James Tiptree Jr.
Alice Bradley Sheldon was an American science fiction author better known as James Tiptree Jr. a pen name she used from 1967 to her death. It was not publicly known until 1977. From 1974 to 1977 she used the pen name Raccoona Sheldon. Sheldon was inducted by the Science Fiction Hall of Fame in 2012. Bradley came from a family in the intellectual enclave of Hyde Park, a university neighborhood in Chicago, her father was Herbert Bradley, a lawyer and naturalist, her mother was Mary Hastings Bradley, a prolific writer of fiction and travel books. From an early age Bradley traveled with her parents, in 1921–22, the Bradleys made their first trip to central Africa, which contributed to Sheldon's short story, "The Women Men Don't See." During these trips, she played the role of the "perfect daughter, willing to be carried across Africa like a parcel, always neatly dressed and well behaved, a credit to her mother."Between trips to Africa, Sheldon attended school in Chicago. At the age of ten, she went to the University of Chicago Laboratory Schools, an experimental teaching workshop with small classes and loose structure.
When she was fourteen, she was sent to finishing school in Lausanne in Switzerland, before returning to the US to attend boarding school in Tarrytown in New York. On, she became a graphic artist, a painter, and—under the name "Alice Bradley Davey"—an art critic for the Chicago Sun between 1941 and 1942. Sheldon was encouraged by her mother to seek a career, but her mother hoped that she would get married and settle down. At age 19, she married William Davey, her first husband; the couple eloped in 1934. She dropped out of Sarah Lawrence College, they moved to Berkeley, where they took classes and Bill encouraged her to pursue art. The marriage was not a success: he was an alcoholic and bad with money and Sheldon disliked keeping house; the couple divorced in 1940. After the divorce, Sheldon joined the Women's Army Auxiliary Corps where she became a supply officer. In 1942 she joined the United States Army Air Forces and worked in the Army Air Forces photo-intelligence group, she was promoted to major, a high rank for women at the time.
In the army, she "felt she was among free women for the first time." As an intelligence officer, she became an expert in reading aerial intelligence photographs. In 1945 she married her second husband, Huntington D. Sheldon, at the close of the war on her assignment in Paris, she was discharged from the military in 1946, at which time she set up a small business in partnership with her husband. The same year her first story was published in the November 16, 1946 issue of The New Yorker, credited to "Alice Bradley" in the magazine itself. In 1952 she and her husband were invited to join the CIA. At the CIA, she didn't enjoy the work, she returned to college. She studied for her bachelor of arts degree at American University, going on to achieve a doctorate at George Washington University in Experimental Psychology in 1967, she wrote her doctoral dissertation on the responses of animals to novel stimuli in differing environments. During this time, she wrote and submitted a few science fiction stories under the name James Tiptree Jr. in order to protect her academic reputation.
As for her personal life, Sheldon had a complex sexual orientation, she described her sexuality in different terms over many years. This statement, for example, is. Sheldon began illustrating when she was nine years old, contributing to her mother's book, Alice in Elephantland, a children's book about the family's second trip to Africa. Sheldon appeared in it as herself. Sheldon had an exhibit of her drawings of Africa at the Chicago Gallery, arranged by her parents. Although Sheldon illustrated several of her mother's books, she only sold one illustration during her lifetime, in 1931, to The New Yorker, with help from Harold Ober, a New York agent who worked with her mother; the illustration, of a horse rearing and throwing off its rider, sold for ten dollars. In 1936, Sheldon participated in a group show at the Art Institute of Chicago, to which she had connections through her family, featuring new American work; this was an important step forward for her painting career. During this time she took private art lessons from John Sloan.
Sheldon disliked prudery in painting. While examining an anatomy book for an art class, she noticed that the genitals were blurred, so she restored the genitals of the figures with a pencil. In 1939, Sheldon's nude self-portrait titled Portrait in the Country was accepted for the "All-American" biennial show at the Corcoran Gallery in Washington D. C. where it was displayed for six weeks. While these two shows were considered big breaks, she disparaged these accomplishments, saying that "only second rate painters sold" and she preferred to keep her works at home. By 1940, Sheldon felt she had mastered all the techniques she needed and was ready to choose her subject matter. However, she began to doubt, she kept working at her painting techniques, fascinated with the questions of form and read books on aesthetics in order to know what scientifically made a painting "good." Sheldon stopped painting in 1941. In need of a way to support herself, her parents helped her find a job as an art critic for the Chicago Sun after it launched in 1941.
Newly divorced, she started going by the name Alice Bradley Davey as a journalist, a job she held until she enlisted for the army in 194
George R. R. Martin
George Raymond Richard Martin known as GRRM, is an American novelist and short story writer in the fantasy and science fiction genres and television producer. He is best known for his series of epic fantasy novels, A Song of Ice and Fire, adapted into the HBO series Game of Thrones. In 2005, Lev Grossman of Time called Martin "the American Tolkien", in 2011, he was included on the annual Time 100 list of the most influential people in the world. George Raymond Martin was born on September 20, 1948, in Bayonne, New Jersey, the son of longshoreman Raymond Collins Martin and his wife Margaret Brady Martin, he has two younger sisters and Janet. His mother was of half Irish ancestry, he acknowledges French, English and German roots, which were confirmed on the television series Finding Your Roots. However, while he believed he was a quarter Italian because of who he was told was his paternal grandfather, a DNA test on the show confirmed his Irish and other ancestries but excluded any Italian ancestry, showing instead he is a quarter Ashkenazi Jewish.
The family first lived in a house on Broadway. In 1953, they moved to a federal housing project near the Bayonne docks. During Martin's childhood, his world consisted predominantly of "First Street to Fifth Street", between his grade school and his home. Martin began writing and selling monster stories for pennies to other neighborhood children, dramatic readings included, he wrote stories about a mythical kingdom populated by his pet turtles. Martin attended Mary Jane Donohoe School and Marist High School. While there he became an avid comic book fan, developing a strong interest in the superheroes being published by Marvel Comics, credited Stan Lee for being one of his greatest literary influences. A letter Martin wrote to the editor of Fantastic Four was printed in issue No. 20. Fans who read his letters wrote him letters in turn, through such contacts, Martin joined the fledgling comics fandom of the era, writing fiction for various fanzines. In 1965, Martin won comic fandom's Alley Award for Best fan fiction for his prose superhero story "Powerman vs.
The Blue Barrier". In 1970, Martin earned a B. S. in journalism from Northwestern University's Medill School of Journalism in Evanston, graduating summa cum laude. S. in Journalism in 1971 from Medill. Eligible for the draft during the Vietnam War, to which he objected, Martin applied for and obtained conscientious objector status. In the mid-1970s, Martin met English professor George Guthridge from Dubuque, Iowa, at a science fiction convention in Milwaukee. Martin persuaded Guthridge not only to give speculative fiction a second look, but to write in the field himself. Guthridge has since been a finalist for the Hugo Award and twice for the Nebula Award for science fiction and fantasy. In 1998, Guthridge and Janet Berliner won the Bram Stoker Award for Superior Achievement in the Novel for their Children of the Dusk. In turn, Guthridge helped Martin in finding a job at Clarke University. Martin "wasn't making enough money to stay alive", from writing and the chess tournaments, says Guthridge. From 1976 to 1978, Martin was an English and journalism instructor at Clarke, he became Writer In Residence at the college from 1978 to 1979.
While he enjoyed teaching, the sudden death of friend and fellow author Tom Reamy in late 1977 made Martin reevaluate his own life, he decided to try to become a full-time writer. He resigned from his job, being tired of the hard winters in Dubuque, he moved to Santa Fe, New Mexico in 1979. Martin began selling science fiction short stories professionally in 1970, at age 21, his first sale was "The Hero", published in its February 1971 issue. His first story to be nominated for the Hugo Award and Nebula Awards was "With Morning Comes Mistfall", published in 1973 in Analog magazine. In 1975 his story "...for a single yesterday" about a post-apocalyptic timetripper was selected for inclusion in Epoch, a science fiction anthology edited by Roger Elwood and Robert Silverberg. His first novel, Dying of the Light, was completed in 1976 right before he moved to Dubuque and published in 1977; that same year the enormous success of Star Wars had a huge impact on the publishing industry and science fiction, he sold the novel for the same amount he would make in three years of teaching.
The short stories he was able to sell in his early 20s gave him some profit, but not enough to pay his bills, which prevented him from becoming the full-time writer he wanted to be. The need for a day job occurred with the American chess craze which followed Bobby Fischer's victory in the 1972 world chess championship. Martin's own chess skills and experience allowed him to be hired as a tournament director
Suzanne Collins is an American television writer and author. She is known as the author of The New York Times best-selling series The Underland Chronicles and The Hunger Games trilogy. Suzanne Collins was born on August 10, 1962, in Hartford, Connecticut to Jane Brady Collins and Lt. Col. Michael John Collins, a U. S. Air Force officer who served in the Korean War and the Vietnam War, was awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross and Bronze Star, she is the youngest of four children, who include Kathryn and Joan. As the daughter of a military officer and her family were moving, she spent her childhood in the eastern United States. Collins graduated from the Alabama School of Fine Arts in Birmingham in 1980 as a Theater Arts major, she completed her bachelor of arts degree from Indiana University in 1985 with a double major in theater and telecommunications. In 1989, Collins earned her M. F. A. in dramatic writing from the New York University Tisch School of the Arts. Collins began her career in 1991 as a writer for children's television shows.
She worked on several shows for Nickelodeon, including Clarissa Explains It All, The Mystery Files of Shelby Woo, Little Bear, Oswald. She did not write the children's book Little Bear, sometimes mistaken as her own book, she was the head writer for Scholastic Entertainment's Clifford's Puppy Days. She received a Writers Guild of America nomination in animation for co-writing the critically acclaimed Christmas special, Baby! After meeting children's author James Proimos while working on the Kids' WB show Generation O!, Collins felt inspired to write children's books herself. Her inspiration for Gregor the Overlander, the first book of The New York Times best-selling series The Underland Chronicles, came from Alice in Wonderland, when she was thinking about how one was more to fall down a manhole than a rabbit hole, would find something other than a tea party. Between 2003 and 2007 she wrote the five books of the Underland Chronicles: Gregor the Overlander and the Prophecy of Bane and the Curse of the Warmbloods and the Marks of Secret, Gregor and the Code of Claw.
During that time, Collins wrote a rhyming picture book, When Charlie McButton Lost Power, illustrated by Mike Lester. In September 2008, Scholastic Press released The Hunger Games, the first book of a trilogy by Collins; the Hunger Games was inspired by the Greek myth of Theseus and the Minotaur. Another inspiration was her father's career in the Air Force, which gave her insight to poverty and the effects of war; the trilogy's second book, Catching Fire, was released in September 2009, its third book, was released on August 24, 2010. Within 14 months, 1.5 million copies of the first two Hunger Games books were printed in North America alone. The Hunger Games was on The New York Times Best Seller list for more than 60 weeks in a row. Lions Gate Entertainment acquired worldwide distribution rights to a film adaptation of The Hunger Games, produced by Nina Jacobson's Color Force production company. Collins adapted the novel for film herself. Directed by Gary Ross, filming began in late spring 2011, with Jennifer Lawrence portraying main character Katniss Everdeen.
Josh Hutcherson played Peeta Liam Hemsworth played Gale Hawthorne. The subsequent two novels were adapted into films as well, with the latter book split into two cinematic installments, for a total of four films representing the three books; as a result of the popularity of The Hunger Games books, Collins was named one of Time magazine's most influential people of 2010. In March 2012, Amazon announced. Amazon revealed that Collins had written 29 of the 100 most highlighted passages in Kindle ebooks—and on a separate Amazon list of highlighted passages, she had written 17 of the top 20. With her husband Charles, Collins has two children and Isabella. 2011 – California Young Reader Medal Publishers Weekly's Best Books of the Year: Children's Fiction An American Library Association Top 10 Best Books For Young Adult Selection An ALA Notable Children's Book 2008 CYBIL Award – Fantasy and Science Fiction KIRKUS Best Young Adult Book of 2008 A Horn Book Fanfare School Library Journal Best Books of 2008 A Book List Editor's Choice, 2008 NY Public Library 100 Titles for Reading and Sharing 2004 NAIBA Children's Novel Award 2006 ALSC Notable Children's Recording 2016 Authors Guild Award for Distinguished Service to the Literary Community The Underland ChroniclesGregor the Overlander Gregor and the Prophecy of Bane Gregor and the Curse of the Warmbloods Gregor and the Marks of Secret Gregor and the Code of Claw The Hunger Games trilogyThe Hunger Games Catching Fire Mockingjay Other booksFire Proof: Shelby Woo #11 When Charlie McButton Lost Power Year of the Jungle Official website Suzanne Collins on IMDb Suzanne Collins at the Internet Speculative Fiction Database Suzanne Collins at Library of Congress Authorities, with 17 catalog records
Bioterrorism is terrorism involving the intentional release or dissemination of biological agents. These agents are bacteria, fungi, or toxins, may be in a occurring or a human-modified form, in much the same way in biological warfare. According to the U. S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, bioterrorism is the deliberate release of viruses, toxins or other harmful agents to cause illness or death in people, animals, or plants; these agents are found in nature, but could be mutated or altered to increase their ability to cause disease, make them resistant to current medicines, or to increase their ability to be spread into the environment. Biological agents can be spread in food. Terrorists tend to use biological agents because they are difficult to detect and do not cause illness for several hours to several days; some bioterrorism agents, like the smallpox virus, can be spread from person to person and some, like anthrax, cannot. Bioterrorism is an attractive weapon because biological agents are easy and inexpensive to obtain, can be disseminated, can cause widespread fear and panic beyond the actual physical damage.
Military leaders, have learned that, as a military asset, bioterrorism has some important limitations. A biological weapon is useful to terrorists as a method of creating mass panic and disruption to a state or a country. However, technologists such as Bill Joy have warned of the potential power which genetic engineering might place in the hands of future bio-terrorists; the use of agents that do not cause harm to humans but disrupt the economy have been discussed. A relevant pathogen in this context is the foot-and-mouth disease virus, capable of causing widespread economic damage and public concern, whilst having no capacity to infect humans. By the time World War I began, attempts to use anthrax were directed at animal populations; this proved to be ineffective. Shortly after the start of World War I, Germany launched a biological sabotage campaign in the United States, Russia and France. At that time, Anton Dilger lived in Germany, but in 1915 he was sent to the United States carrying cultures of glanders, a virulent disease of horses and mules.
Dilger set up a laboratory in his home in Maryland. He used stevedores working the docks in Baltimore to infect horses with glanders while they were waiting to be shipped to Britain. Dilger was never arrested. Dilger fled to Madrid, where he died during the Influenza Pandemic of 1918. In 1916, the Russians arrested a German agent with similar intentions. Germany and its allies infected French cavalry horses and many of Russia’s mules and horses on the Eastern Front; these actions hindered troop movements, as well as supply convoys. In 1972 police in Chicago arrested two college students, Allen Schwander and Stephen Pera, who had planned to poison the city's water supply with typhoid and other bacteria. Schwander had founded a terrorist group, "R. I. S. E.", while Pera collected and grew cultures from the hospital where he worked. The two men fled to Cuba after being released on bail. Schwander died of natural causes in 1974, while Pera returned to the U. S. in 1975 and was put on probation. In 1980 the World Health Organization announced the eradication of smallpox, a contagious and incurable disease.
Although the disease has been eliminated in the wild, frozen stocks of smallpox virus are still maintained by the governments of the United States and Russia. Disastrous consequences are feared if rogue politicians or terrorists were to get hold of the smallpox strains. Since vaccination programs are now terminated, the world population is more susceptible to smallpox than before. In Oregon in 1984, followers of the Bhagwan Shree Rajneesh attempted to control a local election by incapacitating the local population; this was done by infecting salad bars in 11 restaurants, produce in grocery stores and other public domains with Salmonella typhimurium bacteria in the city of The Dalles, Oregon. The attack infected 751 people with severe food poisoning. There were no fatalities; this incident was the first known bioterrorist attack in the United States in the 20th century. It was the single largest bioterrorism attack on U. S. soil. In June 1993, the religious group Aum Shinrikyo released anthrax in Tokyo.
Eyewitnesses reported a foul odor. The attack was a total failure; the reason for this is. The spores recovered from the attack showed that they were identical to an anthrax vaccine strain given to animals at the time; these vaccine strains are missing the genes. In September and October 2001, several cases of anthrax broke out in the United States caused deliberately. Letters laced with infectious anthrax were concurrently delivered to news media offices and the U. S Congress, alongside an ambiguously related case in Chile; the letters killed 5. Under current United States law, bio-agents which have been declared by the U. S. Department of Health and Human Services or the U. S. Department of Agriculture to have the "potential to pose a severe threat to public health and safety" are defined as "select agents." The CDC categorizes these agents and administers the Select Agent Program, which regulates the laboratories which may possess, use, or transfer select agents within the United States. As with US attempts to categorize harmful recreati
Stephen Edwin King is an American author of horror, supernatural fiction, science fiction, fantasy. His books have sold more than 350 million copies, many of which have been adapted into feature films, television series, comic books. King has published six non-fiction books, he has written 200 short stories, most of which have been published in book collections. King has received Bram Stoker Awards, World Fantasy Awards, British Fantasy Society Awards. In 2003, the National Book Foundation awarded him the Medal for Distinguished Contribution to American Letters, he has received awards for his contribution to literature for his entire oeuvre, such as the World Fantasy Award for Life Achievement, the Grand Master Award from the Mystery Writers of America. In 2015, King was awarded with a National Medal of Arts from the United States National Endowment for the Arts for his contributions to literature, he has been described as the "King of Horror". King was born September 1947, in Portland, Maine, his father, Donald Edwin King, was a merchant seaman.
Donald was born under the surname Pollock, but as an adult, used the surname King. King's mother was Nellie Ruth; when Stephen King was two years old, his father left the family. King's mother raised Stephen and his older brother, David, by herself, sometimes under great financial strain; the family moved to De Pere, Fort Wayne and Stratford, Connecticut. When King was 11, his family returned to Durham, where his mother cared for her parents until their deaths, she became a caregiver in a local residential facility for the mentally challenged. King lost his belief in organized religion while in high school. While no longer religious, King chooses to believe in the existence of God; as a child, King witnessed one of his friends being struck and killed by a train, though he has no memory of the event. His family told him that after leaving home to play with the boy, King returned, speechless and in shock. Only did the family learn of the friend's death; some commentators have suggested that this event may have psychologically inspired some of King's darker works, but King makes no mention of it in his memoir On Writing.
King related in detail his primary inspiration for writing horror fiction in his non-fiction Danse Macabre, in a chapter titled "An Annoying Autobiographical Pause." King compares his uncle's dowsing for water using the bough of an apple branch with the sudden realization of what he wanted to do for a living. That inspiration occurred while browsing through an attic with his elder brother, when King uncovered a paperback version of an H. P. Lovecraft collection of short stories he remembers as The Lurker in the Shadows, that had belonged to his father. King told Barnes & Noble Studios during a 2009 interview, "I knew that I'd found home when I read that book."King attended Durham Elementary School and graduated from Lisbon Falls High School, in Lisbon Falls, Maine. He displayed an early interest in horror as an avid reader of EC's horror comics, including Tales from the Crypt, he began writing for fun while still in school, contributing articles to Dave's Rag, the newspaper his brother published with a mimeograph machine, began selling to his friends stories based on movies he had seen.
The first of his stories to be independently published was "I Was a Teenage Grave Robber". That story was published the following year in a revised form as "In a Half-World of Terror" in another fanzine, Stories of Suspense, edited by Marv Wolfman; as a teen, King won a Scholastic Art and Writing Award. From 1966, King studied at the University of Maine, graduating in 1970 with a Bachelor of Arts in English; that year, his daughter Naomi Rachel was born. He wrote a column, Steve King's Garbage Truck, for the student newspaper, The Maine Campus, participated in a writing workshop organized by Burton Hatlen. King held a variety of jobs to pay for his studies, including janitor, gas pump attendant, worker at an industrial laundry. King met his future wife, fellow student Tabitha Spruce, at the University's Fogler Library after one of Professor Hatlen's workshops. King sold his first professional short story, "The Glass Floor," to Startling Mystery Stories in 1967. After graduating from the University of Maine, King earned a certificate to teach high school but, unable to find a teaching post initially supplemented his laboring wage by selling short stories to men's magazines such as Cavalier.
Many of these early stories have been republished in the collection Night Shift. The short story The Raft was published in a men's magazine. After being arrested for driving over a traffic cone, he was fined $250 and had no money to pay the petty larceny fine. However, payment arrived for the short story The Raft, King was able to pay the fine. In 1971, King was hired as a teacher at Hampden Academy in Maine, he worked on ideas for novels. In 1973, King's novel Carrie was accepted by publishing house Doubleday. Carrie was King's fourth novel, it was written on a portable typewriter. The novel began as a short story intended for Cavalier magazine, but King tossed the first three pages of his work in the garbage can. Tabith
Southern California is a geographic and cultural region that comprises California's southernmost counties, is the second most populous urban agglomeration in the United States. The region is traditionally described as eight counties, based on demographics and economic ties: Imperial, Los Angeles, Riverside, San Bernardino, San Diego, Santa Barbara, Ventura; the more extensive 10-county definition, which includes Kern and San Luis Obispo counties, is used and is based on historical political divisions. The Colorado Desert and the Colorado River are located on southern California's eastern border with Arizona, the Mojave Desert is located north on California's Nevada border. Southern California's southern border is part of the Mexico–United States border. Southern California includes the built-up urban area which stretches along the Pacific coast from Ventura through Greater Los Angeles down to Greater San Diego, inland to the Inland Empire and Coachella Valley, it encompasses eight metropolitan areas, three of which together form the Greater Los Angeles Combined Statistical Area with over 18 million people, the second-biggest CSA after the New York CSA.
These three MSAs are: the Los Angeles metropolitan area, the Inland Empire (, the Oxnard–Thousand Oaks–Ventura metropolitan area. In addition, Southern California contains the San Diego metropolitan area with 3.3 million people, Bakersfield metro area with 0.9 million, the Santa Barbara, San Luis Obispo, El Centro metropolitan areas. The Southern California Megaregion is larger still, extending east into Las Vegas and south across the Mexican border into Tijuana. Within southern California are two major cities, Los Angeles and San Diego, as well as three of the country's largest metropolitan areas. With a population of 4,042,000, Los Angeles is the most populous city in California and the second most populous in the United States. South of Los Angeles and with a population of 1,307,402 is San Diego, the second most populous city in the state and the eighth most populous in the nation; the counties of Los Angeles, San Diego, San Bernardino, Riverside are the five most populous in the state, are in the top 15 most populous counties in the United States.
The motion picture and music industry are centered in the Los Angeles area in southern California. Hollywood, a district of Los Angeles, gives its name to the American motion picture industry, synonymous with the neighborhood name. Headquartered in southern California are The Walt Disney Company, Sony Pictures, Universal Pictures, MGM, Paramount Pictures, 20th Century Fox, Warner Bros. Universal, Warner Bros. and Sony run major record companies. Southern California is home to a large homegrown surf and skateboard culture. Companies such as Vans, Quiksilver, No Fear, RVCA, Body Glove are all headquartered here. Skateboarder Tony Hawk; some of the most famous surf locations are in southern California as well, including Trestles, The Wedge, Huntington Beach, Malibu. Some of the world's largest action sports events, including the X Games, Boost Mobile Pro, the U. S. Open of Surfing, are held in southern California; the region is important to the world of yachting with premier events including the annual Transpacific Yacht Race, or Transpac, from Los Angeles to Hawaii.
The San Diego Yacht Club held the America's Cup, the most prestigious prize in yachting, from 1988 to 1995 and hosted three America's Cup races during that time. The first modern era triathlon was held in Mission Bay, San Diego, California in 1974. Since southern California, San Diego in particular have become a mecca for triathlon and multi-sport racing and culture. Southern California is home to many sports sports networks such as Fox Sports Net. Many locals and tourists frequent the southern California coast for its beaches; the inland desert city of Palm Springs is popular. Southern California is not a formal geographic designation and definitions of what constitutes southern California vary. Geographically, California's North-South midway point lies at 37° 9' 58.23" latitude, around 11 miles south of San Jose. When the state is divided into two areas, the term southern California refers to the 10 southernmost counties of the state; this definition coincides neatly with the county lines at 35° 47′ 28″ North latitude, which form the northern borders of San Luis Obispo and San Bernardino counties.
Another definition for southern California uses Point Conception and the Tehachapi Mountains as the northern boundary. Though there is no official definition for the northern boundary of southern California, such a division has existed from the time when Mexico ruled California and political disputes raged between the Californios of Monterey in the upper part and Los Angeles in the lower part of Alta California. Following the acquisition of California by the United States, the division continued as part of the attempt by several pro-slavery politicians to arrange the division of Alta California at 36 degrees, 30 minutes, the line of the Missouri Compromise. Instead, the passing of the Compromise of 1850 enabled California to be a
On Her Majesty's Secret Service (film)
On Her Majesty's Secret Service is a 1969 British spy film and the sixth in the James Bond series produced by Eon Productions. It is based on the 1963 novel of the same name by Ian Fleming. Following Sean Connery's decision to retire from the role after You Only Live Twice, Eon Productions selected an unknown actor and model, George Lazenby, to play the part of James Bond. During the making of the film, Lazenby announced. In the film, Bond faces Blofeld, planning to hold the world ransom by the threat of sterilising the world's food supply through a group of brainwashed "angels of death". Along the way Bond meets, falls in love with, marries Contessa Teresa di Vicenzo, it is the only Bond film to have been directed by Peter R. Hunt, who had served as a film editor and second unit director on previous films in the series. Hunt, along with producers Albert R. Broccoli and Harry Saltzman, decided to produce a more realistic film that would follow the novel closely, it was shot in Switzerland and Portugal from October 1968 to May 1969.
Although its cinema release was not as lucrative as its predecessor You Only Live Twice, On Her Majesty's Secret Service was still one of the top performing films of the year. Critical reviews upon release were mixed, but the film's reputation has improved over time. In Portugal, James Bond – agent 007, sometimes referred to as'007' – saves a woman on the beach from committing suicide by drowning, meets her again in a casino; the woman, Contessa Teresa "Tracy" di Vicenzo, invites Bond to her hotel room to thank him, but when Bond arrives he is attacked by an unidentified man. After subduing the man, Bond returns to his own room and finds Tracy there, who claims she didn't know the attacker was there; the next morning, Bond is kidnapped by several men, including the one he fought with, who take him to meet Marc-Ange Draco, the head of the European crime syndicate Unione Corse. Draco reveals that Tracy is his only daughter and tells Bond of her troubled past, offering Bond one million pounds if he will marry her.
Bond refuses, but agrees to continue romancing Tracy if Draco reveals the whereabouts of Ernst Stavro Blofeld, the head of SPECTRE. Bond returns to London, after a brief argument with M at the British Secret Service headquarters, where Bond tries to resign, heads for Draco's birthday party in Portugal. There and Tracy begin a whirlwind romance, Draco directs the agent to a law firm in Bern, Switzerland. Bond investigates the office of Swiss lawyer Gumbold, learns that Blofeld is corresponding with London College of Arms' genealogist Sir Hilary Bray, attempting to claim the title'Count Balthazar de Bleuchamp'. Posing as Bray, Bond goes to meet Blofeld, who has established a clinical allergy-research institute atop Piz Gloria in the Swiss Alps. Bond meets twelve young women, the "Angels of Death", who are patients at the institute's clinic cured of their allergies. At night Bond goes to the room of Ruby, to seduce her. At midnight Bond sees that the 12 ladies go into a sleep-induced hypnotic state while Blofeld gives them audio instructions for when they return home.
In fact, the women are being brainwashed to distribute bacteriological warfare agents throughout the world. Bond tries to trick Blofeld into leaving Switzerland so that MI6 can arrest him without violating Swiss sovereignty. Blofeld refuses and Bond is caught by henchwoman Irma Bunt. Blofeld reveals that he identified Bond after his attempt to lure him out of Switzerland, tells his henchmen to take the agent away. Bond makes his escape by skiing down Piz Gloria while Blofeld and his men give chase. Arriving at the village of Lauterbrunnen, Bond finds Tracy and they escape Bunt and her men after a car chase. A blizzard forces them to a remote barn, where Bond professes his love to Tracy and proposes marriage to her, which she accepts; the next morning, as the flight resumes, Blofeld sets off an avalanche. Back in London at M's office, Bond is informed that Blofeld intends to hold the world at ransom by threatening to destroy its agriculture using his brainwashed women, demanding amnesty for all past crimes, that he be recognised as the current Count de Bleuchamp.
M tells 007 that the ransom forbids him to mount a rescue mission. Bond enlists Draco and his forces to attack Blofeld's headquarters, while rescuing Tracy from Blofeld's captivity; the facility is destroyed, Blofeld escapes the destruction alone in a bobsleigh, with Bond pursuing him. The chase ends when Blofeld injures his neck. Bond and Tracy marry in Portugal drive away in Bond's Aston Martin; when Bond pulls over to the roadside to remove flowers from the car and Bunt commit a drive-by shooting of the couple's car. George Lazenby as James Bond – MI6 agent, codename 007. Diana Rigg as Countess Tracy di Vicenzo – A vulnerable countess and Marc-Ange Draco's daughter, who captures Bond's heart. Like Honor Blackman in Goldfinger before her, Rigg had come to the notice of Eon Productions through her work on The Avengers, where she played Emma Peel from 1965–68. Telly Savalas as Ernst Stavro Blofeld aka Comte Balthazar de Bleuchamp – Bond's nemesis, leader of SPECTRE and in hiding. Savalas had appeared in The Dirty Dozen in 1967, leading to Broccoli suggesting him to director Peter Hunt, for the role, in place of Donald Pleasence, who had appeared in You Only Live Twice.
Both Broccoli and Hunt felt Pleasence was unsuited to the more physical side of the Blofeld role in On Her Majesty's Secret Service. Gabriele Ferzetti as Marc-Ange Draco