explain: Life processes and adaptations The movement of materials and energy through living communities The successional development of ecosystems The abundance and distribution of organisms and biodiversity in the context of the environment. Ecology has practical applications in conservation biology, wetland management, natural resource management, city planning, community health, economics and applied science, human social interaction. For example, the Circles of Sustainability approach treats ecology as more than the environment'out there', it is not treated as separate from humans. Organisms and resources compose ecosystems which, in turn, maintain biophysical feedback mechanisms that moderate processes acting on living and non-living components of the planet. Ecosystems sustain life-supporting functions and produce natural capital like biomass production, the regulation of climate, global biogeochemical cycles, water filtration, soil formation, erosion control, flood protection, many other natural features of scientific, economic, or intrinsic value.
The word "ecology" was coined in 1866 by the German scientist Ernst Haeckel. Ecological thought is derivative of established currents in philosophy from ethics and politics. Ancient Greek philosophers such as Hippocrates and Aristotle laid the foundations of ecology in their studies on natural history. Modern ecology became a much more rigorous science in the late 19th century. Evolutionary concepts relating to adaptation and natural selection became the cornerstones of modern ecological theory; the scope of ecology contains a wide array of interacting levels of organization spanning micro-level to a planetary scale phenomena. Ecosystems, for example, contain interacting life forms. Ecosystems are dynamic, they do not always follow a linear successional path, but they are always changing and sometimes so that it can take thousands of years for ecological processes to bring about certain successional stages of a forest. An ecosystem's area can vary from tiny to vast. A single tree is of little consequence to the classification of a forest ecosystem, but critically relevant to organisms living in and on it.
Several generations of an aphid population can exist over the lifespan of a single leaf. Each of those aphids, in turn, support diverse bacterial communities; the nature of connections in ecological communities cannot be explained by knowing the details of each species in isolation, because the emergent pattern is neither revealed nor predicted until the ecosystem is studied as an integrated whole. Some ecological principles, however, do exhibit collective properties where the sum of the components explain the properties of the whole, such as birth rates of a population being equal to the sum of individual births over a designated time frame; the main subdisciplines of ecology, population ecology and ecosystem ecology, exhibit a difference not only of scale, but of two contrasting paradigms in the field. The former focus on organisms distribution and abundance, while the focus on materials and energy fluxes; the scale of ecological dynamics can operate like a closed system, such as aphids migrating on a single tree, while at the same time remain open with regard to broader scale influences, such as atmosphere or climate.
Hence, ecologists classify ecosystems hierarchically by analyzing data collected from finer scale units, such as vegetation associations and soil types, integrate this information to identify emergent patterns of uniform organization and processes that operate on local to regional and chronological scales. To structure the study of ecology into a conceptually manageable framework, the biological world is organized into a nested hierarchy, ranging in scale from genes, to cells, to tissues, to organs, to organisms, to species, to populations, to communities, to ecosystems, to biomes, up to the level of the biosphere; this framework exhibits non-linear behaviors.
Behavioral ecology spelled behavioural ecology, is the study of the evolutionary basis for animal behavior due to ecological pressures. Behavioral ecology emerged from ethology after Niko Tinbergen outlined four questions to address when studying animal behaviors that are the proximate causes, survival value, phylogeny of behavior. If an organism has a trait that provides a selective advantage in its environment natural selection favors it. Adaptive significance refers to the expression of a trait that affects fitness, measured by an individual's reproductive success. Adaptive traits are those. Maladaptive traits are those. For example, if a bird that can call more loudly attracts more mates a loud call is an adaptive trait for that species because a louder bird mates more than less loud birds—thus sending more loud-calling genes into future generations. Individuals are always in competition with others for limited resources, including food and mates. Conflict occurs between predators and prey, between rivals for mates, between siblings and between parents and offspring.
The value of a social behavior depends in part on the social behavior of an animal's neighbors. For example, the more a rival male is to back down from a threat, the more value a male gets out of making the threat; the more however, that a rival will attack if threatened, the less useful it is to threaten other males. When a population exhibits a number of interacting social behaviors such as this, it can evolve a stable pattern of behaviors known as an evolutionarily stable strategy; this term, derived from economic game theory, became prominent after John Maynard Smith recognized the possible application of the concept of a Nash equilibrium to model the evolution of behavioral strategies. In short, evolutionary game theory asserts that only strategies that, when common in the population, cannot be "invaded" by any alternative strategy is an ESS, thus maintained in the population. In other words, at equilibrium every player should play the best strategic response to each other; when the game is two player and symmetric, each player should play the strategy that provides the response best for it.
Therefore, the ESS is considered the evolutionary end point subsequent to the interactions. As the fitness conveyed by a strategy is influenced by what other individuals are doing, behavior can be governed not only by optimality but the frequencies of strategies adopted by others and are therefore frequency dependent. Behavioral evolution is therefore influenced by both the physical environment and interactions between other individuals. An example of how changes in geography can make a strategy susceptible to alternative strategies is the parasitization of the African honey bee, A. m. scutellata. The term economic defendability was first introduced by Jerram Brown in 1964. Economic defendability states that defense of a resource have costs, such as energy expenditure or risk of injury, as well as benefits of priority access to the resource. Territorial behavior arises. Studies of the golden-winged sunbird have validated the concept of economic defendability. Comparing the energetic costs a sunbird expends in a day to the extra nectar gained by defending a territory, researchers showed that birds only became territorial when they were making a net energetic profit.
When resources are at low density, the gains from excluding others may not be sufficient to pay for the cost of territorial defense. In contrast, when resource availability is high, there may be so many intruders that the defender would have no time to make use of the resources made available by defense. Sometimes the economics of resource competition favors shared defense. An example is the feeding territories of the white wagtail; the white wagtails feed on insects washed up by the river onto the bank, which acts as a renewing food supply. If any intruders harvested their territory the prey would become depleted, but sometimes territory owners tolerate a second bird, known as a satellite; the two sharers would move out of phase with one another, resulting in decreased feeding rate but increased defense, illustrating advantages of group living. One of the major models used to predict the distribution of competing individuals amongst resource patches is the ideal free distribution model. Within this model, resource patches can be of variable quality, there is no limit to the number of individuals that can occupy and extract resources from a particular patch.
Competition within a particular patch means that the benefit each individual receives from exploiting a patch decreases logarithmically with increasing number of competitors sharing that resource patch. The model predicts that individuals will flock to higher-quality patches until the costs of crowding bring the benefits of exploiting them in line with the benefits of being the only individual on the lesser-quality resource patch. After this point has been reached, individuals will alternate between exploiting the higher-quality patches and the lower-quality patches in such a way that the average benefit for all individuals in both patches is the same; this model is ideal in that individuals have complete information about the quality of a resource patch and the number of individuals exploiting it, free in that individuals are able to choose which resource patch to exploit. An experiment by Manfred Malinski in 1979 demonstrated that feeding behavior in three-spined sticklebacks follows an ideal free dist
Coastal fish called inshore fish or neritic fish, inhabit the sea between the shoreline and the edge of the continental shelf. Since the continental shelf is less than 200 metres deep, it follows that pelagic coastal fish are epipelagic fish, inhabiting the sunlit epipelagic zone. Coastal fish can be contrasted with oceanic fish or offshore fish, which inhabit the deep seas beyond the continental shelves. Coastal fish are the most abundant in the world, they can be found in tidal pools and estuaries, near sandy shores and rocky coastlines, around coral reefs and on or above the continental shelf. Coastal fish include the predator fish that feed on them. Forage fish thrive in inshore waters where high productivity results from upwelling and shoreline run off of nutrients; some are partial residents that spawn in streams and bays, but most complete their life cycles in the zone. Coastal fish are found in the waters above the continental shelves that extend from the continental shorelines, around the coral reefs that surround volcanic islands.
The total world shoreline extends for 356,000 km and the continental shelves occupy a total area of 24.286 million km2. This is about 4.8% of the world's total area of 510.072 million km2. Nearshore fish, sometimes called littoral fish, live close to the shore, they are associated with the intertidal zone, or with estuaries, coral reefs, kelp forests, seagrass meadows, or rocky or sandy bottoms in shallow waters less than about 10 m deep. Intertidal fish are fish that move in and out with the tide in the intertidal zone of the seashore, or are found in rock pools or under rocks; the intertidal zone of rocky shores can contain indentations which trap pools of salty water, called rock pools. Living in these habitats are communities of hardy plant and animal species specially adapted for coping with the volatile environment around them; the plants and animals interact with each other and with the rock pool to form miniature ecosystems accessible to students and a source of fascination for young children.
Plants such as seaweeds, cnidarians such as sea anemones, arthropods like barnacles, molluscs such as the common limpet and the common periwinkle can be permanent residents of rock pools. But most rock pool animals, such as crabs and fish are just temporary residents, occupying a rock pool only until the next tide takes them to a new location; some rock pool fish which are temporary residents include the long-spined sea scorpion, the pipefish worm, the rock goby and the common lumpsucker. However some other rock pool fish are territorial in nature, will stay with the same pool for extended periods. Examples are its near relative the butterfish; the common blenny known as the shanny, is found in northern temperate waters. They hide in crannies in rock pools when the tide is out, they feed on green seaweed and invertebrates such as barnacles. They can crawl on dry land. About 16 cm long, they have smooth skin, without scales, are covered with soft slime; the slime prevents them drying. So long as their skin stays moist, they can breathe out of water.
They are sometimes called "sea frogs" because they bask in the sun on weeds outside the water, like frogs, jump to safety when disturbed. They can change their colour to match their surroundings; the female lays eggs in crevices or under stones and the male guards them until they hatch. In the winter, when storms can be severe, they move out of their rock pools into the shallows; the common blenny is bold with strong teeth, will bite humans if it feels threatened. The rock goby is a small fish, about 12 cm long, found in northern temperate waters, it is coloured black with white blotches, hides under stones and amongst seaweed. It is a temporary resident of rock pools; the female rock goby lays eggs on the underside of rocks and shells and leaves them. The male guards the eggs. First-year rock gobies visit rock pools in winter when the older fish have left; the long-spined sea scorpion, a small stout fish which grows about 29 cm long, is another temporary resident of rocky pools. They have large black eyes, a large mouth, four long spines—two on each side on the gill cover—that stick out when the fish is removed from the water.
They have an organ like a finger on each side of their mouths which helps them catch prey. Because of their broad heads, they are called "bullheads", they have a variety of effective camouflaged colours ranging from shades of browns with cream blotches, to orange and red with white blotches. They can change their body colour to match their surroundings, they are found around the coasts of Northern Europe in shallow rocky waters hiding amongst seaweed. They are found in rock pools and sometimes in waters 30 m deep. Long-spined sea scorpions attached to rock crevices; the young hatch after two or three weeks, go through several development stages before maturing into adults. Lumpsuckers are found in temperate northern waters, they live on the seafloor, are temporary residents of rocky pools in late winter and early spring when they spawn. The body of the lumpsucker is scaleless and covered with small lumps, they have a large sucking disc on their underside. They are a blue to slate-grey colour, are camouflaged to look like stones.
They are portly, nearly spherical, poor swimmers. After the female lumpsucker lays eggs, the male takes over, clamping itself to a rock where it guards the eggs; when they hatch, lumpsuckers look li
Excretion is a process by which metabolic waste is eliminated from an organism. In vertebrates this is carried out by the lungs and skin; this is in contrast with secretion, where the substance may have specific tasks after leaving the cell. Excretion is an essential process in all forms of life. For example, in mammals urine is expelled through the urethra, part of the excretory system. In unicellular organisms, waste products are discharged directly through the surface of the cell. During life activities such as cellular respiration, several chemical reactions take place in the body; these are known as metabolism. These chemical reactions produce waste products such as carbon dioxide, salts and uric acid. Accumulation of these wastes beyond a level inside the body is harmful to the body; the excretory organs remove these wastes. This process of removal of metabolic waste from the body is known as excretion. Green plants produce carbon water as respiratory products. In green plants, the carbon dioxide released during respiration gets utilized during photosynthesis.
Oxygen is a by product generated during photosynthesis, exits through stomata, root cell walls, other routes. Plants can get rid of excess water by guttation, it has been shown that the leaf acts as an'excretophore' and, in addition to being a primary organ of photosynthesis, is used as a method of excreting toxic wastes via diffusion. Other waste materials that are exuded by some plants — resin, latex, etc. are forced from the interior of the plant by hydrostatic pressures inside the plant and by absorptive forces of plant cells. These latter processes do not need added energy, they act passively. However, during the pre-abscission phase, the metabolic levels of a leaf are high. Plants excrete some waste substances into the soil around them. In animals, the main excretory products are carbon dioxide, urea, uric acid and creatine; the liver and kidneys clear many substances from the blood, the cleared substances are excreted from the body in the urine and feces. Aquatic animals excrete ammonia directly into the external environment, as this compound has high solubility and there is ample water available for dilution.
In terrestrial animals ammonia-like compounds are converted into other nitrogenous materials as there is less water in the environment and ammonia itself is toxic. Birds excrete their nitrogenous wastes as uric acid in the form of a paste. Although this process is metabolically more expensive, it allows more efficient water retention and it can be stored more in the egg. Many avian species seabirds, can excrete salt via specialized nasal salt glands, the saline solution leaving through nostrils in the beak. In insects, a system involving Malpighian tubules is utilized to excrete metabolic waste. Metabolic waste diffuses or is transported into the tubule, which transports the wastes to the intestines; the metabolic waste is released from the body along with fecal matter. The excreted material may be called ejecta. In pathology the word ejecta is more used. UAlberta.ca, Animation of excretion Brian J Ford on leaf fall in Nature
Husky is a general name for a sled-type of dog used in northern regions, differentiated from other sled-dog types by their fast pulling style. They are an ever-changing cross-breed of the fastest dogs; the Alaskan Malamute, by contrast, was used for pulling heavier loads. Huskies are used in sled dog racing. In recent years, companies have been marketing tourist treks with dog sledges for adventure travelers in snow regions as well. Huskies are today kept as pets, groups work to find new pet homes for retired racing and adventure trekking dogs; the word husky originated from the word referring to aboriginal Arctic people, in general, Eskimo, "...known as'huskies', a contraction of'Huskimos', the pronunciation given to the word'Eskimos' by the English sailors of trading vessels." The use of husky is recorded from 1852 for dogs kept by Inuit people. Nearly all dogs' genetic closeness to the gray wolf is due to admixture. However, several Arctic breeds show a genetic closeness with the now-extinct Taimyr wolf of North Asia due to admixture: the Siberian Husky and Greenland dog and to a lesser extent, the Shar Pei and Finnish spitz.
An admixture graph of the Greenland dog indicates a best-fit of 3.5% shared material. This introgression could have provided early dogs living in high latitudes with phenotypic variation beneficial for adaption to a new and challenging environment, contributing to the development of the husky, it indicates that the ancestry of present-day dog breeds descends from more than one region. Huskies are athletic, they have a thick double coat that can be gray, copper red, or white. Their eyes are pale blue, although they may be brown, blue, yellow, or heterochromic. Huskies are more prone to some degree of uveitis than most other breeds. Husky type dogs were landrace breeds kept by Arctic indigenous peoples. Examples of these landraces in modern times have been selectively bred and registered with various kennel clubs as modern purebred breeds, including the Siberian Husky and the Labrador Husky; the Sakhalin Husky is a Japanese sled dog related to the Akita Inu. The Mackenzie River husky is a subtype referring to different dog populations in the subarctic regions of the American state of Alaska and Canada.
Since many owners now have husky dogs as pets in settings that are not ideal for sledding, other activities have been found that are good for the dog and fun for the owner. Skijoring is an alternative to sled pulling, but used in somewhat the same environment as sledding with the exception that the owner does not need a full pack in order to participate. Dog hiking is an alternative for owners; the owner travels with their dogs along trails in the wilderness. This activity allows the owner and dog to gain exercise without using the huskies' strong sense of pulling; some companies make hiking equipment for dogs in which they may carry their own gear including water and bowls for each. Carting known as dryland mushing or sulky driving, is an urban alternative to dog sledding. Here, the dog can pull a cart which contains an individual; these carts can hand-made by the individual. Bikejoring is an activity where the owner bikes along with their dog while they are attached to their bike through a harness which keeps both the dog and owner safe.
The dog, or team of dogs can be attached to a towline to pull the biker. The phrase three dog night, meaning it is so cold you would need three dogs in bed with you to keep warm, originated with the Chukchi people of Siberia, who kept the Siberian husky landrace dog that became the modern purebred breed of Siberian Husky. Huskies are the mascots of several post-secondary institutions in the United States, including the University of Washington, the University of Connecticut, the Houston Baptist University, Bloomsburg University of Pennsylvania, Northeastern University, Michigan Technological University, Northern Illinois University, St. Cloud State University, University of Southern Maine, the University of Wisconsin-Marathon County, they are the mascots for Saint Mary's University, George Brown College, the University of Saskatchewan in Canada. The World War II Allied invasion of Sicily in 1943 was called "Operation Husky". Huskies have been the subject of several motion pictures in the context of sledding, including Balto, Iron Will, Snow Dogs, Eight Below.
The Twilight Saga, which features werewolves, the TV series Game of Thrones, which featured dire wolves during season one, are thought to have inspired a surge in popularity for husky breeds. The television series Due South features a half husky, half wolf named "Diefenbaker" as a major character on the show