Resident Commissioner of Puerto Rico
The Resident Commissioner of Puerto Rico is a non-voting member of the United States House of Representatives elected by the voters of Puerto Rico every four years, the only member of the House of Representatives who serves a four-year term. Commissioners function in every respect as a member of Congress, including sponsoring legislation and serving on congressional committees, where they can vote on legislation, except that they are denied a vote on the final disposition of legislation on the House floor, they receive a salary of $174,000 per year. The current commissioner is Jenniffer González-Colón of the New Progressive Party, the first woman to hold the post, she is affiliated with the Republican Party at the national level. Other U. S. territories have a similar representative position called a delegate. List of United States congressional districts Resident Commissioners from the Philippines
40th United States Congress
The Fortieth United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D. C. from March 4, 1867, to March 4, 1869, during the third and fourth years of Andrew Johnson's presidency. The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the Eighth Census of the United States in 1860. Both chambers had a Republican majority. March 30, 1867: Alaska Purchase February 24, 1868: Impeachment of Andrew Johnson May 16, 1868: President Johnson acquitted May 26, 1868: President Johnson acquitted again November 3, 1868: 1868 presidential election: Ulysses S. Grant defeated Horatio Seymour December 25, 1868: President Johnson granted unconditional pardons to all Civil War rebels January 20, 1869: Elizabeth Cady Stanton was the first woman to testify before Congress Four Military Reconstruction Acts, continued: March 2, 1867, ch. 153, 14 Stat. 428 March 23, 1867, ch.
6, 15 Stat. 2 July 19, 1867, ch. 30, 15 Stat. 14 March 11, 1868, ch. 25, 15 Stat. 41 July 27, 1868: Expatriation Act of 1868, ch. 249, 15 Stat. 223 July 10, 1868: Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution declared ratified February 26, 1869: Approved an amendment to the Constutiton prohibiting the federal and state governments from denying a citizen the right to vote based on that citizen's "race, color, or previous condition of servitude", submitted it to the state legislatures for ratificationAmendment was ratified on February 3, 1870, becoming the Fifteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution February 16, 1868: Treaty of Fort Laramie ratified April 29, 1868: Treaty of Fort Laramie, 15 Stat. 635, signed July 25, 1868: Wyoming Territory organized The count below identifies party affiliations at the beginning of the first session of this Congress, includes members from vacancies and newly admitted states, when they were first seated. Changes resulting from subsequent replacements are shown below in the "Changes in membership" section.
During this Congress, Florida, North Carolina and South Carolina were readmitted to representation in both the Senate and the House. Georgia was readmitted with representation in the House only. President: Vacant President pro tempore: Benjamin Wade Republican Conference Chairman: Henry B. Anthony Democratic Campaign Committee Chairman: James Rood Doolittle Speaker: Schuyler Colfax, until March 3, 1869 Theodore M. Pomeroy, elected March 3, 1869. Served for 1 day; this list is arranged by chamber by state. Senators are listed in order of seniority, Representatives are listed by district. Senators were elected by the state legislatures every two years, with one-third beginning new six-year terms with each Congress. Preceding the names in the list below are Senate class numbers, which indicate the cycle of their election. In this Congress, Class 1 meant their term ended with this Congress, requiring reelection in 1868. Skip to House of Representatives, below The names of members of the House of Representatives are preceded by their district numbers.
The count below reflects changes from the beginning of the first session of this Congress. Replacements: 3 Democratic: 0 seat net loss Republican: 0 seat net gain deaths: 1 resignations: 2 interim appointments: 1 seats from newly re-admitted states: 12 Total seats with changes: 16 replacements: 10 Democratic: 2 seat net loss Republican: 0 seat net gain Independent Republican: 1 seat net gain Conservative: 0 seat net gain deaths: 8 resignations: 3 contested election: 3 seats from re-admitted states: 32 Total seats with changes: 44 Lists of committees and their party leaders, for members of the committees and their assignments, go into the Official Congressional Directory at the bottom of the article and click on the link, in the directory after the pages of terms of service, you will see the committees of the Senate and Joint and after the committee pages, you will see the House/Senate committee assignments in the directory, on the committees section of the House and Senate in the Official Congressional Directory, the committee's members on the first row on the left side shows the chairman of the committee and on the right side shows the ranking member of the committee.
Agriculture Appropriations Audit and Control the Contingent Expenses of the Senate Claims Commerce Distributing Public Revenue Among the States District of Columbia Education Finance Foreign Relations Impeachment of President Andrew Johnson Impeachment Trial Investigation Indian Affairs Judiciary Manufactures Military Affairs Mines and Mining Naval Affairs Ninth Census Ordnance and War Ships Pacific Railroad Patents and the Patent Office Pensions Post Office and Post Roads Private Land Claims Public Lands Representative Reform Retrenchment Revolutionary Claims Rules Tariff Regulation Territories Treasury Printing Bureau Whole Accounts Agriculture Appropriations Banking and Currency Claims Coinage and Measures Commerce District of Columbia Education and Labor Elections Expenditures in the Interior Department Expenditures in the Navy Department Expenditures in the Post Office Department Expenditures in the State Department Expenditures in the Treasury Department Expenditures in the War Department Expenditures on Public Buildings Freedmen's Affairs Foreign Affairs Indian Affairs Invalid Pensions Manufactures Mileage Military Affairs Militia Mines and Mining Naval Affairs Pacific Railroads Patents Pos
Charles Lanman was an American author, government official, artist and explorer. Charles Lanman was born in Monroe, Michigan, on June 14, 1819, the son of Charles James Lanman, the grandson of United States Senator James Lanman. Lanman's early life included newspaper work as editor of the Monroe Gazette in 1845, associate editor of the Cincinnati Chronicle in 1846, member of the editorial staff of the New York Express in 1847, he spent ten years, from 1835 to 1845, at The Hudson River School in New York City, where he met many artists, including Washington Irving. Lanman studied art under Asher B. Durand and at 28 became an elected associate of the National Academy of Design in 1846. Lanman married Adeline Dodge in 1849, they raised Tsuda Ume from December 1871 to 1882. Ume had been sent by the Japanese government as part of the Iwakura Mission. S. Ume founded Tsuda College for women in Tokyo. Lanman's career included service as librarian for the U. S. War Department, the U. S. House of Representatives, the City of Washington Library.
S. Interior Department. Charles Lanman collected biographies of former and sitting Members of Congress for his Dictionary of the United States Congress, published by J. B. Lippincott & Co. in 1859. This became the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Lanman's published writings include several collections of essays and books, including two biographies, the "Private Life of Daniel Webster" and "Life of William Woodbridge". Written accounts of his own travels and extensive explorations in the United States included "Essays for Summer Hours", "Letters from a Landscape-Painter", "A Summer in the Wilderness, Embracing a Canoe Voyage Up the Mississippi and Around Lake Superior", "A Tour of the River Saguenay", "Letters from the Alleghany Mountains ", "Haw-ho-noo, or Records of a Tourist"", "Adventures in the Wilds of the United States and British American Provinces" and "Red Book of Michigan: A Civil and Biographical History" Detroit, 1871)". Additional works included "Resources of America" compiled for the Japanese government, " The Japanese in America", "Biographical Annals of the Civil Government of the United States", "Life of Octavius Perinehief ", "Curious Characters and Pleasant Places", " Leading Men of Japan ", "Farthest North ", "Haphazard Personalities".
He has edited "The Prison Life of Alfred Ely", the "Sermons" of Reg. Octavius Perinchief, he produced scientific articles such as "The Salmonidae of Eastern Maine, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia". Lanman exhibited paintings and sketches from nature in oil, he made “sketching trips” to every state east of the Rockies. Many of those early sketches were published in The Illustrated London News and in various American magazines. Among his pictures are "Brookside and Homestead," "Home in the Woods", "Frontier Home", he was called by Washington Irving "the picturesque explorer of the United States". Charles Lanman died at Georgetown, D. C. on March 4, 1895. McNeilly, Dorothy. "Charles Lanman". The American Fly Fisher. Manchester, VT: American Museum of Fly Fishing. 11: 15–19. Archived from the original on 2014-11-29. Retrieved 2014-11-19. "A Checklist of Works by Charles Lanman". The American Fly Fisher. Manchester, VT: American Museum of Fly Fishing. 11: 19–21. Fall 1984. Archived from the original on 2014-11-29. Retrieved 2014-11-19.
Http://shs.umsystem.edu/manuscripts/invent/3725.pdf https://web.archive.org/web/20080917190658/http://www.gpoaccess.gov/serialset/cdocuments/hd108-222/intro.pdf Works by Charles Lanman at Faded Page Works by Charles Lanman at Project Gutenberg
A letter is one person's written message to another pertaining to some matter of common concern. Letters have several different types: informal letters. Letters contribute to the conservation of literacy. Letters are mentioned in the Iliad. Both Herodotus and Thucydides mention letters in their histories. Letters have existed from the time of ancient India, ancient Egypt and Sumer, through Rome and China, up to the present day. During the seventeenth and eighteenth century, letters were used to self-educate. Letters were a way to practice critical reading, self-expressive writing, polemical writing and exchange ideas with like-minded others. For some people, letters were seen as a written performance. For others, it was not only seen as a performance but as a way of communication and a method of gaining feedback. Letters make up several of the books of the Bible. Archives of correspondence, whether for personal, diplomatic, or business reasons, serve as primary sources for historians. At certain times, the writing of letters was thought to be an art form and a genre of literature, for instance in Byzantine epistolography.
In the ancient world letters were written on a various different materials, including metal, wax-coated wooden tablets, pottery fragments, animal skin, papyrus. From Ovid, we learn; as communication technology has diversified, posted letters have become less important as a routine form of communication. For example, the development of the telegraph drastically shortened the time taken to send a communication, by sending it between distant points as an electrical signal. At the telegraph office closest to the destination, the signal was converted back into writing on paper and delivered to the recipient; the next step was the telex. Followed the fax machine: a letter could be transferred electrically from the sender to the receiver through the telephone network as an image. Today, the internet, by means of email, plays a large part in written communications. Due to the timelessness and universality of letter writing, there is a wealth of letters and instructional materials on letter writing throughout history.
The study of letter writing involves both the study of rhetoric and grammar. Letters are a way to connect with someone not through the internet. Despite email, letters are still popular in business and for official communications. Letters have the following advantages over email: No special device is needed to receive a letter, just a postal address, the letter can be read on receipt. An advertising mailing can reach every address in a particular area. A letter provides immediate, in principle permanent, physical record of communication, without the need for printing. Letters those with a signature and/or on an organization's own notepaper, are more difficult to falsify than is an email and thus provide much better evidence of the contents of the communication. A letter in the sender's own handwriting is more personal than an email. If required, small physical objects can be enclosed in the envelope with the letter. Letters are unable to transmit other harmful files that can be transmitted by email.
Letter writing leads to the mastery of the technique of good writing. Letter writing can provide an extension of the face-to-face therapeutic encounter. Here is how a letter gets from the sender to the recipient: Sender writes letter and places it in an envelope on which the recipient's address is written in the centre front of the envelope. Sender ensures that the recipient's address includes the Zip or Postal Code and includes his/her return address on the envelope. Sender buys a postage stamp and attaches it to the front of the envelope on the top right corner on the front of the envelope. Sender puts the letter in a postbox; the national postal service of the sender's country empties the postbox and transports all the contents to the regional sorting office. The sorting office sorts each letter by address and postcode and delivers the letters destined for a particular area to that area's post office. Letters addressed to a different region are sent to that region's sorting office, to be sorted further.
The local post office dispatches the letters to their delivery personnel who deliver them to the proper addresses. This process, depending on how far the sender is from the recipient, can take anywhere from a day to 3–4 weeks. International mail is sent via airplanes to other countries. However, in 2008, Janet Barrett from the UK, received a RSVP to a party invitation addressed to'Percy Bateman', from'Buffy' posted on 29 November 1919, it had taken 89 years to be delivered by the Royal Mail. However, Royal Mail denied this, saying that it would be impossible for a letter to have remained in their system for so long, as checks are carried out regularly. Instead, the letter dated 1919 may have "been a collector's item, being sent in another envelope and somehow came free of the outer packaging". There are a number of different types of letter: The dictionary definition of letter at Wiktionary handwrittenletters.com Lette
United States Congress
The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the Federal Government of the United States. The legislature consists of two chambers: the House of the Senate; the Congress meets in the United States Capitol in Washington, D. C.. Both senators and representatives are chosen through direct election, though vacancies in the Senate may be filled by a gubernatorial appointment. Congress has 535 voting members: 100 senators; the House of Representatives has six non-voting members representing Puerto Rico, American Samoa, the Northern Mariana Islands, the U. S. Virgin Islands, the District of Columbia in addition to its 435 voting members. Although they cannot vote in the full house, these members can address the house and vote in congressional committees, introduce legislation; the members of the House of Representatives serve two-year terms representing the people of a single constituency, known as a "district". Congressional districts are apportioned to states by population using the United States Census results, provided that each state has at least one congressional representative.
Each state, regardless of population or size, has two senators. There are 100 senators representing the 50 states; each senator is elected at-large in their state for a six-year term, with terms staggered, so every two years one-third of the Senate is up for election. To be eligible for election, a candidate must be aged at least 25 or 30, have been a citizen of the United States for seven or nine years, be an inhabitant of the state which they represent; the Congress was created by the Constitution of the United States and first met in 1789, replacing in its legislative function the Congress of the Confederation. Although not mandated, in practice since the 19th century, Congress members are affiliated with the Republican Party or with the Democratic Party and only with a third party or independents. Article One of the United States Constitution states, "All legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives."
The House and Senate are equal partners in the legislative process—legislation cannot be enacted without the consent of both chambers. However, the Constitution grants each chamber some unique powers; the Senate ratifies treaties and approves presidential appointments while the House initiates revenue-raising bills. The House initiates impeachment cases. A two-thirds vote of the Senate is required before an impeached person can be forcibly removed from office; the term Congress can refer to a particular meeting of the legislature. A Congress covers two years; the Congress ends on the third day of January of every odd-numbered year. Members of the Senate are referred to as senators. Scholar and representative Lee H. Hamilton asserted that the "historic mission of Congress has been to maintain freedom" and insisted it was a "driving force in American government" and a "remarkably resilient institution". Congress is the "heart and soul of our democracy", according to this view though legislators achieve the prestige or name recognition of presidents or Supreme Court justices.
One analyst argues that it is not a reactive institution but has played an active role in shaping government policy and is extraordinarily sensitive to public pressure. Several academics described Congress: Congress reflects us in all our strengths and all our weaknesses, it reflects our regional idiosyncrasies, our ethnic and racial diversity, our multitude of professions, our shadings of opinion on everything from the value of war to the war over values. Congress is the government's most representative body... Congress is charged with reconciling our many points of view on the great public policy issues of the day. Congress is changing and is in flux. In recent times, the American south and west have gained House seats according to demographic changes recorded by the census and includes more minorities and women although both groups are still underrepresented. While power balances among the different parts of government continue to change, the internal structure of Congress is important to understand along with its interactions with so-called intermediary institutions such as political parties, civic associations, interest groups, the mass media.
The Congress of the United States serves two distinct purposes that overlap: local representation to the federal government of a congressional district by representatives and a state's at-large representation to the federal government by senators. Most incumbents seek re-election, their historical likelihood of winning subsequent elections exceeds 90 percent; the historical records of the House of Representatives and the Senate are maintained by the Center for Legislative Archives, a part of the National Archives and Records Administration. Congress is directly responsible for the governing of the District of Columbia, the current seat of the federal government; the First Continental Congress was a gathering of representatives from twelve of the thirteen British Colonies in North America. On July 4, 1776, the Second Continental Congress adopted the Declaration of Independence, referring to the new nation as the "United States of America"; the Articles of Confederation in 1781 created the Congress of the Confederation, a