A biogeographic realm or ecozone is the broadest biogeographic division of Earth's land surface, based on distributional patterns of terrestrial organisms. They are subdivided into ecoregions, which are classified based on their habitat types; the realms delineate the large areas of the Earth's surface within which organisms have been evolving in relative isolation over long periods of time, separated from one another by geographic features, such as oceans, broad deserts, or high mountain ranges, that constitute barriers to migration. As such, biogeographic realm designations are used to indicate general groupings of organisms based on their shared biogeography. Biogeographic realms correspond to the floristic kingdoms of botany or zoogeographic regions of zoology. Biogeographic realms are characterized by the evolutionary history of the organisms they contain, they are distinct from biomes known as major habitat types, which are divisions of the Earth's surface based on life form, or the adaptation of animals, micro-organisms and plants to climatic and other conditions.
Biomes are characterized by similar climax vegetation. Each realm may include a number of different biomes. A tropical moist broadleaf forest in Central America, for example, may be similar to one in New Guinea in its vegetation type and structure, soils, etc. but these forests are inhabited by animals, micro-organisms and plants with different evolutionary histories. The patterns of distribution of living organisms in the world's biogeographic realms were shaped by the process of plate tectonics, which has redistributed the world's land masses over geological history; the "biogeographic realms" of Udvardy were defined based on taxonomic composition. The rank corresponds less to the floristic kingdoms and zoogeographic regions; the usage of the term "ecozone" is more variable. It was used in stratigraphy. In Canadian literature, the term was used by Wiken in macro level land classification, with geographic criteria. Schültz would use it with ecological and physiognomical criteria, in a way similar to the concept of biome.
In the Global 200/WWF scheme the term "biogeographic realm" in Udvardy sense was used. However, in a scheme of BBC, it was replaced by the term "ecozone"; the World Wildlife Fund scheme is broadly similar to Miklos Udvardy's system, the chief difference being the delineation of the Australasian realm relative to the Antarctic and Indomalayan realms. In the WWF system, The Australasia realm includes Australia, the islands of Wallacea, New Guinea, the East Melanesian islands, New Caledonia, New Zealand. Udvardy's Australian realm includes only Tasmania; the Palearctic and Nearctic are sometimes grouped into the Holarctic realm. Following the nomenclatural conventions set out in the International Code of Area Nomenclature, Morrone defined the next biogeographic kingdoms and regions: Holarctic kingdom Heilprin Nearctic region Sclater Palearctic region Sclater Holotropical kingdom Rapoport Neotropical region Sclater Ethiopian region Sclater Oriental region Wallace Austral kingdom Engler Cape region Grisebach Andean region Engler Australian region Sclater Antarctic region Grisebach Transition zones: Mexican transition zone Saharo-Arabian transition zone Chinese transition zone Indo-Malayan, Indonesian or Wallace's transition zone South American transition zone The applicability of Udvardy scheme to most freshwater taxa is unresolved.
The drainage basins of the principal oceans and seas of the world are marked by continental divides. The grey areas are endorheic basins. According to Briggs and Morrone: According to the WWF scheme: Cosmopolitan distribution Ecotone Abell, R. M. Thieme, C. Revenga, M. Bryer, M. Kottelat, N. Bogutskaya, B. Coad, N. Mandrak, S. Contreras-Balderas, W. Bussing, M. L. J. Stiassny, P. Skelton, G. R. Allen, P. Unmack, A. Naseka, R. Ng, N. Sindorf, J. Robertson, E. Armijo, J. Higgins, T. J. Heibel, E. Wikramanayake, D. Olson, H. L. Lopez, R. E. d. Reis, J. G. Lundberg, M. H. Sabaj Perez, P. Petry.. Freshwater ecoregions of the world: A new map of biogeographic units for freshwater biodiversity conservation. BioScience 58:403-414. "Ecozones". BBC Nature. N.d. Archived from the original on 10 July 2018. Briggs, J. C.. Global Biogeography. Amsterdam: Elsevier. Morrone, J. J.. Evolutionary biogeography, an integrative approach with case studies. Columbia University Press, New York. Morrone, J. J.. Biogeographical regionalisation of the world: a reappraisal.
Australian Systematic Botany 28: 81-90. Olson, D. M. & E. Dinerstein; the Global 200: A representation approach to conserving the Earth’s most biologically valuable ecoregions. Conservation Biol. 12:502–515. Olson, D. M. Dinerstein, E. Wikramanayake, E. D. Burgess, N. D. Powell, G. V. N. Underwood, E. C. D'Amico, J. A. Itoua, I. Strand, H. E. Morrison, J. C. Loucks, C. J. Allnutt, T. F. Ricketts, T. H. Kura, Y. Lamoreux, J. F. Wettengel, W. W. Hedao, P. Kassem, K. R.. Terrestrial ecoregions of the world: a new map of life on Earth
Prince of Bảo Nghĩa Trần Bình Trọng was a general of the Trần Dynasty well known for his heroic action in the war of Dai Viet against the second Mongol invasion. After the capture of Trần Bình Trọng by the army of the Yuan Dynasty, Kublai Khan's prince Toghan attempted to convince the Đại Việt general to surrender by telling him about the situation of the Trần Dynasty, saying that Trần Bình Trọng would get a minister's post in China. However, the general rejected his proposition, thus, Toghan had him executed. Today, he is known as an example of patriotism in Annam, story about Marquis Bảo Nghĩa is taught in Vietnamese schoolbooks and many places in Vietnam are named in honour of this national hero. According to Từ điển Bách khoa toàn thư Việt Nam, Marquis Bảo Nghĩa Trần Bình Trọng was born in 1259 during the reign of the Emperor Trần Thánh Tông. Trần Bình Trọng descended from a family, origin from the Emperor Lê Đại Hành but married Princess Thụy Bảo of the Trần Dynasty while his father and grandfather were officials under the Emperor Trần Thái Tông, therefore he was granted the royal family name Trần.
In 1279, the Yuan Dynasty won a decisive victory over the Song Dynasty at the Battle of Yamen which marked the end of the Song Dynasty and resulted in the total control of Kublai Khan over China. As a result, Kublai Khan began to expose his attempt to take over the southern countries like Đại Việt or Champa. In December 1284, the second Yuan's invasion of Đại Việt was opended under the command of Kublai Khan's prince Toghan. Đại Việt was attacked in two directions, Toghan himselft conducted the infantry invaded from the northern border while Yuan's navy under general Sogetu advanced from the southern border through Champa's territory. In the beginning of the war, the Retired Emperor Thánh Tông and the Emperor Nhân Tông had to retreat from Thăng Long under the pressure of Yuan army. Grand commander of Đại Việt army Trần Hưng Đạo decided to appoint general Trần Bình Trọng to take charge of holding back the Yuan army so that two Emperors could retreat safely to Thiên Trường. In a battle near Đà Mạc in February 1285, Trần Bình Trọng's troops were defeated and the general was captured by the army of prince Toghan.
After the capture, prince Toghan considered Marquis Bảo Nghĩa a talented general so he tried to convince Trần Bình Trọng to surrender and tell him about the situation of the Trần Dynasty. Refusing to co-operate, Trần Bình Trọng kicked off the treasure that they offered, he was asked about the prospect of being a Prince for the Yuan Dynasty, he answered by a phrase which became famous in History of Vietnam: 寧為南鬼，不為北王 Ninh vi Nam quỷ, bất vi Bắc vương. Ta thà làm ma nước Nam chứ không thèm làm Vương đất Bắc. I prefer to be a ghost in the South than a King in the North. Trần Bình Trọng was killed afterwards in the same year at the age of 26; the death of Marquis Bảo Nghĩa was mourned by every member of Trần family and royal court, the Emperor posthumously entitled him as Prince Bảo Nghĩa. The account of Battle of Đà Mạc and the capture of Trần Bình Trọng appeared in the historical book of the Yuan Dynasty, the History of Yuan. There was a difference between "Story of Annam" in History of Yuan and Đại Việt sử kí toàn thư about the date of the event at Đà Mạc, the Vietnamese work dated the battle in February while the exact day of the battle in the Chinese book was January 21 of Lunar calendar.
According to modern historian Lê Mạnh Thát, the Chinese book might be more accurate in this case because most of the original historical records of the Trần Dynasty were destroyed by the Ming Dynasty during the fourth Chinese domination over Vietnam so maybe Ngô Sĩ Liên committed an error in copying this event. Today, Trần Bình Trọng is still considered as one of the finest example of Vietnamese patriotism through his famous phrase. Stories about his spirit and action are taught in schoolbooks of several grades while a main street in Hanoi and many other places in Vietnam are named in honour of this national hero. Trần Bình Trọng is a subject for several literature and theatre works such as the novel Bên bờ Thiên Mạc by Hà Ân. Ngô Sĩ Liên, Đại Việt sử ký toàn thư, Hanoi: Social Science Publishing House National Bureau for Historical Record, Khâm định Việt sử Thông giám cương mục, Hanoi: Education Publishing House Trần Trọng Kim, Việt Nam sử lược, Saigon: Center for School Materials Chapuis, Oscar, A history of Vietnam: from Hong Bang to Tu Duc, Greenwood Publishing Group, ISBN 0-313-29622-7
The Battle of Majar al-Kabir was the result of a growing distrust between the British military and the local people of the south-eastern region of Iraq. Despite a signed agreement between local people and British forces stating that the British would not enter the town, the 1st Battalion Parachute Regiment started patrolling in the town of Majar al-Kabir on 24 June 2003 the day after the agreement was signed by both sides; the British thought the agreement was to stop the weapons searches that involved going into the houses of local inhabitants. At first, angry locals stoned the Paras whilst being encouraged by anti-British rhetoric being chanted from microphones on minarets in the town; the Paras used rubber bullets to bring the situation under control. The six RMP were killed by an angry mob of up to 600 people whilst maintaining a defensive position within the police station. Four Iraqi civilians were killed and at least eleven more were injured during the riot that led to the RMP personnel being cornered.
The number of British troops injured numbered eight, though only one was injured through being in a firefight in the town. A Quick Reaction Force was deployed from Camp Abu Naji and air support came in the form of one Gazelle and one Chinook helicopter; the Chinook incurred enough airframe damage from Iraqi gunfire that it could not land its QRF element in the town and had to return to Abu Naji where it offloaded seven injured troops. The death of the six RMP was one of the most controversial occurrences of the Iraq Campaign involving British forces and remains a controversial subject within political and military circles. In March 2003, coalition forces started the invasion of Iraq that would become the Iraq War, lasting until 2011. Combat operations were announced by the then-President of the United States, George W. Bush, as being over on 1 May 2003; the south-eastern region of Iraq became part of the United Kingdom's Multi-National Division under the framework of Operation Telic. As part of their remit, the British forces were keen to remove all heavy weaponry from the region and did so purposely.
Whilst most of the weapons and ammunition were removed from private houses in the region, smaller weapons, such as AK-47s and handguns, were left with the families for their own protection. The local Iraqis had argued this point and demanded that they be left with some protection in what was a dangerous area post-invasion. One local man was quoted as saying "If Saddam Hussein could not take away our weapons, why should we allow the British to do so?"The town of Majar al-Kabir lies 250 miles south east of Baghdad and 120 miles north of Basra in the Maysan Province of Iraq, at the time, had a population of 85,000. In 2003, the main British base covering the region was Camp Abu Naji, 4 miles south of Amarah and 15 miles north of Majar al-Kabir. Majar al-Kabir was well known as being awash with weapons as the area was predominantly Shia Muslim, whose people had been brutally treated by the government of Saddam Hussein; when the British arrived they found an area devoid of government officials as all the Ba'athists had been chased away by the local populace in retaliation for their treatment under Saddam's regime.
The region was prone to other influences such as the CIA operating in the area. This annoyed Lieutenant-Colonel Tom Beckett who demanded that all CIA operatives clear their routines in the 1 Para area of operations through the Ops Room at Camp Abu Naji; because of the flat area in and around Majar al-Kabir, VHF and HF communications were limited. When in close proximity to each other, communication was hampered between soldiers by blackspots. 1 Para had sat-phones and Personal Role Radios. A memorandum of understanding was reached between the British Forces and local people that no more house searches would take place; the British believed that this understanding would mean that they would still patrol through the streets, but the locals maintain that this was not in the agreement. It was remarked upon that the British were not in the habit of creating "no-go zones" for themselves. On the 21 June, three days before the Battle of Majar al-Kabir, Major Kemp went into the town to meet the elders and inform them that there would be a British military presence at the police station where they would collect, but not search for, weapons.
At the inquest into the men's deaths in March 2006, it was noted that there had been a mis-translation in the text of the MOU which the Iraqi population read as there being "no necessity that the coalition be there."Two days before the killings, Two-Zero Alpha, an element of 8 Platoon, C Company were at the police station in Majar al-Kabir to collect weapons that were to be handed in under the amnesty agreement. With some men on guard duty, the rest were sunbathing and relaxing when a crowd of angry Iraqis arrived at the police station throwing rocks and chanting "no, no, America". In the unrest that followed, a DAF truck and the Land Rover belonging to Two-Zero Alpha were destroyed. After some warning shots were fired by the British, including one plastic bullet which deflected off the ground and hit a protester in the face, a Quick Reaction Force was activated and they arrived in Scimitars and armed Land Rovers to push back the crowd. On the morning of the battle, a support company platoon had driven through the town and when they reached Camp Abu Naji, they described the area as being "eerily quiet" and those loc
Vincent Hognon is a French professional football manager and former player who played as a defender. He is in charge of Ligue 1 side Metz. Born in Nancy, Hognon started his career at hometown club Nancy in Ligue 2, making his debut during the 1993–94 season, he played a total of nine seasons with the club, three of them in Ligue 1, before moving to Saint-Étienne, relegated to Ligue 2 following a fake passport scandal. However, the club won promotion during his second season there, Hognon became a key member of the side during their past three seasons in the top division. During the summer 2007, he signed for Nice, where he played until hanging up his boots in 2009; as of match played 29 February 2020 Nancy Division 2: 1997–98Saint-Étienne Ligue 2: 2003–04 Vincent Hognon management career statistics at Soccerbase Vincent Hognon – French league stats at LFP Vincent Hognon at L'Équipe Football Vincent Hognon at OGC Nice
Events in the year 1990 in the Netherlands. Monarch: Beatrix Prime Minister: Ruud Lubbers 25 to 26 January – Burns' Day Storm 27 May – Killings of Nick Spanos and Stephen Melrose 22 January – Michael Duut, kickboxer 16 February – Jessy Kramer, handballer. 2 April – Avalon-Chanel Weyzig, model 5 April – Género Zeefuik, footballer 15 April – Sharon Kovacs, singer 28 April – Robbert Andringa, volleyball player 5 May – Martine Smeets, handballer. 11 May – Kirsten Fennis, voice actress and presenter 22 May – Danick Snelder, handballer. 27 June – Laura van der Heijden, handballer. 24 July – Iso Sluijters, handball player. 17 September – Radical Redemption, DJ and record producer 21 September – Jantine Annika Heij, vocalist and producer 16 October – Sand Van Roy, actress 25 November – Anouchka Delon, actress 26 November – San Holo, DJ, record producer and composer 9 December – Debbie Bont, handballer. 10 December – Jason Wilnis, kickboxer 12 December – Stephanie Tency, actress 21 December – Yvette Broch, handball player.
4 January – Alois Miedl, art dealer 4 January – Wim Volkers, footballer 23 February – Annelien Kappeyne van de Coppello, politician 27 February – Johannes Draaijer, cyclist 24 May – Dries van der Lof, racing driver 7 August – Phiny Dick and writer of children's books and comics. 30 August – Bernard D. H. Tellegen, electrical engineer, inventor
Robin Jones Gunn is the best-selling, award-winning Christian author of over 100 books, including the Christy Miller and Sierra Jensen series for teen girls as well as the Glenbrooke series and the Sisterchicks series. Robin's non-fiction titles are "Praying For Your Future Husband", "Spoken For" and "Victim of Grace", her books have sold over 5.5 million copies worldwide. She is best known for the characters in the Christy Miller series that now continue in'"Christy &Todd: The College Years", "Christy & Todd: The Married Years", "Christy & Todd: The Baby Years" and the "Katie Weldon" series. In 2007 she received the Christy Award for her novel "Sisterchicks in Gondolas". In November 2016, a television film adaptation of the first two novels in her Christmas series, "Finding Father Christmas" and "Engaging Father Christmas", was broadcast on Hallmark Movies & Mysteries, as Finding Father Christmas, starring Erin Krakow and Niall Matter. At the time of broadcast, the film was both the highest rated and the most watched premier in the network's history.
Gunn published an ebook detailing her experiences of the process, from the origins of the novel into the film's production. A sequel to the film, entitled Engaging Father Christmas was confirmed by Hallmark on May 9, 2017 and began filming in June 2017; the film premiered Hallmark Movies & Mysteries in November 2017. Gunn appears as an extra in both films, alongside her agent. A third film in the series, entitled Marrying Father Christmas premiered on the channel on November 4, 2018. Born in Wisconsin, Gunn moved to Southern California at age 5, she and her husband live in Hawaii. Gunn serves on the Board of Directors for Media Associates International, a non-profit organization that provides training and encouragement for writers and publishers in difficult places of the world. Official Robin Jones Gunn Website