Miscanthus, silvergrass, is a genus of African and Pacific Island plants in the grass family. SpeciesMiscanthus changii Y. N. Lee – Korea Miscanthus depauperatus Merr. – Philippines Miscanthus ecklonii Mabb. – southern Africa Miscanthus floridulus – China, Southeast Asia, Pacific Islands Miscanthus fuscus Benth. – Indian Subcontinent, Pen Malaysia Miscanthus junceus – southern Africa Miscanthus lutarioriparius L. Liu ex S. L. Chen & Renvoize – Hubei, Hunan Miscanthus nepalensis Hack. – Indian Subcontinent, Yunnan, Vietnam, Pen Malaysia Miscanthus nudipes Hack. – Assam, Nepal, Tibet, Yunnan Miscanthus × ogiformis Honda – Korea, Japan Miscanthus oligostachyus Stapf. – Korea, Japan Miscanthus paniculatus S. L. Chen & Renvoize – Guizhou, Yunnan Miscanthus sacchariflorus – Korea, northeastern China, Russian Far East Miscanthus sinensis – Korea, China, Southeast Asia, Russian Far East. – Japan Miscanthus villosus Y. C. Liu & H. Peng – Yunnan Miscanthus violaceus Pilg. – tropical Africaformerly includedsee Chloris, Pseudopogonatherum and Spodiopogon Miscanthus affinis – Pseudopogonatherum quadrinerve Miscanthus cotulifer – Spodiopogon cotulifer Miscanthus polydactylos – Chloris elata Miscanthus rufipilus – Saccharum rufipilum Miscanthus tanakae – Pseudopogonatherum speciosum M. sinensis is cultivated as an ornamental plant, is the source of several cultivars.
In Japan, where it is known as susuki, it is considered an iconic plant of late summer and early autumn. It is mentioned in Man'yōshū as one of the seven autumn flowers, it is used for the eighth month in hanafuda playing cards. It is decorated with bush clover for the Mid-Autumn Festival. Miscanthus has excellent fiber properties for papermaking. Miscanthus x giganteus is a productive, rhizomatous C4 perennial grass, originating from Asia, it is a sterile hybrid of M. sinensis and M. sacchariflorus, grows to heights of more than 4 meters in one growing season. In temperate climates like Europe the dry mass yield is 10-40 tonnes per hectare per year, depending on location. Just like Pennisetum purpureum and Saccharum ravennae, it is called «elephant grass». Miscanthus' ability to grow on marginal land and in cold weather conditions, its rapid CO2 absorption, its significant carbon sequestration and its high yield make it a favorite choice as a biofuel. Miscanthus is used for heat and power, but can be used as input for ethanol production.
If harvested dry, Miscanthus can be processed further. It can be used as a "green" building material, for both wall construction and as general insulation. An experimental house based on Miscanthus straw bales was built in 2017. UK's National Centre for Biorenewable Energy and Materials Miscanthus x giganteus - as an energy crop - Miscanthus Research at the University of Illinois - New Energy Farms - Miscanthus developers and suppliers - Terravesta - The complete supply chain solution for Miscanthus Europe
Belgium the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe. It is bordered by the Netherlands to the north, Germany to the east, Luxembourg to the southeast, France to the southwest, the North Sea to the northwest, it has a population of more than 11.4 million. The capital and largest city is Brussels; the sovereign state is a federal constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system. Its institutional organisation is structured on both regional and linguistic grounds, it is divided into three autonomous regions: Flanders in the north, Wallonia in the south, the Brussels-Capital Region. Brussels is the smallest and most densely populated region, as well as the richest region in terms of GDP per capita. Belgium is home to two main linguistic groups or Communities: the Dutch-speaking Flemish Community, which constitutes about 59 percent of the population, the French-speaking Community, which comprises about 40 percent of all Belgians. A small German-speaking Community, numbering around one percent, exists in the East Cantons.
The Brussels-Capital Region is bilingual, although French is the dominant language. Belgium's linguistic diversity and related political conflicts are reflected in its political history and complex system of governance, made up of six different governments. Belgium was part of an area known as the Low Countries, a somewhat larger region than the current Benelux group of states that included parts of northern France and western Germany, its name is derived after the Roman province of Gallia Belgica. From the end of the Middle Ages until the 17th century, the area of Belgium was a prosperous and cosmopolitan centre of commerce and culture. Between the 16th and early 19th centuries, Belgium served as the battleground between many European powers, earning the moniker the "Battlefield of Europe", a reputation strengthened by both world wars; the country emerged in 1830 following the Belgian Revolution. Belgium participated in the Industrial Revolution and, during the course of the 20th century, possessed a number of colonies in Africa.
The second half of the 20th century was marked by rising tensions between the Dutch-speaking and the French-speaking citizens fueled by differences in language and culture and the unequal economic development of Flanders and Wallonia. This continuing antagonism has led to several far-reaching reforms, resulting in a transition from a unitary to a federal arrangement during the period from 1970 to 1993. Despite the reforms, tensions between the groups have remained, if not increased. Unemployment in Wallonia is more than double that of Flanders. Belgium is one of the six founding countries of the European Union and hosts the official seats of the European Commission, the Council of the European Union, the European Council, as well as a seat of the European Parliament in the country's capital, Brussels. Belgium is a founding member of the Eurozone, NATO, OECD, WTO, a part of the trilateral Benelux Union and the Schengen Area. Brussels hosts several of the EU's official seats as well as the headquarters of many major international organizations such as NATO.
Belgium is a developed country, with an advanced high-income economy. It has high standards of living, quality of life, education, is categorized as "very high" in the Human Development Index, it ranks as one of the safest or most peaceful countries in the world. The name "Belgium" is derived from Gallia Belgica, a Roman province in the northernmost part of Gaul that before Roman invasion in 100 BC, was inhabited by the Belgae, a mix of Celtic and Germanic peoples. A gradual immigration by Germanic Frankish tribes during the 5th century brought the area under the rule of the Merovingian kings. A gradual shift of power during the 8th century led the kingdom of the Franks to evolve into the Carolingian Empire; the Treaty of Verdun in 843 divided the region into Middle and West Francia and therefore into a set of more or less independent fiefdoms which, during the Middle Ages, were vassals either of the King of France or of the Holy Roman Emperor. Many of these fiefdoms were united in the Burgundian Netherlands of the 15th centuries.
Emperor Charles V extended the personal union of the Seventeen Provinces in the 1540s, making it far more than a personal union by the Pragmatic Sanction of 1549 and increased his influence over the Prince-Bishopric of Liège. The Eighty Years' War divided the Low Countries into the northern United Provinces and the Southern Netherlands; the latter were ruled successively by the Spanish and the Austrian Habsburgs and comprised most of modern Belgium. This was the theatre of most Franco-Spanish and Franco-Austrian wars during the 17th and 18th centuries. Following the campaigns of 1794 in the French Revolutionary Wars, the Low Countries—including territories that were never nominally under Habsburg rule, such as the Prince-Bishopric of Liège—were annexed by the French First Republic, ending Austrian rule in the region; the reunification of the Low Countries as the United Kingdom of the Netherlands occurred at the dissolution of the First French Empire in 1815, after the defeat of Napo
An energy crop is a plant grown as a low-cost and low-maintenance harvest used to make biofuels, such as bioethanol, or combusted for its energy content to generate electricity or heat. Energy crops are categorized as woody or herbaceous plants. Commercial energy crops are densely planted, high-yielding crop species which are processed to bio-fuel and burnt to generate power. Woody crops such as willow or poplar are utilised, as well as temperate grasses such as Miscanthus and Pennisetum purpureum. If carbohydrate content is desired for the production of biogas, whole-crops such as maize, Sudan grass, white sweet clover, many others can be made into silage and converted into biogas. Through genetic modification and application of biotechnology plants can be manipulated to create greater yields, high energy yields can be realized with existing cultivars.. However, some additional advantages such as reduced associated costs and less water use can only be accomplished by using Genetically_modified_crops#Biofuel genetically modified crops.
Energy generated by burning plants grown for the purpose after the dry matter is pelletized. Energy crops are co-fired with other fuels. Alternatively they may be used for combined heat and power production. To cover the increasing requirements of woody biomass, short rotation coppice were applied to agricultural sites. Within this cropping systems fast growing tree species like willows and poplars are planted in growing cycles of three to five years; the cultivation of this cultures is dependent on wet soil conditions and could be an alternative for moist field sieds. However, an influence on local water conditions could not be excluded; this indicates. Anaerobic digesters or biogas plants can be directly supplemented with energy crops once they have been ensiled into silage; the fastest growing sector of German biofarming has been in the area of "Renewable Energy Crops" on nearly 500,000 ha of land. Energy crops can be grown to boost gas yields where feedstocks have a low energy content, such as manures and spoiled grain.
It is estimated that the energy yield presently of bioenergy crops converted via silage to methane is about 2 GWh/km2 annually. Small mixed cropping enterprises with animals can use a portion of their acreage to grow and convert energy crops and sustain the entire farms energy requirements with about one fifth of the acreage. In Europe and Germany, this rapid growth has occurred only with substantial government support, as in the German bonus system for renewable energy. Similar developments of integrating crop farming and bioenergy production via silage-methane have been entirely overlooked in N. America, where political and structural issues and a huge continued push to centralize energy production has overshadowed positive developments. European production of biodiesel from energy crops has grown in the last decade, principally focused on rapeseed used for oil and energy. Production of oil/biodiesel from rape covers more than 12,000 km² in Germany alone, has doubled in the past 15 years.
Typical yield of oil as pure biodiesel may be is 100,000 L/km2 or more, making biodiesel crops economically attractive, provided sustainable crop rotations exist that are nutrient-balanced and preventative of the spread of disease such as clubroot. Biodiesel yield of soybeans is lower than that of rape. Energy crops for biobutanol are grasses. Two leading non-food crops for the production of cellulosic bioethanol are switchgrass and giant miscanthus. There has been a preoccupation with cellulosic bioethanol in America as the agricultural structure supporting biomethane is absent in many regions, with no credits or bonus system in place. A lot of private money and investor hopes are being pinned on marketable and patentable innovations in enzyme hydrolysis and the like. Bioethanol refers to the technology of using principally corn to make ethanol directly through fermentation, a process that under certain field and process conditions can consume as much energy as is the energy value of the ethanol it produces, therefore being non-sustainable.
New developments in converting grain stillage into biogas energy looks promising as a means to improve the poor energy ratio of this type of bioethanol process. Dedicated energy crops are industrial crops including giant miscanthus, switchgrass and some species of fungi and algae. Dedicated energy crops are promising cellulose sources that can be sustainably produced in many regions of the United States. Additionally, the green waste byproducts of food and non-food energy crops can be used to produce various biofuels. GA Mansoori, N Enayati, LB Agyarko, Energy: Sources, Legislation, Illinois as Model State, World Sci. Pub. Co. ISBN 978-981-4704-00-7 Energy Crops for Fuel Energy crops at Biomass Energy Centre Center for Sustainable Energy Farming Reviewing the scientific evidence about ecological impacts of renewables
Biogas refers to a mixture of different gases produced by the breakdown of organic matter in the absence of oxygen. Biogas can be produced from raw materials such as agricultural waste, municipal waste, plant material, green waste or food waste. Biogas is a renewable energy source. Biogas is produced by anaerobic digestion with methanogen or anaerobic organisms, which digest material inside a closed system, or fermentation of biodegradable materials; this closed system is called biodigester or a bioreactor. Biogas is methane and carbon dioxide and may have small amounts of hydrogen sulphide and siloxanes; the gases methane and carbon monoxide can be combusted or oxidized with oxygen. This energy release allows biogas to be used as a fuel, it can be used in a gas engine to convert the energy in the gas into electricity and heat. Biogas can be compressed, the same way as natural gas is compressed to CNG, used to power motor vehicles. In the United Kingdom, for example, biogas is estimated to have the potential to replace around 17% of vehicle fuel.
It qualifies for renewable energy subsidies in some parts of the world. Biogas can be upgraded to natural gas standards, when it becomes bio-methane. Biogas is considered to be a renewable resource because its production-and-use cycle is continuous, it generates no net carbon dioxide; as the organic material grows, it is used. It regrows in a continually repeating cycle. From a carbon perspective, as much carbon dioxide is absorbed from the atmosphere in the growth of the primary bio-resource as is released, when the material is converted to energy; the biogas is a renewable energy that can be used for heating and many other operations that use a reciprocating internal combustion engine, such as GE Jenbacher or Caterpillar gas engines. To provide these internal combustion engines with biogas having ample gas pressure to optimize combustion, within the European Union ATEX centrifugal fan units built in accordance with the European directive 2014/34/EU are obligatory; these centrifugal fan units, for example Combimac, Meidinger AG or Witt & Sohn AG are suitable for use in Zone 1 and 2.
Other internal combustion engines such as gas turbines are suitable for the conversion of biogas into both electricity and heat. The digestate is the remaining inorganic matter, not transformed into biogas, it can be used as an agricultural fertiliser. Biogas is produced either. Projects such as NANOCLEAN are nowadays developing new ways to produce biogas more efficiently, using iron oxide nanoparticles in the processes of organic waste treatment; this process can triple the production of biogas. A biogas plant is the name given to an anaerobic digester that treats farm wastes or energy crops, it can be produced using anaerobic digesters. These plants can be fed with energy crops such as maize silage or biodegradable wastes including sewage sludge and food waste. During the process, the micro-organisms transform biomass waste into biogas and digestate. Higher quantity of biogas could be produced when the wastewater is co-fermented with other residual from dairy industry, sugar industry, brewery industry.
For example, while mixing 90% of wastewater from beer factory with 10% cow whey, the production of biogas is increased by 2.5 times compared to the biogas produced by wastewater from beer factory only. There are two key processes: mesophilic and thermophilic digestion, dependent on temperature. In experimental work at University of Alaska Fairbanks, a 1000-litre digester using psychrophiles harvested from "mud from a frozen lake in Alaska" has produced 200–300 liters of methane per day, about 20%–30% of the output from digesters in warmer climates; the air pollution produced by biogas is similar to that of natural gas. The content of toxic hydrogen sulfide presents additional risks and has been responsible for serious accidents. Leaks of unburned methane are an additional risk. Biogas can be explosive. Special safety precautions have to be taken for entering an empty biogas digester for maintenance work, it is important. Negative gas pressure can occur if too much gas is leaked. Frequent smell checks must be performed on a biogas system.
If biogas is smelled anywhere windows and doors should be opened immediately. If there is a fire the gas should be shut off at the gate valve of the biogas system. Landfill gas is produced by wet organic waste decomposing under anaerobic conditions in a biogas; the waste is covered and mechanically compressed by the weight of the material, deposited above. This material prevents oxygen exposure thus allowing anaerobic microbes to thrive. Biogas builds up and is released into the atmosphere if the site has not been engineered to capture the gas. Landfill gas released in an uncontrolled way can be hazardous since it can become explosive when it escapes from the landfill and mixes with oxygen; the lower explosive limit is 5% methane and the upper is 15% methane. The methane in biogas is 28 times more potent a greenhouse gas than carbon dioxide. Therefore, uncontained landfill gas
Solid fuel refers to various forms of solid material that can be burnt to release energy, providing heat and light through the process of combustion. Solid fuels can be contrasted with liquid gaseous fuels. Common examples of solid fuels include wood, peat, Hexamine fuel tablets, wood pellets, wheat and other grains. Solid fuels are extensively used in rocketry as solid propellants. Solid fuels have been used throughout human history to create fire and solid fuel is still in widespread use throughout the world in the present day. Wood fuel can refer to several fuels such as firewood, wood chips sheets and sawdust; the particular form used depends upon factors such as source, quantity and application. In many areas, wood is the most available form of fuel, requiring no tools in the case of picking up dead wood, or few tools. Today, burning of wood is the largest use of energy derived from a solid fuel biomass. Wood fuel can be used for cooking and heating, for fueling steam engines and steam turbines that generate electricity.
Wood may be used indoors in a furnace, stove, or fireplace, or outdoors in a furnace, campfire, or bonfire. As with any fire, burning wood fuel creates numerous by-products, some of which may be useful, others that are undesirable, irritating or dangerous. There is debate as to whether burning wood can be considered carbon neutral, as technically the wood cannot release more carbon than was sequestered during its growth, although this does not take account of other impacts such as deforestation and rotting has on the carbon footprint; when harvested in a sustainable fashion wood is considered to be a renewable solid fuel. Although wood is a form of biomass, the term refers to other natural plant material that can be burnt for fuel. Common biomass fuels include waste wheat, nut shells and other fibrous material. Peat fuel is an accumulation of decayed vegetation or organic matter that can be burnt once sufficiently dried. Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams.
Throughout history, coal has been used as an energy resource burned for the production of electricity and heat, is used for industrial purposes, such as refining metals. Coal is the largest source of energy for the generation of electricity worldwide, as well as one of the largest worldwide anthropogenic sources of carbon dioxide releases; the extraction of coal, its use in energy production and its byproducts are all associated with environmental and health effects including climate change. Variations such as smokeless coal can be formed in the form of anthracite, a metamorphosed type of coal with a high carbon content that gives off a smokeless flame when set alight. Coke is a fuel with few impurities and a high carbon content made from coal, it is the solid carbonaceous material derived from destructive distillation of low-ash, low-sulfur bituminous coal. Cokes made from coal are grey and porous. While coke can be formed the used form is man-made; the form known as petroleum coke, or pet coke, is derived from oil refinery coker units or other cracking processes.
Municipal solid waste known as trash or garbage in the United States and as rubbish in Britain, is a waste type consisting of everyday items that are discarded by the public. With the correct technology it can be converted to a viable fuel source. However, this is technology heavy and can only be used where the waste is known not to contain toxic materials. Solid rocket propellant consists of a solid oxidizer bound with flakes or powders of energy compounds plus binders, plasticizers and other additives. Solid propellant is much easier to handle than liquid propellant, it has a higher energy density so it does not require as large of a space for the same amount of stored energy. Solid fuels, compared to liquid fuels or gaseous fuels, are cheaper, easier to extract, more stable to transport and in many places are more available. Coal, in particular, is utilized in the generation of 38.1% of the world’s electricity because it is less expensive and more powerful than its liquid and gas counterparts.
However, solid fuels are heavier to transport, require more destructive methods to extract/burn and have higher carbon and sulphate emissions. With the exception of sustainable wood/biomass solid fuel is considered non-renewable as it requires thousands of years to form. Bagasse Biofuel Biomass Fossil fuel Synthetic fuel Nuclear power "CO2 Emissions." Data. N.p. n.d. Web. 25 March 2014. "Coal Facts." Coal Facts. N.p. n.d. Web. 25 March 2014. "Heating Options for Your Home Buying Guide." Electricity, Gas or Solid Fuel? - CHOICE Reviews Heating Options for Your Home. N.p. n.d. Web. 25 March 2014
Cogeneration or combined heat and power is the use of a heat engine or power station to generate electricity and useful heat at the same time. Trigeneration or combined cooling and power refers to the simultaneous generation of electricity and useful heating and cooling from the combustion of a fuel or a solar heat collector; the terms cogeneration and trigeneration can be applied to the power systems generating electricity and industrial chemicals – e.g. syngas or pure hydrogen. Cogeneration is a more efficient use of fuel because otherwise wasted heat from electricity generation is put to some productive use. Combined heat and power plants recover otherwise wasted thermal energy for heating; this is called combined heat and power district heating. Small CHP plants are an example of decentralized energy. By-product heat at moderate temperatures can be used in absorption refrigerators for cooling; the supply of high-temperature heat first drives a steam turbine-powered generator. The resulting low-temperature waste heat is used for water or space heating.
At smaller scales a gas engine or diesel engine may be used. Trigeneration differs from cogeneration in that the waste heat is used for both heating and cooling in an absorption refrigerator. Combined cooling and power systems can attain higher overall efficiencies than cogeneration or traditional power plants. In the United States, the application of trigeneration in buildings is called building cooling and power. Heating and cooling output may operate concurrently or alternately depending on need and system construction. Cogeneration was practiced in some of the earliest installations of electrical generation. Before central stations distributed power, industries generating their own power used exhaust steam for process heating. Large office and apartment buildings and stores generated their own power and used waste steam for building heat. Due to the high cost of early purchased power, these CHP operations continued for many years after utility electricity became available. Many process industries, such as chemical plants, oil refineries and pulp and paper mills, require large amounts of process heat for such operations as chemical reactors, distillation columns, steam driers and other uses.
This heat, used in the form of steam, can be generated at the low pressures used in heating, or can be generated at much higher pressure and passed through a turbine first to generate electricity. In the turbine the steam pressure and temperature is lowered as the internal energy of the steam is converted to work; the lower pressure steam leaving the turbine can be used for process heat. Steam turbines at thermal power stations are designed to be fed high pressure steam, which exits the turbine at a condenser operating a few degrees above ambient temperature and at a few millimeters of mercury absolute pressure. For all practical purposes this steam has negligible useful energy. Steam turbines for cogeneration are designed either for extraction of some steam at lower pressures after it has passed through a number of turbine stages, with the un-extracted steam going on through the turbine to a condenser. In this case, the extracted steam causes a mechanical power loss in the downstream stages of the turbine.
Or they are designed, for final exhaust at back pressure. The extracted or exhaust steam is used for process heating. Steam at ordinary process heating conditions still has a considerable amount of enthalpy that could be used for power generation, so cogeneration has an opportunity cost. A typical power generation turbine in a paper mill may have extraction pressures of 160 psig and 60 psig. A typical back pressure may be 60 psig. In practice these pressures are custom designed for each facility. Conversely generating process steam for industrial purposes instead of high enough pressure to generate power at the top end has an opportunity cost; the capital and operating cost of high pressure boilers and generators are substantial. This equipment is operated continuously, which limits self-generated power to large-scale operations. A combined cycle, may be used to extract heat using a heating system as condenser of the power plant's bottoming cycle. For example, the RU-25 MHD generator in Moscow heated a boiler for a conventional steam powerplant, whose condensate was used for space heat.
A more modern system might use a gas turbine powered by natural gas, whose exhaust powers a steam plant, whose condensate provides heat. Cogeneration plants based on a combined cycle power unit can have thermal efficiencies above 80%; the viability of CHP in smaller CHP installations, depends on a good baseload of operation, both in terms of an on-site electrical demand and heat demand. In practice, an exact match between the heat and electricity needs exists. A CHP plant can either meet the need for heat or be run as a power plant with some use of its waste heat, the latter being less advantageous in terms of its utilisation factor and thus its overall efficiency; the viability can be increased where opportunities for trigeneration exist. In such cases, the heat from the CHP plant is used as a primary energy source to deliver cooling by means of an absorption c