A biomolecule or biological molecule is a loosely used term for molecules and ions that are present in organisms, essential to some biological process such as cell division, morphogenesis, or development. Biomolecules include large macromolecules such as proteins, carbohydrates and nucleic acids, as well as small molecules such as primary metabolites, secondary metabolites, natural products. A more general name for this class of material is biological materials. Biomolecules are endogenous but may be exogenous. For example, pharmaceutical drugs may be natural products or semisynthetic or they may be synthetic. Biology and its subsets of biochemistry and molecular biology study biomolecules and their reactions. Most biomolecules are organic compounds, just four elements—oxygen, carbon and nitrogen—make up 96% of the human body's mass, but many other elements, such as the various biometals, are present in small amounts. The uniformity of specific types of molecules and of some metabolic pathways as invariant features between the diversity of life forms is called "biochemical universals" or "theory of material unity of the living beings", a unifying concept in biology, along with cell theory and evolution theory.
A diverse range of biomolecules exist, including: Small molecules: Lipids, fatty acids, sterols, monosaccharides Vitamins Hormones, neurotransmitters Metabolites Monomers and polymers: Nucleosides are molecules formed by attaching a nucleobase to a ribose or deoxyribose ring. Examples of these include cytidine, adenosine and thymidine. Nucleosides can be phosphorylated by specific kinases in producing nucleotides. Both DNA and RNA are polymers, consisting of long, linear molecules assembled by polymerase enzymes from repeating structural units, or monomers, of mononucleotides. DNA uses the deoxynucleotides C, G, A, T, while RNA uses the ribonucleotides C, G, A, U. Modified bases are common, as found in ribosomal RNA or transfer RNAs or for discriminating the new from old strands of DNA after replication; each nucleotide is made of a pentose and one to three phosphate groups. They contain carbon, oxygen and phosphorus, they serve as sources of chemical energy, participate in cellular signaling, are incorporated into important cofactors of enzymatic reactions.
DNA structure is dominated by the well-known double helix formed by Watson-Crick base-pairing of C with G and A with T. This is known as B-form DNA, is overwhelmingly the most favorable and common state of DNA. DNA can sometimes occur as single strands or as A-form or Z-form helices, in more complex 3D structures such as the crossover at Holliday junctions during DNA replication. RNA, in contrast, forms large and complex 3D tertiary structures reminiscent of proteins, as well as the loose single strands with locally folded regions that constitute messenger RNA molecules; those RNA structures contain many stretches of A-form double helix, connected into definite 3D arrangements by single-stranded loops and junctions. Examples are tRNA, ribosomes and riboswitches; these complex structures are facilitated by the fact that RNA backbone has less local flexibility than DNA but a large set of distinct conformations because of both positive and negative interactions of the extra OH on the ribose. Structured RNA molecules can do specific binding of other molecules and can themselves be recognized specifically.
Monosaccharides are the simplest form of carbohydrates with only one simple sugar. They contain an aldehyde or ketone group in their structure; the presence of an aldehyde group in a monosaccharide is indicated by the prefix aldo-. A ketone group is denoted by the prefix keto-. Examples of monosaccharides are the hexoses, fructose, Tetroses, galactose, pentoses and deoxyribose. Consumed fructose and glucose have different rates of gastric emptying, are differentially absorbed and have different metabolic fates, providing multiple opportunities for 2 different saccharides to differentially affect food intake. Most saccharides provide fuel for cellular respiration. Disaccharides are formed when two monosaccharides, or two single simple sugars, form a bond with removal of water, they can be hydrolyzed to yield their saccharin building blocks by boiling with dilute acid or reacting them with appropriate enzymes. Examples of disaccharides include sucrose and lactose. Polysaccharides are polymerized complex carbohydrates.
They have multiple simple sugars. Examples are starch and glycogen, they are large and have a complex branched connectivity. Because of their size, polysaccharides are not water-soluble, but their many hydroxy groups become hydrated individually when exposed to water, some polysaccharides form thick colloidal dispersions when heated in water. Shorter polysaccharides, with 3 - 10 monomers, are called oligosaccharides. A fluorescent indicato
In biology, a population is all the organisms of the same group or species, which live in a particular geographical area, have the capability of interbreeding. The area of a sexual population is the area where inter-breeding is possible between any pair within the area, where the probability of interbreeding is greater than the probability of cross-breeding with individuals from other areas. In sociology, population refers to a collection of humans. Demography is a social science. Population in simpler terms is the number of people in a city or town, country or world. In population genetics a sex population is a set of organisms in which any pair of members can breed together; this means that they can exchange gametes to produce normally-fertile offspring, such a breeding group is known therefore as a Gamo deme. This implies that all members belong to the same species. If the Gamo deme is large, all gene alleles are uniformly distributed by the gametes within it, the Gamo deme is said to be panmictic.
Under this state, allele frequencies can be converted to genotype frequencies by expanding an appropriate quadratic equation, as shown by Sir Ronald Fisher in his establishment of quantitative genetics. This occurs in Nature: localization of gamete exchange – through dispersal limitations, preferential mating, cataclysm, or other cause – may lead to small actual Gamo demes which exchange gametes reasonably uniformly within themselves but are separated from their neighboring Gamo demes. However, there may be low frequencies of exchange with these neighbors; this may be viewed as the breaking up of a large sexual population into smaller overlapping sexual populations. This failure of panmixia leads to two important changes in overall population structure: the component Gamo demos vary in their allele frequencies when compared with each other and with the theoretical panmictic original; the overall rise in homozygosity is quantified by the inbreeding coefficient. Note that all homozygotes are increased in frequency – both the deleterious and the desirable.
The mean phenotype of the Gamo demes collection is lower than that of the panmictic original –, known as inbreeding depression. It is most important to note, that some dispersion lines will be superior to the panmictic original, while some will be about the same, some will be inferior; the probabilities of each can be estimated from those binomial equations. In plant and animal breeding, procedures have been developed which deliberately utilize the effects of dispersion, it can be shown that dispersion-assisted selection leads to the greatest genetic advance, is much more powerful than selection acting without attendant dispersion. This is so for both autogamous Gamo demes. In ecology, the population of a certain species in a certain area can be estimated using the Lincoln Index. According to the United States Census Bureau the world's population was about 7.55 billion in 2019 and that the 7 billion number was surpassed on 12 March 2012. According to a separate estimate by the United Nations, Earth’s population exceeded seven billion in October 2011, a milestone that offers unprecedented challenges and opportunities to all of humanity, according to UNFPA, the United Nations Population Fund.
According to papers published by the United States Census Bureau, the world population hit 6.5 billion on 24 February 2006. The United Nations Population Fund designated 12 October 1999 as the approximate day on which world population reached 6 billion; this was about 12 years after world population reached 5 billion in 1987, 6 years after world population reached 5.5 billion in 1993. The population of countries such as Nigeria, is not known to the nearest million, so there is a considerable margin of error in such estimates. Researcher Carl Haub calculated that a total of over 100 billion people have been born in the last 2000 years. Population growth increased as the Industrial Revolution gathered pace from 1700 onwards; the last 50 years have seen a yet more rapid increase in the rate of population growth due to medical advances and substantial increases in agricultural productivity beginning in the 1960s, made by the Green Revolution. In 2017 the United Nations Population Division projected that the world's population will reach about 9.8 billion in 2050 and 11.2 billion in 2100.
In the future, the world's population is expected to peak, after which it will decline due to economic reasons, health concerns, land exhaustion and environmental hazards. According to one report, it is likely that the world's population will stop growing before the end of the 21st century. Further, there is some likelihood that population will decline before 2100. Population has declined in the last decade or two in Eastern Europe, the Baltics and in the Commonwealth of Independent States; the population pattern of less-developed regions of the world in recent years has been marked by increasing birth rates. These followed an earlier sharp reduction in death rates; this transition from high birth and death rates to low birth
Linus Carl Pauling was an American chemist, peace activist, author and husband of American human rights activist Ava Helen Pauling. He published books, of which about 850 dealt with scientific topics. New Scientist called him one of the 20 greatest scientists of all time, as of 2000, he was rated the 16th most important scientist in history. Pauling was one of the founders of the fields of molecular biology, his contributions to the theory of the chemical bond include the concept of orbital hybridisation and the first accurate scale of electronegativities of the elements. Pauling worked on the structures of biological molecules, showed the importance of the alpha helix and beta sheet in protein secondary structure. Pauling's approach combined methods and results from X-ray crystallography, molecular model building and quantum chemistry, his discoveries inspired the work of James Watson, Francis Crick, Rosalind Franklin on the structure of DNA, which in turn made it possible for geneticists to crack the DNA code of all organisms.
In his years he promoted nuclear disarmament, as well as orthomolecular medicine, megavitamin therapy, dietary supplements. None of the latter have gained much acceptance in the mainstream scientific community. For his scientific work, Pauling was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1954. For his peace activism, he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1962, he is one of four individuals to have won more than one Nobel Prize. Of these, he is the only person to have been awarded two unshared Nobel Prizes, one of two people to be awarded Nobel Prizes in different fields, the other being Marie Curie. Pauling was born in Portland, the first-born child of Herman Henry William Pauling and Lucy Isabelle "Belle" Darling, he was named "Linus Carl", in honor of Lucy's father and Herman's father, Carl. In 1902, after his sister Pauline was born, Pauling's parents decided to move out of Portland, to find more affordable and spacious living quarters than their one-room apartment. Lucy stayed with her husband's parents in Lake Oswego until Herman brought the family to Salem, where he worked as a traveling salesman for the Skidmore Drug Company.
Within a year of Lucile's birth in 1904, Herman Pauling moved his family to Oswego, where he opened his own drugstore. He moved his family to Condon, Oregon, in 1905. By 1906, Herman Pauling was suffering from recurrent abdominal pain, he died of a perforated ulcer on June 11, 1910, leaving Lucy to care for Linus and Pauline. Pauling attributes his interest in becoming a chemist to being amazed by experiments conducted by a friend, Lloyd A. Jeffress, who had a small chemistry lab kit, he wrote: "I was entranced by chemical phenomena, by the reactions in which substances with strikingly different properties, appear. With an older friend, Lloyd Simon, Pauling set up Palmon Laboratories in Simon's basement, they approached local dairies offering to perform butterfat samplings at cheap prices but dairymen were wary of trusting two boys with the task, the business ended in failure. At age 15, the high school senior had enough credits to enter Oregon State University, known as Oregon Agricultural College.
Lacking two American history courses required for his high school diploma, Pauling asked the school principal if he could take the courses concurrently during the spring semester. Denied, he left Washington High School in June without a diploma; the school awarded him an honorary diploma 45 years after he was awarded two Nobel Prizes. Pauling held a number of jobs to earn money for his future college expenses, including working part-time at a grocery store for $8 per week, his mother arranged an interview with the owner of a number of manufacturing plants in Portland, Mr. Schwietzerhoff, who hired him as an apprentice machinist at a salary of $40 per month; this was soon raised to $50 per month. Pauling set up a photography laboratory with two friends. In September 1917, Pauling was admitted by Oregon State University, he resigned from the machinist's job and informed his mother, who saw no point in a university education, of his plans. In his first semester, Pauling registered for two courses in chemistry, two in mathematics, mechanical drawing, introduction to mining and use of explosives, modern English prose and military drill.
He founded the school's chapter of the Delta Upsilon fraternity. After his second year, he planned to take a job in Portland to help support his mother; the college offered him a position teaching quantitative analysis, a course he had just finished taking himself. He worked forty hours a week in the laboratory and classroom and earned $100 a month, enabling him to continue his studies. In his last two years at school, Pauling became aware of the work of Gilbert N. Lewis and Irving Langmuir on the electronic structure of atoms and their bonding to form molecules, he decided to focus his research on how the physical and chemical properties of substances are related to the structure of the atoms of which they are composed, becoming one of the founders of the new science of quantum chemistry. Engineering professor Samuel Graf selected Pauling to be his teaching assistant in a mechanics and materials course. During the winter of his senior year, Pauling taught a chemistry course for home economics majors.
It was in one of these classes that Pauling met his future wife
In ecology, a biological interaction is the effect that a pair of organisms living together in a community have on each other. They can be either of the same species, or of different species; these effects may be long-term. A long-term interaction is called a symbiosis. Symbioses range from mutualism, beneficial to both partners, to competition, harmful to both partners. Interactions can be indirect, through intermediaries such as common enemies. Although biological interactions, more or less individually, were studied earlier, Edward Haskell gave a integrative approach to the thematic, proposing a classification of "co-actions" adopted by biologists as "interactions". Close and long-term interactions are described as symbiosis. Short-term interactions, including predation and pollination, are important in ecology and evolution; these are short-lived in terms of the duration of a single interaction: a predator kills and eats a prey. As a result, the partners coevolve. In predation, one organism, the predator and eats another organism, its prey.
Predators are adapted and highly specialized for hunting, with acute senses such as vision, hearing, or smell. Many predatory animals, both vertebrate and invertebrate, have sharp claws or jaws to grip and cut up their prey. Other adaptations include aggressive mimicry that improve hunting efficiency. Predation has a powerful selective effect on prey, causing them to develop antipredator adaptations such as warning coloration, alarm calls and other signals and defensive spines and chemicals. Predation has been a major driver of evolution since at least the Cambrian period. In pollination, pollinators including insects, some birds, some bats, transfer pollen from a male flower part to a female flower part, enabling fertilisation, in return for a reward of pollen or nectar; the partners have coevolved through geological time. Insect-pollinated flowers are adapted with shaped structures, bright colours, scent and sticky pollen to attract insects, guide them to pick up and deposit pollen, reward them for the service.
Pollinator insects like bees are adapted to detect flowers by colour and scent, to collect and transport pollen, to collect and process nectar. The adaptations on each side of the interaction match the adaptations on the other side, have been shaped by natural selection on their effectiveness of pollination; the six possible types of symbiosis are mutualism, parasitism, neutralism and competition. These are distinguished by the degree of benefit or harm they cause to each partner. Mutualism is an interaction between two or more species, where species derive a mutual benefit, for example an increased carrying capacity. Similar interactions within a species are known as co-operation. Mutualism may be classified in terms of the closeness of association, the closest being symbiosis, confused with mutualism. One or both species involved in the interaction may be obligate, meaning they cannot survive in the short or long term without the other species. Though mutualism has received less attention than other interactions such as predation, it is an important subject in ecology.
Examples include cleaning symbiosis, gut flora, Müllerian mimicry, nitrogen fixation by bacteria in the root nodules of legumes. Commensalism benefits the other organism is neither benefited nor harmed, it occurs when one organism takes benefits by interacting with another organism by which the host organism is not affected. A good example is a remora living with a shark. Remoras eat leftover food from the shark; the shark is not affected in the process, as remoras eat only leftover food of the shark, which does not deplete the shark's resources. Parasitism is a relationship between species, where one organism, the parasite, lives on or in another organism, the host, causing it some harm, is adapted structurally to this way of life; the parasite either feeds on the host, or, in the case of intestinal parasites, consumes some of its food. Neutralism describes the relationship between two species that interact but do not affect each other. Examples of true neutralism are impossible to prove. Amensalism is an interaction where an organism inflicts harm to another organism without any costs or benefits received by itself.
A clear case of amensalism is. Whilst the presence of the grass causes negligible detrimental effects to the animal's hoof, the grass suffers from being crushed. Amensalism is used to describe asymmetrical competitive interactions, such as has been observed between the Spanish ibex and weevils of the genus Timarcha which feed upon the same type of shrub. Whilst the presence of the weevil has no influence on food availability, the presence of ibex has an enormous detrimental effect on weevil numbers, as they consume significant quantities of plant matter and incidentally ingest th
In zoology, Browerian mimicry, or intraspecific mimicry, is a form of mimicry in which the same species of animal is imitated. There are two different forms. In one form, first described by Lincoln Brower in 1967, weakly-defended members of a species with warning coloration are parasitic on more strongly-defended members of their species, mimicking them to provide the negative reinforcement learning required for warning signals to function; the mechanism, analogous to Batesian mimicry, is found in insects such as the monarch butterfly. In another form, first noted by Edward B. Poulton in 1890, a less vulnerable part of an animal's body resembles a more vulnerable part, for example with deceptive eyespots or a false head that deflects attacks away from the real head, providing an immediate selective advantage; the mechanism is found in both vertebrates such as fishes and snakes, insects such as hairstreak butterflies. Automimicry has sometimes been put to military use; the A-10 Thunderbolt was painted with a false canopy on its underside, imitating itself, while the armoured recovery vehicle variant of the Churchill tank had a dummy gun, imitating an armed variant of the same tank.
Automimicry was first reported by the ecologist Lincoln Brower and colleagues, who found that monarch butterflies reared on cabbage were palatable to blue jays. However, monarchs raised on their natural host plant, were noxious to jays - in fact, jays that ingested them vomited. Subsequently, Brower proposed the hypothesis of automimicry involving a polymorphism or spectrum of palatability: some individuals might be defended, others palatable, it turns out that many species of insects are toxic or distasteful when they have fed on plants that contain chemicals of particular classes, but not when they have fed on plants that lack those chemicals. For instance, some milkweed butterflies feed on milkweeds which contain the cardiac glycoside oleandrin; these insects are aposematically coloured and patterned. When feeding on innocuous plants, they are harmless and nutritious, but a bird that has sampled a toxic specimen once is unlikely to risk tasting harmless specimens with the same aposematic coloration.
Such acquired toxicity is not limited to insects: many groups of animals have since been shown to obtain toxic compounds through their diets, making automimicry widespread. If toxic compounds are produced by metabolic processes with an animal, there may still be variability in the amount that animals invest in them, so scope for automimicry remains when dietary plasticity is not involved. Whatever the mechanism, palatability may vary with age, sex, or how they used their supply of toxin; the existence of automimicry in the form of non-toxic mimics of toxic members of the same species poses two challenges to evolutionary theory: how can automimicry be maintained, how can it evolve? For the first question, as long as prey of the species are, on average, unprofitable for predators to attack, automimicry can persist. If this condition is not met the population of the species crashes; the second question is more difficult, can be rephrased as being about the mechanisms that keep warning signals honest.
If signals were not honest, they would not be evolutionarily stable. If costs of using toxins for defence affects members of a species cheats might always have higher fitness than honest signallers defended by costly toxins. A variety of hypotheses have been put forth to explain signal honesty in aposematic species. First, toxins may not be costly. There is evidence that in some cases there is no cost, that toxic compounds may be beneficial for purposes other than defence. If so automimics may be unlucky enough not to have gathered enough toxins from their environment. A second hypothesis for signal honesty is that there may be frequency-dependent advantages to automimicry. If predators switch between host plants that provide toxins and plants that do not, depending on the abundance of larvae on each type automimicry of toxic larvae by non-toxic larvae may be maintained in a balanced polymorphism. A third hypothesis is that automimics are more to die or to be injured by a predator's attack. If predators sample their prey and spit out any that taste bad before doing significant damage honest signallers would have an advantage over automimics that cheat.
Many insects have filamentous "tails" at the ends of their wings and patterns of markings on the wings themselves. These combine to create a "false head"; this misdirects predators such as jumping spiders. Spectacular examples occur in the hairstreak butterflies. Studies of rear-wing damage support the hypothesis that this strategy is effective in deflecting attacks from the insect's head. Natural selection in favour of features that deflect predators' attacks is straightforward to explain: variants of patterns that more deflect attack are favoured, since animals with ineffective variants are to be killed. Naturalists since Edward B. Poulton in his 1890 book The Colours of Animals have noted that butterflies with eyespots or other false head markings can be expected to escape with minor wing damage while the predator gets only "a mouthful of hindwing" instead of an insect meal. In Poulton's words: Each hind wing in these butterflies is furnished with a'tail', which in certain species is long and knobbed at the end.
When the butterfly is resting on a flow
Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical processes, molecular interactions, physiological mechanisms and evolution. Despite the complexity of the science, there are certain unifying concepts that consolidate it into a single, coherent field. Biology recognizes the cell as the basic unit of life, genes as the basic unit of heredity, evolution as the engine that propels the creation and extinction of species. Living organisms are open systems that survive by transforming energy and decreasing their local entropy to maintain a stable and vital condition defined as homeostasis. Sub-disciplines of biology are defined by the research methods employed and the kind of system studied: theoretical biology uses mathematical methods to formulate quantitative models while experimental biology performs empirical experiments to test the validity of proposed theories and understand the mechanisms underlying life and how it appeared and evolved from non-living matter about 4 billion years ago through a gradual increase in the complexity of the system.
See branches of biology. The term biology is derived from the Greek word βίος, bios, "life" and the suffix -λογία, -logia, "study of." The Latin-language form of the term first appeared in 1736 when Swedish scientist Carl Linnaeus used biologi in his Bibliotheca botanica. It was used again in 1766 in a work entitled Philosophiae naturalis sive physicae: tomus III, continens geologian, phytologian generalis, by Michael Christoph Hanov, a disciple of Christian Wolff; the first German use, was in a 1771 translation of Linnaeus' work. In 1797, Theodor Georg August Roose used the term in the preface of a book, Grundzüge der Lehre van der Lebenskraft. Karl Friedrich Burdach used the term in 1800 in a more restricted sense of the study of human beings from a morphological and psychological perspective; the term came into its modern usage with the six-volume treatise Biologie, oder Philosophie der lebenden Natur by Gottfried Reinhold Treviranus, who announced: The objects of our research will be the different forms and manifestations of life, the conditions and laws under which these phenomena occur, the causes through which they have been effected.
The science that concerns itself with these objects we will indicate by the name biology or the doctrine of life. Although modern biology is a recent development, sciences related to and included within it have been studied since ancient times. Natural philosophy was studied as early as the ancient civilizations of Mesopotamia, the Indian subcontinent, China. However, the origins of modern biology and its approach to the study of nature are most traced back to ancient Greece. While the formal study of medicine dates back to Hippocrates, it was Aristotle who contributed most extensively to the development of biology. Important are his History of Animals and other works where he showed naturalist leanings, more empirical works that focused on biological causation and the diversity of life. Aristotle's successor at the Lyceum, wrote a series of books on botany that survived as the most important contribution of antiquity to the plant sciences into the Middle Ages. Scholars of the medieval Islamic world who wrote on biology included al-Jahiz, Al-Dīnawarī, who wrote on botany, Rhazes who wrote on anatomy and physiology.
Medicine was well studied by Islamic scholars working in Greek philosopher traditions, while natural history drew on Aristotelian thought in upholding a fixed hierarchy of life. Biology began to develop and grow with Anton van Leeuwenhoek's dramatic improvement of the microscope, it was that scholars discovered spermatozoa, bacteria and the diversity of microscopic life. Investigations by Jan Swammerdam led to new interest in entomology and helped to develop the basic techniques of microscopic dissection and staining. Advances in microscopy had a profound impact on biological thinking. In the early 19th century, a number of biologists pointed to the central importance of the cell. In 1838, Schleiden and Schwann began promoting the now universal ideas that the basic unit of organisms is the cell and that individual cells have all the characteristics of life, although they opposed the idea that all cells come from the division of other cells. Thanks to the work of Robert Remak and Rudolf Virchow, however, by the 1860s most biologists accepted all three tenets of what came to be known as cell theory.
Meanwhile and classification became the focus of natural historians. Carl Linnaeus published a basic taxonomy for the natural world in 1735, in the 1750s introduced scientific names for all his species. Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon, treated species as artificial categories and living forms as malleable—even suggesting the possibility of common descent. Although he was opposed to evolution, Buffon is a key figure in the history of evolutionary thought. Serious evolutionary thinking originated with the works of Jean-Baptiste Lamarck, the first to present a coherent theory of evolution, he posited that evolution was the result of environmental stress on properties of animals, meaning that the more and rigorously an organ was used, the more complex and efficient it would become, thus adapting the animal to its environment. Lamarck believed that these acquired traits could be passed on to the animal's offspring, who would
Interspecies communication is communication between different species of animals, plants, or microorganisms. Cooperative interspecies communication implies sharing and understanding information between two or more species that work towards the benefit of both species. Since the 1970s, primatologist Sue Savage-Rumbaugh has been working with primates at Georgia State University's Language Research Center, more the Iowa Primate Learning Sanctuary. In 1985, using lexigram symbols, a keyboard and monitor, other computer technology, Savage-Rumbaugh began her groundbreaking work with Kanzi, a male bonobo, her research has made significant contributions to a growing body of work in sociobiology studying language learning in non-human primates and exploring the role of language and communication as an evolutionary mechanism. Koko, a lowland gorilla, began learning a modified American Sign Language as an infant, when Francine "Penny" Patterson, PhD, started working with her in 1975. Penny and Koko worked together at the Gorilla Foundation in one of the longest interspecies communication studies conducted until Koko's death in 2018.
Koko had a vocabulary of over 1000 signs, understood a greater amount of spoken English. In April 1998, Koko gave an AOL live chat. Sign language was used to relay to Koko questions from the online audience of 7,811 AOL members, The following is an excerpt from the live chat. AOL: MInyKitty asks Koko are you going to have a baby in the future? PENNY: OK, is that for Koko? Koko are you going to have a baby in the future? KOKO: Koko-love eat... sip. AOL: Me too! PENNY: What about a baby? You going to have baby? She's just thinking...her hands are together... KOKO: Unattention. PENNY: Oh poor sweetheart, she said'unattention.' She covered her face with her hands..which means it's not happening or it hasn't happened yet... I don't see it. AOL: That's sad! PENNY: It is responding to the question. In other words, she hasn't had one yet, she doesn't see a future here; the way the situation is with Koko & Ndume, she has 2 males to 1 female, the reverse of what she needs. I think, why she said that, because in our current situation, it isn't possible for her to have a baby.
She needs one male to have a family. Research observing cooperative communication has focused on primates, predatory animals. Red-fronted lemurs and sifakas recognize one; the same has been found in West African Diana monkey and Campbell's monkeys. When one species elicits an alarm signal specific to a certain predator, the other species react in the same pattern as the species that called. For example, leopards hunt both species by capitalizing the elements of surprise. If the monkeys detect the leopard before it attacks, the leopard will not attack. Therefore, when a leopard alarm call is given, both species respond by positioning near the leopard signaling that it has been found out, it seems that the monkeys are able to distinguish a leopard alarm call from, for example, a raptor alarm call. When a raptor alarm call is given, the monkeys respond by moving towards the forest floor and away from aerial attack, it is not that the monkeys act upon hearing the alarm calls but rather they are able to extract particular information from a call.
Responses to heterospecific alarm calls are not confined to simian species but have been found in ground squirrels the yellow-bellied marmot and the golden-mantled ground squirrel. Researchers have determined that bird species are able to understand, or at least respond, to alarms calls by species of mammals and vice versa. Whether heterospecific understanding is a learned behavior or not is unclear. In 2000 it was found that age and interspecies experience were important factors in the ability for bonnet macaques to recognize heterospecific calls. Macaques who were exposed longer to other species' alarm calls were more to respond to heterospecific alarm calls. Key to this early learning was the reinforcement of a predatory threat, when an alarm call was given a corresponding threat had to be presented in order to make the association. Interspecies communication may not be an innate ability but rather a sort of imprinting coupled with an intense emotion early in life, it is unusual for interspecies communication to be observed in an older animal taking care of a younger animal of a different species.
For example and Mzee, the odd couple of an orphaned baby hippopotamus and a 130-year-old Aldabran tortoise, display this relationship seen in the animal world. Dr. Kahumbu of the sanctuary that holds the two believes that the two vocalize to one another in neither a stereotypical tortoise nor a hippopotamus fashion. Owen does not respond to hippopotamus calls, it is that when Owen was first introduced to Mzee he was still young enough to be imprinted. Unlike cooperative communication, parasitic communication involves an unequal sharing of information. In terms of alarm calls, this means, it may be that the other species has not been able to decipher the calls of the first species. Much of the research done on this type of communication has been in bird species, including the nuthatch and the great tit. Nuthatches are able to discriminate between subtle differences in chickadee alarm calls, which broadcast the location and size of a predator. Since chickadees and nuthatches occupy the same habitat, mob